Time: 83 hours
College Credit Recommended
Take a look around you: chemistry is the science that describes everything you touch, see, and feel: from the shampoo you used this morning, to the plastic container that holds your lunch! In this course, we study chemistry from the ground up, beginning with the basics of the atom and its behavior, then progressing to the chemical properties of matter and the chemical changes and reactions that take place all the time in our world.
First, read the course syllabus. Then, enroll in the course by clicking "Enroll me in this course". Click Unit 1 to read its introduction and learning outcomes. You will then see the learning materials and instructions on how to use them.
Chemistry is the study of matter and how we can change matter chemically and physically. What is matter? Matter is everything around us that has mass and volume. Matter can be any phase - solid, liquid, or gas. In this unit, we explore the properties, phases, and how we measure matter. We review the standard units of measurement and how to report our measurements using significant figures.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.
The atom is the basic unit of matter and serves as our starting point for the study of chemistry. The atom is composed of the subatomic particles protons, neutrons, and electrons. Scientists have studied atoms for hundreds of years and have developed a number of different models to describe them, as experimental technology has improved and new discoveries have been made. Chemists currently use the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
In this unit, we explore the structure and properties of atoms. We also study some of the basic tenets of quantum mechanics, and how quantum mechanics describes atomic structure. Finally, we learn about the structure and organization of the periodic table of the elements.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 11 hours.
Bonds are connections between atoms. A solid grasp of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory will help you understand how elements that differ by one or two atomic numbers behave.
According to VSEPR theory, the number of electrons an element has corresponds with its chemical properties. For example, sodium differs from neon and potassium by one atomic number, but it resembles potassium, not neon. Sodium and potassium both have one valence electron, which explains their similar properties, while neon is a stable element with eight valence electrons. We use VSEPR to predict the three-dimensional structure, or geometry, of molecules.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours.
Chemists need to write out formulas and equations to solve chemistry problems. It is important that chemists have a common set of rules for writing formulas and equations so they can communicate with other scientists. In this unit, we begin to name and write formulas for compounds, and learn how to write and balance chemical equations.
Equations enable us to describe chemistry topics in mathematical terms and predict the outcomes of reactions. For example, what volume of steam is created if we turn one kilogram of ice into pure steam, at 200o degrees Celsius and sea-level air pressure? We can calculate the precise answer when we write the reaction out in the form of an equation!
Completing this unit should take you approximately 6 hours.
In this unit we explore how matter behaves in terms of the three main phases of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. We investigate gases first, because their properties are described by well-defined equations. Next, we study phase changes, which we describe in terms of a graph known as a phase diagram. We finish this unit with an exploration of the properties of solids.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 15 hours.
In this unit, we study thermodynamics and thermochemistry. Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer. Thermochemistry is specifically the study of heat transfer in chemical reactions. We were introduced to thermodynamics in Unit 5 when we learned about the energy associated with phase changes. Thermodynamics and thermochemistry allow us to predict whether a reaction will produce heat, such as the burning of a candlewick, or if a reaction will require heat to proceed, such as the reaction that occurs inside an disposable cold pack. In this unit we also learn about Gibbs Free Energy, which tells us whether a reaction is spontaneous, meaning the reaction will occur without external "help".
Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours.
In this unit we study two important types of chemical reactions: acid-base and oxidation-reduction. We will discuss how these types of reactions occur in all aspects of science and in everyday life. We will also review the properties of acids and bases and introduce two acid-base definitions: Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry.
We will perform pH calculations, and learn how to use the pH scale to identify acidic and alkaline solutions. Next, we will discuss oxidation and reduction, also known as electron transfer reactions; learn how to write and balance equations for oxidation-reduction reactions; and, introduce some common oxidizing and reducing agents.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 12 hours.
Finally, let's examine the processes of nuclear decay, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fission. Unlike all other types of chemical reactions, which involve electrons, nuclear reactions involve the nucleus of the atom. In this unit we discuss different types of nuclear decay, learn how to write equations that describe nuclear reactions, review the concept of half-life in the context of radioactive decay, and learn how we use nuclear fission to generate electric energy.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 4 hours.
This study guide will help you get ready for the final exam. It discusses the key topics in each unit, walks through the learning outcomes, and lists important vocabulary. It is not meant to replace the course materials!
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Certificate Final Exam
Take this exam if you want to earn a free Course Completion Certificate.
To receive a free Course Completion Certificate, you will need to earn a grade of 70% or higher on this final exam. Your grade for the exam will be calculated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam on your first try, you can take it again as many times as you want, with a 7-day waiting period between each attempt.
Once you pass this final exam, you will be awarded a free Course Completion Certificate.
Saylor Direct Credit
Take this exam if you want to earn college credit for this course. This course is eligible for college credit through Saylor Academy's Saylor Direct Credit Program.
The Saylor Direct Credit Final Exam requires a proctor and a proctoring fee of $25. To pass this course and earn a Proctor-Verified Course Certificate and official transcript, you will need to earn a grade of 70% or higher on the Saylor Direct Credit Final Exam. Your grade for this exam will be calculated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam on your first try, you can take it again a maximum of 3 times, with a 14-day waiting period between each attempt.
Once you pass this final exam, you will be awarded a Credit-Recommended Course Completion Certificate and an official transcript.