Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page Course Terms of Use
1.1: The Atlantic World URL Jack E. Maxfield's A Comprehensive Outline of World History

Read chapter 30 on pages 517–564. This textbook will give you a general overview of the time periods that we will address in this course. It is organized chronologically and geographically. Each chapter offers a brief summary of the major historical events and trends that occurred throughout the world over the course of a 100-year period.

First, we will cover the 16th century (1501–1600). We will examine the impact of European trade and colonization efforts on the peoples of Asia and the Americas.

URL Hutton Webster's World History

Read Chapter 9 on pages 320–324. This chapter gives a brief overview of the global networks of exchange developed by Spanish, Portuguese, and later Dutch and English merchants in the 17th century. As you read, pay attention to the role of religion, politics, and commerce in global exploration and settlement.

1.1.1: European Colonization URL The End of the Old World and the Beginning of the New

Read this article, which offers a brief overview of the European exploration and settlement efforts in America.

1.1.2: The Slave Trade and the Expanding Atlantic Economy URL Arizona State University: "The Slave Trade Part I"

Listen to this lecture, which compares the views and practices of 17th and 18th-century Spanish and Portuguese slaveholders with those of Northern European colonists from the same era. Much of the lecture focuses on the origins and development of the slaveholding system instituted by Spanish and Portuguese colonists during these centuries. As you listen to the lecture, consider how the Spanish slaveholding system differed from slaveholding systems developed by Northern Europeans.

1.1.3: Demographic Shifts and Settlement Patterns URL Comparing Settlement Patterns: New Spain, New France, and British North America

Read this short article, which compares settlement patterns in Spanish, French, and British colonies in the Americas. The article also compares the economies of the three ethnic regions and discusses how economic factors influenced settlement patterns. As you read, pay close attention to the impact of European settlement on Native American inhabitants.

1.1.4: Spain and Portugal's Global Connections URL The Portuguese Empire

Read this article. As you read, consider how the empire established economic and cultural bonds between Asia, Africa, and the Americas. This short history of the Portuguese Empire focuses on the origins of the global empire in the 16th century and its maturation during the 17th century. The article discusses the shift from Asian to Atlantic trade during the late 16th century due to competition from Northern European trade companies.

1.2.1: Trade Networks and State Monopolies URL Gresham College: Thomas Crump's "The Dutch East Indies Company"

Listen to these lectures. As you listen to the first lecture on the first 100 years, think about the political and religious factors that led to the creation of the Dutch East Indies Company in the 1600s. How did the firm represent an effort by Northern Europeans to challenge the economic and political power of Portugal and Spain? As you listen to the second lecture on the second hundred years, think about the political and religious factors that led to the creation of the Dutch East Indies Company in the 1600s. How did the firm represent an effort by Northern Europeans to challenge the economic and political power of Portugal and Spain?

1.2.2: Supply and Demand URL Shafaat Ahmed Khan's "The East India Trade in the XVIIth Century"

Read Chapter 1 on pages 1–92. As you read, note the variety of commodities traded by merchants in this era. Which commodities did Western Europeans seek? What did they have to trade with merchants in the East? Was the balance of trade equal, or one-sided? 

Chapter 1 of this book offers a detailed study of Portuguese, Dutch, and later English efforts to cultivate trade networks with the Middle East, India, China, and the East Indies during the 17th century.

1.2.3: Economic and Political Impact of the India Trade URL Shafaat Ahmed Khan's "The East India Trade in the 17th Century"

Read Chapter 4 on pages 246–307. As you read, think about how national politics shaped British trade practices during this era.

Chapter 4 of this book focuses on the economic and political impact of the East India trade on England at the end of the 17th century. Advocates of free trade challenged the British East India Company's trade monopoly with India and Asia and asserted that state-sponsored monopolies were harmful, rather than helpful, to the national economy.

