China from 1900 to 1949
In 1911, several factors sparked the Xinhai or Republican Revolution, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty to create the Republic of China. These included grain shortages, widespread poverty, dissatisfaction among members of the merchant class, widespread government corruption, the rise of various ethnic groups, objections to Chinese subjugation to Western and Japanese powers, opposition to the prevalence of Christian missions, and the influence of successful revolutionary movements in other countries.
In January 1912, Sun Yat-Sen (1866–1925), the revolutionary leader of the Kuomintang (sometimes spelled Guomindang), became provisional president, but he agreed to let Yuan Shikai (1859–1916) replace him as part of a political compromise a month later. In February 1912, Yuan was inaugurated as the first president of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the child Puyi (1906–1967) abdicated as the last Chinese emperor.
Watch this lecture which describes these events.