Unit 6 Study Guide: Information Systems in Society and the World

The following study guide is meant to help you prepare for the final exam. This material is for your practice and review only. You will not be asked to turn in your responses to the questions and activities below. As you work through these study guides, take note of your confidence level with the material. Ask yourself if you feel comfortable with your grasp of these topics, and take the suggestions for resources to re-watch or re-read seriously before proceeding to the final exam.

6a: explain the concept of globalization

6a.1. Advances in telecommunication and transportation have accelerated globalization through information technology.

A. Technology has provided the gateway to connecting people through the network society.

B. According to Friedman, the third era of globalization introduced the graphical user interface of the personal computer, the build-out of the Internet infrastructure during the dot com boom, and software to automate and integrate business processes.

To prepare for the final exam, read the specific technologies Friedman noted in the third era of globalization under “The world is flat” in Chapter 11 of Information Systems for Business and Beyond

6b: describe the role of information technology in globalization

6b.1. In addition to the specific technologies Friedman noted in the flat-world platform, the open source movement and advent of mobile technologies have helped global collaboration evolve.

A. SMTP, HTML, and TCP/IP are Internet protocols that became standards widely used by everyone during the late 1990s.

B. Workflow software is software that allows people to work together easily and allows the integration of different software packages and databases according to Friedman.

C. Globalization 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 are the three eras of globalization according to Friedman. Provide a definition for each era of globalization.

Definitions of the three eras of globalization may be found in the section labeled “The World is Flat” in Chapter 11. How do your definitions of each era compare to what the textbook says?

6c: identify the issues experienced by firms as they face a global economy

6c.1. The latest era of globalization allows any business to become international. Castell’s vision of working together as a unit in real time can become reality soon. In order to take advantages of new capabilities driven by technology, companies need to understand what challenges await them in dealing with employees and customers from different cultures.

A. Infrastructure differences, labor laws and regulations, legal restrictions, language, customs, and preferences all present challenges companies must be aware of in the latest era of globalization.

B. Advantages of globalization include the ability to operate 24 hours a day, the ability to locate expertise and labor globally, and a larger market to distribute and sell products to.

C. Should new business owners stay local or expand globally as they grow their business? What are the pros and cons of each approach? 

Read about the advantages and disadvantages of globalization in “The Global Firm” in Chapter 11 to understand the considerations businesses must include in a globalization plan.

6d: describe Nielsen’s three stages of the digital divide

6d.1. The digital divide is the result of a separation between those who have access to a global network and those who do not. Those who do not have access to a global network are largely missing out on the benefits and often feel the worst of the negative effects of globalization. The digital divide can occur between countries, regions, or neighborhoods.

A. An attempt to remedy the digital divide issue was the One Laptop per Child effort which was designed to empower children in developing countries by issuing technology they otherwise would have been unable to access.

B. Jakob Nielsen noted there are actually three factors at play in the digital divide: an economic divide, a usability divide, and an empowerment divide.

C. What do each of these three factors of the digital divide mean to you? How does each contribute to there being a digital divide?

Read “The Digital Divide,” “One Laptop per Child,” and “A New Understanding of the Digital Divide” in Chapter 11 to prepare for the final exam. Review the task you completed for 6.1.3 Bridging the Digital Divide.

6e: describe what the term information systems ethics means

6e.1. Information technology has a profound effect on human behavior. New technologies provide capabilities we did not have before and present new situations that have not previously been addressed in ethical terms. New power as a result of new technology may involve compromises. For example, when Henry Ford invented the assembly line, he in turn reduced the value of humans as part of the production process.

A. A code of ethics outlines acceptable behaviors for professional or social groups and is agreed to by all members of the group.

B. What are possible results of violating the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)?

Read “Information Systems Ethics” and “Code of Ethics” in Chapter 12 of Information Systems for Business and Beyond to prepare for the final exam. Then, review the text you read in 6.2.1 Wikibooks: Introduction to Computer Information Systems: “Ethics.”

6f: identify criteria for the ethical use of information systems

6f.1. The ACM Code of Ethics contains many straightforward ethical instructions such as the admonition to be honest and trustworthy.

A. Under the ACM code of ethics, nobody should use someone else’s computer system, software, or data without consent.

B. Individuals should not design or implement a system that deliberately or inadvertently demeans an individual or group.

C. Organizational leaders are responsible to ensure their computer systems enhance, not degrade, the quality of working life for employees.

Read the section “Code of Ethics” in Chapter 12, which explains the ACM code of ethics in more detail. You will want to be confident in your understanding of ethics in information systems before you attempt the final exam.