1.3.1: Ecological Impact URL Alfred W. Crosby's "The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease Between the Old and New Worlds"

Read the three pages of the essay. After you read, consider the questions that Crosby poses as the third page. What are some of the lasting consequences of the Columbian Exchange in the Americas and Europe?

This short essay discusses the ecological and biological consequences of European exploration and colonization of the Americas. The author focuses on the differences between American and European plants and animals, and he discusses the impact of infectious diseases on Native American and European populations.

1.3.2: Changing patterns of Production and Consumption URL South Asian History: "History Crafts, Manufacturing, and Trade in the Indian Subcontinent"

Read this article. As you read, consider how matters of international trade disrupted local economies throughout the Indian Subcontinent.

This article discusses the various handcrafts that originated in the Indian Subcontinent and examines how they formed the basis of regional trade until the British East India Company established economic domination over the region in the late-17th and early-18th centuries. The British discouraged local textile and metal trades and instead encouraged the production of opium for trade with China. This disrupted regional economies and led to dramatic changes in patterns of wealth. As you read the article, consider how matters of international trade disrupted local economies throughout the Indian Subcontinent.

1.3.3: Shifting Power Balance between European States URL The History of the British Empire

Read this article, which offers a brief overview of the dramatic expansion of the British Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. As you read, consider the role that the East India Trade played in Britain's emergence as an international power.

1.3.4: Changing Economic Relationship between East and West URL Andre Gunder Frank's "Asian-Based World Economy 1400–1800: A Horizontally Integrative Macrohistory"

Read the excerpts from Andre Gunder Frank's book.

In this article, economic historian Andre Gunder Frank, who teaches at the University of Amsterdam, discusses the economic relationship between Europe and Asia in the 16th and 17th centuries. He argues that Asian nations were far wealthier and more powerful than European nations during these centuries and did far more to shape the world economy. Only in the 19th century, thanks to the Industrial Revolution and European colonization efforts, did European nations surpass Asian nations in economic power. As you read, consider the historical evidence that Gunder Frank presents to support his arguments. Why does he characterize Europe as the "caboose" to the "Asian economic train"?

Unit 1 Assessment URL Lynn Harry Nelson's "The Discovery of the New World and the End of the Old"

Read this page as a brief review for the Unit 1 Assessment. Here, the author reviews the European exploration and settlement efforts in America and their lasting influence.

URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 16 outline.

If you wish, you may review the questions in the quiz sections, but note that these questions do not indicate whether or not your chosen answer is correct.

2.1: Information Exchange and Changing Political Systems URL Jack E. Maxfield's A Comprehensive Outline of World History

Read Chapters 30–32 on pages 529–680. As you read these chapters, focus your attention on the sections that discuss the Near East, Europe, the Indian Subcontinent, and the Americas.

These chapters cover the 16th through the 18th centuries (1501–1800). We will examine the development of powerful monarchical regimes in Europe during these centuries.

URL Hutton Webster's "World History"

Read Chapter 8 and 9 on pages 281–334. Chapter 8 focuses on the rise of absolutist monarchies in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. The first section of Chapter 9 addresses European colonization and trade during the same time period.

URL Nipissing University: Steve Muhlberger's "The Gunpowder Empires"

Read these lecture notes.

2.2.1: Europe URL "European Absolutism and Power Politics"

Read this article. This website promotes the knowledge and shared information of history, by hosting articles and other materials written by professors around the world.

URL Jean Domat's "On Social Order and Absolute Monarchy"

Read this primary-source document.

In this 1697 treatise, French lawyer Jean Domat justified absolute monarchical rule as an instrument of God's will. Domat argued that kings and princes derive all their power from God and consequently deserve absolute loyalty and obedience from their subjects. He also asserted, however, that monarchs must always act justly and provide for the welfare of their subjects, even though they are accountable to no one but God alone.

URL "History Review: Absolutism"

Review slides 1 through 41.

2.2.2: Middle East and Asia URL Robert Guisepi's "The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders"

Read this article.

