Unit 1 Study Guide: Foundations of Human Communication

The following study guide is meant to help you prepare for the final exam. This material is for your practice and review only. You will not be asked to turn in your responses to the questions and activities below. As you work through these study guides, take note of your confidence level with the material. Ask yourself if you feel comfortable with your grasp of these topics, and take the suggestions for resources to re-watch or re-read seriously before proceeding to the final exam.

For your convenience, Microsoft Word and PDF files of this study guide are linked below.


1a: Define the major components of the human communication process.

 

1a.1. We engage in communication every day. It is an important part of human life.

A. Briefly define the concept of communication.

B. Explain the levels of communication as a part of our daily lives using the pyramid of communications model.

Ask yourself how confident you are with the above concept and the two challenge activities. You may choose to review the definition of communication and its general applications in the following resources from subunit 1.1: pages 3-4 of Survey of Communication Study: “Chapter 1: Foundations: Defining Communication and Communication Study” and the videos US India Business: “Elements of Communication” and University of Amsterdam: MOOC ICS “What is Communication?”

 

1a.2. There are two basic models that describe the communication process.

A. Define the five components of the linear model of communication: sender, receiver, message, channel, and noise.

B. What distinguishes the transactional model of communication from the linear model of communication?

If these models sound unfamiliar, consider reviewing pages 3-4 of Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 1: Foundations: Defining Communication and Communication Study in subunit 1.1 or re-watching the “Oral vs. Written Communication” video clip in subunit 1.2 for a review of the communication models.

 

1b: Recognize the impact of diversity and culture on interpersonal communication and group communication.

 

1b.1. Why should we learn about other cultures and develop intercultural communication competence?

Review the following two sections in Survey of Communication Study: “Chapter 12: Intercultural Communication”: “Facilitating Discussions about Intercultural Communication Issues” (pages 4-12) and “Where Intercultural Communication Occurs” (pages 15-16) and re-watch the video Project IDEA: Effective Cross Cultural Communication in subunit 1.6.

 

1b.2. Culture and diversity are a fact of life in this multicultural world.

A. What does it mean when we say that communication is learned?

B. What does it mean when we say that language is relational?

C. How do accents and dialects affect our impressions of others and our ability to communicate within a diverse community?

D. How do cultural customs and norms affect our impressions of others and our ability to communicate within a diverse community?

E. Name five classifications that are often attributed to cultural bias.

There are quite a few variables that affect culture and diversity. If you missed any of these during the course of study, consider a quick review of sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.4 in Communication in the Real World: “Chapter 3: Verbal Communication.”

 

1b.3. Define gender communication.

A. Why is gender an important element of a diverse society?

B. Explain how verbal and nonverbal communication are used in the production of meaning of gender.

C. Explain how verbal and nonverbal communication define gender.

Review Survey of Communication Chapter 13: Gender Communication and Dr. Tim Muehlhoff's Advanced Studies in Gender Communication Course: “Language Defines Gender” and “Nonverbal Communication Between Men and Women” in subunit 1.9.

 

1b.4. It is not uncommon for individuals to experience culture shock.

A. Define the concept of culture shock.

B. What are the stages of culture shock?

Based on how confident you are with this concept, consider reviewing Lisa Hale’s “University English Lecture Part 1” in subunit 1.6.

 

1c: Explain the functions of verbal and nonverbal communication.

 

1c.1. What is the definition of verbal communication? Along with a definition, provide some examples of verbal communication strategies.

For help, review Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication and section 3.1 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2.

 

1c.2. Verbal communication can be very powerful.

A. What are the functions of verbal communication?

B. Name four types of verbal expressions.

C. Name six types of unsupportive verbal communication messages.

Review section 3.2 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2.

 

1c.3. If language (verbal communication) is so powerful, explain how it can be arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract.

For a review of the nature of verbal communication, see section 3.3 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2 and pages 2-3 in Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2.

 

1c.4. What is the difference between connotative and denotative language?

A. When would it be most appropriate to use connotative language?

B. When would it be most appropriate to use denotative language?

Review section 3.1 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication and Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2.

 

1c.5. What is the definition of nonverbal communication?

A. Provide some examples of nonverbal communication strategies.

B. What are the functions of nonverbal communication?

C. Define and describe demonstrations of support with nonverbal communication.

It is surprising how much we communicate and how much we can understand about other people by observing nonverbal communication. If you need a review of this concept, consider re-reading Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication in subunit 1.3.

 

1c.6. Compare and contrast verbal and nonverbal communication. Using a chart may help you to see how these two forms of communication complement one another and where each is more powerful.

Characteristics of Verbal Communication

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

Example You Have Observed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Review Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2 and Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication in subunit 1.3.

 

1c.7. Compare and contrast written and spoken communication.