6g: define intellectual property

6g.1. Digital technologies have influenced the domain of intellectual property. Intellectual property is much more difficult to defend in today’s digital world.

A. Intellectual property is any idea, invention, or process that derives from someone else’s work or intellect.

B. Intellectual property laws are written to protect tangible results of an idea. (If you think of a song in your head, you need to actually write it down in order to protect it.)

C. Intellectual property laws offer protection that give people an incentive to release their creative ideas.

D. How can you protect your inventions or ideas in the event someone hacks into your computer and steals them?

Read the section “Intellectual Property” in Chapter 12 to prepare for the final exam and discover ways intellectual property protect ideas.

6h: explain the protections provided by copyright, patent, and trademark

6h.1. Copyright, patent, and trademark are methods to protect inventions and intellectual property. Each of these methods of protections cover products, services, ideas, inventions, and other information from being copied and used without consent of the originating group or individual.

A. Copyright helps content creators retain their rights over their work and helps them answer questions about who can make copies of it, who can make derivative works from it, who can share it and how, and more.

B. Sometimes a work is owned by a publisher who has an agreement with the author.

Read the sections “Copyright,” “Obtaining Copyright Protection,” and “Fair Use” in Chapter 12 to prepare for the final exam.

6h.2. A patent creates protection for someone who invents a new product or process. Many works may qualify as inventions, including firearms, locks, plumbing, engines, etc., but business processes are also often invented should thus be protected under patent law.

A. After obtaining a patent, the inventor has protection from others infringing on their patent.

B. A patent holder can exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention throughout the US or importing the invention into the US.

C. What is the limit of time a patent can protect someone’s invention?

Read “Patent” and “Obtaining Patent Protection” in Chapter 12 to prepare for the exam.

6h.3. A trademark is a word, phrase, logo, shape, or sound that identifies a source of goods or services. Taco Bell’s purple bell logo, Coca-Cola’s iconic bottle shape, and Chevrolet’s bowtie logo are all examples of trademarks.

A. Two types of trademarks exist: a common-law trademark and registered trademark.

B. Much like with a copyright, a trademark protects an individual or organization if it is used in the normal course of business.

C. Do trademarks ever expire or need to be re-registered?

D. Can companies legally use a similar logo or phrase that already has trademark protection?

Read “Trademark” in Chapter 12 to help prepare for the final exam.

6i: describe the challenges that information technology brings to individual privacy

6i.1. Privacy has several definitions; for the purposes of this course, privacy means the ability to control information about oneself. Our ability to maintain our privacy through technology has eroded greatly over the past few decades.

A. Personally identifiable information is information that can be used to establish a person’s identity. This includes such information as name, social security number, place of birth, medical records, and mother’s maiden name.

B. Information entered in online forms, our tagged location in social media, and other information are susceptible to monitoring and can be aggregated to create a profile of someone.

Read “Privacy,” “Personally Identifiable Information,” and “Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness” in Chapter 12 to prepare for the final exam. Revisit Gry Hasselbalch Lapenta and Rikke Frank Jorgensen’s “Youth, privacy, and online media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making” to reflect how one’s expectations of privacy have changed in the past few generations.

6j: describe future trends in information systems

6j.1. Information technology innovations have changed the world of business and everyday life. New trends, ideas, and innovations are constantly being developed by groups and individuals and continue to change everyday life.

A. The first trend of the future of information systems is the ever-expanding globalization that closes the gap between countries through the Internet.

B. Through the advent of Web 2.0 and e-commerce, information systems use has expected to be able to modify their experiences to meet personal tastes.

C. What current trends in information systems technology were only a faint idea just a few years ago?

Read “Global,” “Social,” “Personal,” “Mobile,” “Wearable,” and “Printable” in Chapter 13 of Information Systems for Business and Beyond to get a better sense of these future trends. Revisit the article “A tour through Mary Meeker’s 2016 Internet trends report,” which you read in subunit 6.3.1, to see how Mary Meeker presented her research on current and upcoming trends in Internet technologies.

Unit 6 Vocabulary List

This vocabulary list includes terms that might help you answer some of the review items above and some terms you should be familiar with to be successful in completing the final exam for the course.

  • Aggregate data
  • Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • Copyright
  • Fair use
  • Globalization
  • Information systems ethics
  • Intellectual property
  • Patent
  • Personally identifiable information
  • The digital divide
  • Trademark
Last modified: Wednesday, July 17, 2019, 5:53 PM