URL The Tokugawa Shogunate

Read this article about the Tokugawa Shogunate.

URL "History Review: Absolutism"

Review slides 42 through 71.

2.2.3: Challenges to Absolutism URL Steven Kreis' "The English Civil War"

Read this article, which focuses on the causes of the English Civil War and consequences of the conflict for the English monarchy.

URL Wallbank et al.'s "The Case against Absolutism"

Read this article, which presents a number of historical criticisms of absolutism.

2.3.1: Warfare in the Americas URL Colonial Wars

Read this article. As you read, consider the causes of these conflicts and the wars' consequences for the colonial powers and the colonists in the Americas.

2.3.2: Growing Economic Power of Northern Europe URL "Beginnings of North European Expansion"

Read this article.

Unit 2 Assessment URL World History

Review each chapter overview, and then take the 12 question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz for each chapter to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 2.

3.1: Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe URL Jack E. Maxfield's A Comprehensive Outline of World History

Read Chapters 31 and 32 on pages 565–668. Focus on the sections that discuss the Catholic Church, European nations, and the Americas. These chapters cover the 17th and 18th centuries (1601–1800). We will examine the impact of new religious, social, and political beliefs on the peoples of Europe and the Americas.

URL Hutton Webster's World History

Read Chapter VII (pages 241–280), Chapter IX (pages 334–345), Chapter X (pages 346–364), Chapter XI (pages 366–409), and Chapter XII (pages 410–439).

Chapter 7 focuses on the Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe. Chapters 9–12 discuss the Enlightenment and the political revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

3.1.1: Origins of the Reformation URL Frank A James III's "Martin Luther"

Listen to this lecture, which discusses religious reformer Martin Luther's background and role in the broader Protestant Reformation that he helped inspire.

3.1.2: Political Impact of the Reformation URL "The Reformation: Europe's Search for Stability"

Read this article.

3.1.3: The Counter-Reformation URL "The Reformation and Counter-Reformation"

Read this article.

URL The Counter-Reformation

Read this article.

3.2.1: Spread of Islam URL "Islam from the Beginning to 1300"
3.2.2: Political and Cultural Impact URL "Islam from the Beginning to 1300"
URL The Political Impact of the Reformation

Read this article, which discusses the influence of the Reformation on politics.

3.3.1: Origins URL Origins of the Enlightenment

Read this article, which discusses the origins of the Enlightenment.

3.3.2: Ideas URL Lewis Hackett's "The European Dream of Progress and Enlightenment"

Read this article.

URL Gresham College: Allan Chapman's "The Jacobean Space Programme"

Listen to this lecture.

3.3.3: Political and Social Impact URL The Political and Social Impact of the Enlightenment

Read this article.

URL Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–78)

Read this article.

URL John Locke (1632–1704)

Read this article.

3.4.1: Europe URL "The French Revolution"

Read this article.

Page Khan Academy: "The French Revolution"

Watch these lectures.

3.4.2: The Americas URL International World History Project: Robert A. Guisepi's "The American Revolution"
URL Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

Read this section. In Section II of Common Sense, revolutionary Thomas Paine discusses British rule in North America and argues that England has severely mistreated the American colonies over the past few decades. He asserts that British rule is unnatural and unjust. He claims that the only logical course of action for American colonists is to rebel against Great Britain and become a free and independent people.

3.4.3: The Emergence of Liberalism and Nationalism URL Michael Streich's "Early 19th Century Revolutionary Movements"

Read this article.

URL Regis University: Jim L. Riley's "Moderate Political Ideologies: Liberalism and Conservatism"

Read the "Liberalism" section. Liberalism is an ideology committed to individual liberties, including freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly, and a limited government.

URL Spiritus Temporis: "Nationalism"

Read this article.

Unit 3 Assessment URL World History

Review each chapter overview, and then take the 12 question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz for each chapter to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 2.

