Innovation and Prodcut Development

The first element is the product. A product is a good or service intended to meet the needs of consumers or society. Read the introductions of each section to gain an understanding of products and product development.


  1. Define product.
  2. Describe the four major categories of product developments: new-to-the-market, new-to-the-company, improvement of existing product, and extension of product line.

Basically, a product is something that can be marketed to customers because it provides them with a benefit and satisfies a need. It can be a physical good, such as the PowerSki Jetboard, or a service, such as a haircut or a taxi ride. The distinction between goods and services isn't always clear-cut. Say, for example, that a company hires a professional to provide an in-house executive training program on "netiquette" (e-mail etiquette). Off the top of our heads, most of us would say that the company is buying a service. What if the program is offered online? We'd probably still argue that the product is a service. But what if the company buys training materials that the trainer furnishes on DVD? Is the customer still buying a service? Probably not: we'd have to say that when it buys the DVD, the company is buying a tangible good.

In this case, the product that satisfies the customer's need has both a tangible component (the training materials on DVD) and an intangible component (the educational activities performed by the seller). Not surprisingly, many products have both tangible and intangible components. If, for example, you buy a Hewlett-Packard computer, you get not only the computer (a tangible good) but certain promises to answer any technical questions that you might have and certain guarantees to fix your computer if it breaks within a specified time period (intangible services).