Time: 83 hours
College Credit Recommended
Take a look around you: chemistry is the science that describes everything you touch, see, and feel: from the shampoo you used this morning, to the plastic container that holds your lunch! In this course, we will study chemistry from the ground up, beginning with the basics of the atom and its behavior, then progressing to the chemical properties of matter and the chemical changes and reactions that take place all the time in our world.
First, read the course syllabus. Then, enroll in the course by clicking "Enroll me in this course". Click Unit 1 to read its introduction and learning outcomes. You will then see the learning materials and instructions on how to use them.
Our first step in this course is to gain a basic understanding of matter and define the basic terminology used to describe matter. This unit will also provide you with a refresher on measurements, as much of this class will require you to express quantities in standard units and amounts. We will also learn about significant figures, which may be a new concept for those of you who have not yet taken a science course.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.
The atom, along with its protons, neutrons, and electrons, is the basic unit of matter and serves as our starting point for the study of chemistry. Scientists have studied atoms for hundreds of years and have developed a number of different models to describe them. Chemists currently use the quantum mechanical model, which has been around for decades. The "laws" of this model continue to intrigue and spark debate among scientists. For example, one theory states it is impossible to know the exact location and velocity of an electron at the same time.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 11 hours.
Bonds are connections between atoms. A solid grasp of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR ) theory will help you understand how elements that differ by one or two atomic numbers behave.
According to VSEPR theory, the number of electrons an element has corresponds with its chemical properties. For example, sodium differs from neon and potassium by one atomic number, but it resembles potassium, not neon. Sodium and potassium both have one valence electron, which explains their similar properties, while neon is a stable element with eight valence electrons. We use VSEPR to predict the three-dimensional structure, or geometry, of molecules.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours.
Chemists need to write out formulas and equations to solve chemistry problems. In this unit, we begin to name and write compounds and learn how to write out and balance chemical equations.
Equations enable us to describe chemistry topics in mathematical terms and predict the outcomes of reactions. For example, what volume of steam created if we turn one kilogram of ice into pure steam, at 200o Celsius and sea-level air pressure? We can calculate the precise answer when we write the reaction out in the form of an equation!
Completing this unit should take you approximately 6 hours.
In this unit, we look at how matter behaves. We will begin with gases because we can describe their behaviors and properties in straightforward equations. We will also study the phase diagram, which predicts the state (solid, liquid or gas) of any group of molecules at any given temperature or pressure.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 15 hours.
In this unit, we study thermochemistry, which deals with the temperature- and heat-related aspects of chemistry, and thermodynamics, which focuses on the overall energies associated with chemical reactions. Thermodynamics will lead us to the Gibbs free energy equation, which tells us whether a chemical reaction is spontaneous (or will occur without external help).
Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours.
Now let's look at two types of chemical reactions: acid-base and oxidation-reduction. We will review the properties of acids and bases and introduce two acid-base definitions: Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry. We will also examine pH calculations, and learn how to use the pH scale to identify acidic and alkaline solutions. Next, we discuss oxidation and reduction, learn how to write and balance equations for oxidation-reduction reactions, and introduce some common oxidizing and reducing agents.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 12 hours.
Finally, let's examine the processes of nuclear decay, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fission. We will discuss different types of nuclear decay, learn how to write equations that describe nuclear reactions, review the concept of half-life in the context of radioactive decay, and learn how city planners use nuclear fission to generate electric energy.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 4 hours.
This study guide will help you get ready for the final exam. It discusses the key topics in each unit, walks through the learning outcomes, and lists important vocabulary. It is not meant to replace the course materials!
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Certificate Final Exam
Take this exam if you want to earn a free Course Completion Certificate.
To receive a free Course Completion Certificate, you will need to earn a grade of 70% or higher on this final exam. Your grade for the exam will be calculated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam on your first try, you can take it again as many times as you want, with a 7-day waiting period between each attempt.
Once you pass this final exam, you will be awarded a free Course Completion Certificate.
Saylor Direct Credit
Take this exam if you want to earn college credit for this course. This course is eligible for college credit through Saylor Academy's Saylor Direct Credit Program.
The Saylor Direct Credit Final Exam requires a proctor and a proctoring fee of $25. To pass this course and earn a Proctor-Verified Course Certificate and official transcript, you will need to earn a grade of 70% or higher on the Saylor Direct Credit Final Exam. Your grade for this exam will be calculated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam on your first try, you can take it again a maximum of 3 times, with a 14-day waiting period between each attempt.
Once you pass this final exam, you will be awarded a Credit-Recommended Course Completion Certificate and an official transcript.