4.1: The Scientific Revolution File Jack E. Maxfield's A Comprehensive Outline of World History

Review Chapters 31 and 32 on pages 577–680, which cover the 17th and 18th centuries (1601–1800). We will examine the impact of new scientific ideas and industrial technologies on the peoples of Europe and other parts of the world.

URL Hutton Webster's World History

Read "Chapter XVII: The Industrial Revolution" on pages 581–624.

4.1.1: Origins URL William Gilbert's "The Beginning of the Scientific Revolution"

Read this chapter.

URL Arizona State University: "The Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th Centuries"

Listen to this lecture.

4.1.2: Social Impact URL Steven Kreis' "The Scientific Revolution, 1543–1600"

Read this article.

4.1.3: Political Impact URL George Mason University: Rose Cherubin's "The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century and the Political Revolutions of the 18th Century"

Read these notes.

4.2.1: Origins URL Lewis Hackett's "Industrialization: The First Phase"

Read this article.

4.2.2: Social and Political Impact in Europe URL Lewis and Jewsbury's "Europe Transformed"

Read this article.

URL Andrew Ure's "The Philosophy of Manufacturers"

In his 1835 article "The Philosophy of Manufacturers", Andrew Ure describes the new industrial system that had developed in England over the course of the previous century. He argues that the new factory system is beneficial to workers, since it relieves them of much of the tedium of manufacturing goods by hand. He also notes that the system does away with skilled workers by replacing them with machines. While machines are expensive, unskilled women and children can operate them for very low wages, which saves money for factory owners. Ultimately, Ure concludes that the Industrial Revolution has benefited the people of England and any opposition to it is simply due to ignorance and fear mongering.

4.2.3: Global Impact URL Stearns, Adas, and Schwatz's "Russia and Japan – Industrialization Outside the West"

Read this article.

URL Stuart B. Schwartz's "Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony"

Read this article.

Unit 4 Assessment URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 17 and Chapter 23 outlines, and then take the multiple-choice, true/false, and short answer quizzes. Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

URL World History

Review the Chapter 19 overview, and take the 12 question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 4.

5.1: The New Imperialism URL Jack E. Maxfield's A Comprehensive Outline of World History

Read Chapter 33 on pages 681–750, which covers the 19th century (1801–1900). We will examine the impact of European colonization efforts and trade networks on peoples of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.

URL Hutton Webster's World History

Read chapter XIII (pages 440–467), XIV (pages 468–497), XV (pages 498–539), and XVI (pages 540–580).

URL Stuart B. Schwartz's "Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World"

Read this article.

URL Gresham College: Kathleen Burk's "Imperial Rivalry with the Russian Empire"

In this lecture, Kathleen Burk explores the conflict between the two expanding empires of Great Britain and Russia.

5.2.1: Racism and Social Control URL Karl Pearson's "Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified by Nature"

In this lecture from 1900, British professor of mathematics Karl Pearson justifies European colonization on racial grounds. Pearson argues that white Europeans are genetically superior to native peoples and will eventually establish dominance over every part of the globe.

5.2.2: Destruction of Native Cultures URL V. Sundaram's "Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture"

Read this article.

URL Dadabhai Naoroji's "The Benefits of British Rule, 1871"

Read this article. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825–1917), also known as the "Grand Old Man of India", was an Indian politician and writer. Naoroji was a mentor to Gokhale and Gandhi.

5.2.3: Imposition of European Ideas and Values URL Imposition of European Ideas and Values

Read this article, which discusses Western imperialism in the 19th century.

5.3: Imperialism and Modernization URL West Chester University: Jim Jones' "Europe and Africa in the 19th Century"

Read these notes on European imperialism.

URL Facilitating Imperialism through Advanced Technologies

Read this article.

URL The Qing Dynasty of China

Read this article.

URL The Ottoman Empire

Read this article.

URL Japanese Imperialism

Read this article.

5.4.1: China: Opium Wars URL Philip V. Allingham's "England and China: The Opium Wars, 1839–1860"

Read this article.

