## Causal Reasoning

Read this section to investigate the complications of causality, particularly as it relates to correlation. Sometimes, two correlated events share a common cause, and sometimes, correlation is accidental. Complete the exercises to practice determining sufficient evidence for causation and determining accidental correlation. Check your answers against the key.

### Exercise

Determine which of the candidates (A, B, C, D) in the following examples pass the necessary condition test or the sufficient condition test relative to the target (G). In addition, note whether there are any candidates that aren’t rigorously tested as either necessary or sufficient conditions.

1.

Case 1 |
A | B |
~C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | C | D | G |

2.

Case 1 |
A | B |
C | D | G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | ~C | D | ~G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | C | ~D | G |

3.

Case 1 |
A | B |
C | D | G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | C | D | G |

4.

Case 1 |
A | B |
C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | C | ~D | G |

5.

Case 1 |
A | B |
~C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | ~C | ~D | ~G |

6.

Case 1 |
A | B |
C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | ~D | ~G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | ~C | D | G |

7.

Case 1 |
A | B |
~C | D | G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | ~B | C | D | ~G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | C | ~D | ~G |

8.

Case 1 |
A | B |
~C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | ~B | ~C | D | ~G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | ~C | ~D | ~G |

9.

Case 1 |
A | B |
C | D | G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | ~B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | A | ~B | ~C | D | ~G |

10.

Case 1 |
~A | B |
~C | D | ~G |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Case 2 | ~A | B | C | D | G |

Case 3 | ~A | ~B | ~C | D | G |