Capacity planning has significant implications for all of a business's operations. Decisions made in this area impact the entire organization. Some of the strategies typically used by an organization for capacity planning include: leading capacity, where capacity increases to meet expected demand; following capacity, where companies wait for demand increases to expand; and tracking capacity, where capacity is increased over time to meet demand.
The determinants of effective capacity include facilities, product and service factors, process factors, human factors, policy factors, operational factors, supply chain factors, and external factors.
Among these, the most important factors are process the human element. Processes must be efficient and effective, and workers must be properly trained and possess the skills, knowledge, motivation and experience to create quality output.
For a capacity planning process strategy to be effective, the following steps should be taken:
To review, read Strategic Capacity Planning for Products and Services and Forecasting.
In choosing a business location, an organization should verify that the location meets the organization's objectives and strategic plans. For any specific situation or organization, the requirements can vary, depending on their industry and organizational needs.
Factors to be considered when choosing a location include: proximity to resources and raw materials; proximity to customers who are most likely to purchase the company's goods and services; community factors such as climate, access to roads and utilities, as well as tax bases; labor factors, to ensure a sufficient pool of job applicants; outside factors such as the crime rate, access to schools and hospitals, and proximity to competition.
When evaluating location options, there are several methods that companies can use to determine the best choice. The cost-volume-profit analysis requires companies to determine their fixed and variable costs, plot total cost lines on the same graph, and to determine the highest and lowest costs for total output. This method assumes that fixed costs are constant and that variable costs are linear. It also assumes that only one product is involved and that the required level of output can be closely estimated.
The factor rating method requires both qualitative and quantitative inputs, which are each given values. Steps here include determining which factors are relevant and important; assuring that the values for each factor all total to a weight of 1.0; determining a common scale for all factors; scoring each alternative; adjusting score weights and adding them up; and choosing the the alternative with the highest score.
The center of gravity method enables a company to determine locations based on facilities that either reduce travel time or lower shipping costs. This enables distribution costs to be viewed as a linear function of distance and quantity. Visual maps are used, with coordinates given set of numerical values to be evaluated.
For companies that have multiple manufacturing locations, they can use different strategies for producing their goods. Each method can offer the company a competitive advantage, but there are also implications for costs and managerial operations.
The product plant strategy is when products, or product lines, are produced at separate locations, with each meeting the needs of the entire domestic market. This results in a narrow range of requirements for labor, materials, and equipment, with lower operating costs. Plants may be located near each other, which makes overall distribution more cost effective, but plants may also be far apart, making logistics more challenging.
With a market area plant strategy, a facility meets the needs of specific geographic locations and is useful when shipping costs to that area are high. This approach enables a plant to supply most of what is needed in a small geographic area. While operating costs may be higher, delivery and response times for locals needs are more quickly met. Also, decisions for adding or eliminating plants must be coordinated on a centralized basis due to changing local market conditions.
The process plant strategy is when plants each concentrate on a different aspect of the process. This is most beneficial when products have many components, reducing any confusion that may occur when there are numerous parts to be assembled. Plants become highly specialized and result in large production quantities that lead to economies of scale.
Plants that are most flexible and able to handle many products are elements of the general purpose plant strategy. Plants are able to quickly respond to market changes, but may be less productive than one of the strategies with a more focused approach. Also, solutions to problems at one plant can be applicable to other facilities using the same strategy, thereby reducing the time it take to find and implement a solution at different locations.
For more information, review Location Planning and Analysis.
Some of the more common assembly line systems include the classic, automated, intermittent, and lean manufacturing models. They are each used to make different kinds of product, but do have some shared characteristics.
For example, a single model assembly line is when all worker focus on the same product. A mixed model assembly line results in assembling different models of a product on the same line and making the integration of components easier as the product moves up the line. This reduces set-up time, as long as the process remains homogeneous.
Multi Model Assembly lines are present when components go through a line which results in end items or finished products. This also includes waste and by-products, and utilizes a variety of cost and yield methods.
On paced assembly lines, a fixed time is applied to each workstation, with all operations beginning at the same point and passing pieces to the next station at the same rate. In unpaced lines, pieces do not have a specific point in time for transfer, and are passed along when their required operations are finished.
Assembly line balancing has several components. These include; the workstation, which is where a specific amount of work is performed; minimal rational work element, which describes the work unit beyond which a work element cannot be divided; and cycle time, which is the ratio between the amount of time available and the production volume for that period.
The objectives of assembly line balancing are to ensure an even distribution over work stations, facilities, and workers to ensure an efficient process for maximum output. In this way, worker delays are minimized, productivity can be improved, and obstacles can be eliminated.
The benefits of ensuring a balance between all technical elements in an assembly line include: minimizing the number of workstations for specific cycles, as well as the cycle time for each station. Balance delays are minimized, and efficiency is maximized. Also, machinery idle time is minimized, as well as the overall length of the line.
To review, read, A Study on Basics of Assembly Line Balancing.
This vocabulary list includes terms that might help you with the review items above and some terms you should be familiar with to be successful in completing the final exam for the course.
Try to think of the reason why each term is included.