5.4.2: China: Taiping and Boxer Rebellions URL "Introduction to the Taiping Rebellion, 1850–1871"

Read this article.

URL TDP Dugdale-Pointon's "The Boxer Rebellion, 1900"

Read this article.

5.4.3: Sepoy Rebellion-India URL George P. Landow's "The 1857 Indian Mutiny"

Read this article.

URL Desmond Kuah's "The Epic of Race: The Indian Mutiny, 1857"

Read this article.

5.4.4: Western Anti-Imperialist Movements URL Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League

Organized shortly after the end of the Spanish American War in 1899, the Anti-Imperialist League opposed American occupation of Cuba and the Philippines. The League's political platform claims that the "forcible subjugation of any people" is un-American and unjust, and it argues that native populations should be able to govern themselves without interference by outside governments.

Unit 5 Assessment URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 24 outline, and then take the multiple-choice, true/false, and short answer quiz. Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

6.1: Causes URL Hutton Webster's World History

Read Chapter XIX (pages 650–668); Chapter XX (pages 669–706); and Chapter XXI (pages 707–734).

URL St. Mary's University: Wallace G. Mills' "Imperialism, Capitalism, and World War I"

Read these notes.

6.1.1: Military and Economic Competition among the Great Powers URL "HMS Dreadnought: The Ship that Sparked an Arms Race"

Read this article.

6.1.2: Power Politics and the European Alliance System URL Michael Duffy's "The Causes of World War One"

Read this article.

6.1.3: The Summer of 1914 URL Robert Guisepi, ed.'s "Tragic War and Futile Peace: World War I"

Read this article.

6.2.1: The War in Western Europe URL The Planning of the First World War

Read this article, which provides an overview of the events of World War I.

URL Michael Duffy's "World War I Campaigns"

Read the introductions to each of the major campaigns.

URL America and World War I

Read this article, which gives a brief overview of the events that led to America's entry into World War I.

URL University of Oxford: Everett Sharp's "Trench Warfare"

In this short video presentation, historian Everett Sharp of the University of Oxford conducts a tour of original and reconstructed World War I trenches and fortifications in France. Also, he talks about the grueling nature of trench warfare along the Western Front in Europe.

6.2.2: Colonial Warfare URL David R. Woodward's "The Middle East during World War One"

Read this article.

URL Michael Duffy's "Fronts of World War I"
6.2.3: New Weapons of War URL New Weapons of War

Read this article, which provides an overview of the events during World War I.

6.3.1: Devastation of Europe URL Wallbank and Jewsbury's "Economic Disasters"

Read this article.

6.3.2: Treaty of Versailles URL Ruth Henig's "Versailles and Peacemaking"

Read this article.

URL Robert Guisepi's "Tragic War and Futile Peace: World War I, Part 2"

Read this article.

URL Woodrow Wilson's "Speech on the Fourteen Points, Jan 8, 1918"

American President Woodrow Wilson delivered this speech on January 8, 1918, less than a year after the United States officially entered the First World War I. In the speech, Wilson presents a blueprint for postwar peace and reconciliation. He argues against European colonization and asserts that colonized peoples should be able to govern themselves. Finally, he argues for the creation of a "general association of nations" in order to guarantee peace and freedom throughout the world.

6.3.3: The Postwar Settlement URL Martin Kitchen's "The Ending of World War I, and the Legacy of Peace"

Read this article.

URL Charles Townshend's "The League of Nations and the United Nations"

Read this article.

URL Encyclopedia of the New American Nation: "Mandates and Trusteeships – League of Nations Mandates"

Read this article.

Unit 6 Assessment URL World History

Review the Chapter 23 overview, and then take the 12 question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 6.

URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 28 outline, and then take the multiple-choice, true/false, and short answer quizzes on the World Civilizations: AP Edition website to assess you understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 6. Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

7.1: The Interwar Years, 1918–1938 URL World History: "Chapters 24–27"

Read the first four pages in "Period 6", from the effects of the first World War to the rise of dictatorship and totalitarianism.