A. When would it be appropriate to use written communication?

B. When would it be appropriate to use spoken communication?

Review pages 5 through 7 in Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication in subunit 1.2, Saylor Academy “Oral vs. Written Communication” in subunit 1.2, and US India Business “Elements of Communication” in subunit 1.1.

 

1d: Demonstrate the ability to use language accurately, expressively, and appropriately in communication settings.

 

1d.1. Verbal communication serves many functions. We use verbal communication to define reality, organize complex ideas and experiences into categories, think, and shape our attitudes about the world around us. Verbal communication is instrumental to self-expression; informing, persuading, and entertaining others; and developing relationships with others. Verbal expressions are categorized in the following four types: observations, thoughts, feelings, and needs.

We express ourselves through our use of verbal communication. How we use our verbal communication skills allows us to improve our credibility and as a means of control. How well we know the other person (the receiver) and the type of relationship we have with the receiver influence the way we use verbal communication. Using inclusive pronouns (we, our, us) show the relationship with others. In more formal relationships, like work relationships, our language use is also more formal. Using slang and jargon can separate people and make others feel excluded from the message.

Review Survey of Communication Study: Chapter 2: Verbal Communication, Saylor Academy “Oral vs. Written Communication” and Glass in the Class: “The Power of Verbal Communication” in subunit 1.2 for discussions of appropriate use of language for clarity and inclusion. Also review Dr. Carl Isaacson’s Nonverbal Communication and Nonverbal Communication II, since our nonverbal communication is often aligned with our verbal communication.


1e: Explain the perception of self and others.

 

1e.1. The process of perception is inseparable from the process of communication.

A. Name and define the phases of the perception process.

B. How does motivation affect the perception process?

C. Define the five perceptual schemes.

D. Explain how the four types of verbal expression relate to the perception process.

Based on how confident you are in your understanding of the perception process, consider reviewing the resources in subunit 1.4 from Fox Valley Technical College: The Perception Process, The First Stage of the Perception Process, and The Second Stage of the Perception Process and the Language is Expressive section in 3.2 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication.

 

1e.2. What is impression management?

A. How do we use it on a daily basis? Write a few examples to reinforce your understanding of the concept and its applications.

B. Consider the importance of impression management as part of our intercultural communication skills. (1b).

Just as we use the perception process as a tool to plan our communication interactions, we have the ability to shape how we are perceived by others. Consider reviewing University of Notre Dame’s OpenCourseWare: Jessica Collett’s Class 14: Impression Management in subunit 1.4.

 

1f: List the ethical responsibilities of communicators in a diverse society.

 

1f.1. List the ethical responsibilities as defined by the National Communication Association’s Credo for Ethical Communication.

A. List from your personal experiences examples of the expectations in the Credo for Ethical Communication. These examples may be positive or negative examples, since we know that not all people communicate in an ethical manner.

B. Why do some people communicate in an unethical manner?

C. Is swearing unethical? Why or why not?

D. Is gossip unethical? Why or why not?

Several of the readings for this course refer to The National Communication Association Credo for Ethical Communication. The first reference can be found in section 3.3 Using Words Ethically in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication. You will also find it in Stand Up, Speak Out: Chapter 2: Ethics Matters section 2.2 Ethics in Public Speaking in subunit 1.5. Also review section 3.4 in Communication in the Real World: Chapter 3: Verbal Communication.

 

1g: Identify and apply communication theories.

 

1g.1. Define each of the the following general communication theories, which were presented in Unit 1: Attribution Theory, Cognitive Learning Theory, Constructivism, Coordinated Management of Meaning, Elaboration Likelihood Model, Face Negotiation Theory, Psychodynamic Theory, Social Judgment Theory, Social Learning Theory, Social Penetration Theory, Standpoint Theory, and Uncertainty Reduction Theory.

Theories help us understand how a concept operates in our daily lives. Once you have defined these theories, consider reviewing the resources associated with subunit 1.7 (1.7.1 through 1.7.9) for a review of communication theories. Do not skip out on Survey of Communication Study Chapter 5: Communication Theory as a helpful way to recap why we study theory.

 

1g.2. Define rhetorical criticism. How does rhetorical criticism contribute to our understanding of human communication today?

Review Survey of Communication Study Chapter 7: Rhetorical Criticism in subunit 1.8.


Unit 1 Vocabulary

This vocabulary list includes terms that might help you answer some of the review items above and some terms you should be familiar with to be successful on the final exam.

artifacts

audience

chronemics

collectivism/individualism

context

culture

ethnicity

ethnocentrism

gender

haptics

high and low context

identity

kinesics

metaphor

neologisms

paralanguage

persuasion

phonology

pragmatics

privilege

proximity

race

rhetoric

selective perception

selective exposure

selective retention

semantics

simile

slang

stereotyping

Symbolic Annihilation

Symbolic Interaction

symbols

syntactics

 

 


Last modified: Wednesday, July 17, 2019, 6:07 PM