URL European History: "Chapter 13, Europe: 1918–1945"

Read this chapter.

7.1.1: Social and Political Impact of World War I URL The Effects of the First World War

Read this article, which gives an overview of the economic, political, and social events of the Interwar Period.

URL The European Economy in the Interwar Period

Read this article, which gives an overview of the economic effects of the First World War.

7.1.2: Economic Depression URL Kagan, Ozment, and Turner's "The Western Heritage, Chapter 28: Europe and the Great Depression of the 1930s"

Read this brief overview.

URL Michael Adas' "One-Half Century of Crisis, 1914–1945"

Read this article.

URL European History: "The End of Optimism? The Great Depression in Europe"

Read the Introduction and the "Context" section.

7.1.3: Experiments with Liberal Democracy URL Colby College: Raffael Scheck's "Germany and Europe, 1871–1945"

Read these articles. Raffael Scheck of Colby College created this virtual textbook, which was also expanded on and published in print by Berg Publishers in Oxford. This portion of the online textbook gives an overview of the Weimar Republic, which was the given name for the parliamentary republic, established in Germany in 1919, that succeeded the imperial government.

7.2.1: The Russian Revolution, 1917 URL The Russian Revolution

Read this article.

URL Vladimir I. Lenin's "Call to Power"

Vladimir I. Lenin, leader of the radical Bolshevik Party, issued this proclamation at the beginning of the Russian Communist Revolution on October 24, 1917. In it, Lenin rallies his communist followers and tells them that they must maintain military pressure on the weak democratic government that has ruled Russia since Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne eight months earlier. At the end of the proclamation, Lenin boldly declares:

"The government is tottering. It must be given the death-blow at all costs."

Page Yale University: John Merriman's "The Romanovs and the Russian Revolution"

In this lecture, John Merriman of Yale University discusses the causes of the Russian Revolution of October 1917. He begins by talking about the failing of the Tsarist regime of Nicholas the Second and later focuses on how the Bolsheviks gained political power between the February 1917 Revolution and the October Revolution.

7.2.2: The Bolsheviks Consolidate Power URL Steven Kreis' "The Aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution"

Read this article.

7.2.3: The Rise of Stalin URL Steven Kreis' "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler"

Read this article, focusing on the section on Stalin.

7.3: Italy URL Totalitarianism, 1919–1939: "Fascist Italy"

Read this article.

7.4.1: The Origins of the Nazi Movement URL Steven Kreis' "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler"

Focus on the second half of the lecture that deals with Hitler and Nazism.

7.4.2: Hitler's Rise and Consolidation of Power URL Totalitarianism, 1919–1939: "Nazi Germany"

Read this article.

7.4.3: Race in Nazi Germany URL The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: "Holocaust Encyclopedia: Victims of the Nazi Era"

The article focuses on Hitler and the Nazi Party's ideas about race and how these ideas provided the ideological basis for the Holocaust.

7.5.1: Nationalism and Colonialism URL Wesleyan University: Bill Gordon's "Japan's March Towards Militarism"

Read this article, which discusses Japanese militarism and the Western influence on the rise of Japanese imperialism.

7.5.2: Hirohito, Tojo, and Japanese Militarism URL Susan Townsend's "Japan's Quest for Empire, 1931–1945"

Read this article.

7.5.3: East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere URL Wesleyan University: Bill Gordon's "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere"

Read this article, which contains a brief overview of the economic, cultural, and political reasons for the creation of the Co-Prosperity Sphere.

Unit 7 Assessment URL European History: "The End of Optimism? The Great Depression in Europe"

Complete the quiz and review the thought questions.

8.1: The "Gathering Storm" URL World History: "Causes and Course of the Second World War"

Read this chapter.

URL European History: "Europe: 1918–1945"

Read this chapter.

8.1.1: Italian Imperialism URL Ofcansky and Berry's "Ethiopia: A Country Study: Mussolini's Invasion and the Italian Occupation"

This article discusses the cultural, social, economic, and political state of the government of Ethiopia under Italian occupation.

8.1.2: Japanese Imperialism URL "World War II: Before the War"

Read this article.

URL F. Tillman's "The Nanking Massacre, 1937"

Read this article.

URL U.S. Army Area Handbook: "Chapter 1.04"

Read from section entitled "Republican China" through section entitled "Return to Civil War" in chapter 1.04.

8.1.3: Responses URL "Causes of World War 2"

Read this article, focusing on the "Appeasement" topic.

8.2.1: The War in Europe URL Gary Sheffield's "The Fall of France"

Read this article.

URL Helen Cleary's "Battle of the Atlantic, 1939–1943"

Read this article.

URL Laurence Rees' "Hitler's Invasion of Russia in World War Two"

Read this article.

URL Stephen A. Hart's "Liberation of the Concentration Camps"

Read this article.

URL The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: "Holocaust Encyclopedia"

These articles discuss the origins of the Holocaust, in which 6 million Jews and other minorities were killed by the Nazis, and discuss how the Nazis carried out their genocidal activities.

8.2.2: The War in Asia and the Pacific URL Bruce Robinson's "Pearl Harbor: A Rude Awakening"

Read this article.

URL Andrew Lambert's "The Battle of Midway"

Read this article.

URL David Powers' "Japan: No Surrender in World War Two"

Read this article.

8.2.3: The Allied Victory URL Richard Overy's "World War Two: How the Allies Won"

Read this article.

URL Duncan Anderson's "Nuclear Power: The End of the War against Japan"

Read this article.

8.3.1: Creation of the United Nations URL The Effects of the Second World War

Read this article.

URL The Charter of the United Nations

In the closing months of World War II, representatives from England, France, Russia, China, the United States and other nations affected by the war met in San Francisco to create a new international organization to resolve political and military disputes and promote human rights, international law, and social progress. The United Nations Charter, signed June 26, 1945, declares that signatories will "practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors", "unite our strength to maintain international peace and security", and "employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples". The Charter presents a detailed description of how the new organization will address these issues and promote international peace and prosperity.

8.3.2: United States and USSR Emerge as Global Superpowers URL The Origins of the Cold War

Read this article.

8.3.3: Reconstruction of Western Europe URL The Reconstruction of Europe after the Second World War

Read this article.

Unit 8 Assessment URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 31 outline, and then take the quizzes to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 8.

Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

URL World History

Review the Chapter 26 overview, and then take the 12-question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 8.

9.1: Restructuring Europe and Asia URL European History: "Europe: 1945 to Present"

Read this chapter.

URL World History: "Chapters 29–31"

Read sections 7, 8, and 9 under "Period 6".

9.1.1: New Political, Economic, and Military Alignments URL "The Elusive Peace: The Cold War"

Read this article.

9.1.2: The Marshall Plan and the Occupation of Japan URL "European Economic Recovery"

Read this article.

URL Wesleyan University: Bill Gordon's "The Allied Occupation of Japan"

This essay discusses the role of occupation in history and its relation to prewar practices, especially in terms of the allied occupation of Japan.

9.1.3: NATO and the Warsaw Pact URL "Cold War, 1945–1960"

This article gives a brief overview of the Cold War, citing the ideological, political, and economical differences between the United States and the Soviet Union as reasons for the onset of the war.

URL Steven Kreis' "The Origins of the Cold War"

Read this article.

9.2.1: "Wars of National Liberation" URL Robert Guisepi's "The Vietnam War"

Read this article.

9.2.2: Decolonization and Nation Building URL Decolonization in the British Empire
Read this article.
URL Stanford University: Frederick Cooper's "Citizenship between Empire and Nation: France and French Africa, 1945–1960"

This lecture discusses France's changing political and social relationship with its colonial possessions in Africa following World War II. It also focuses on France's efforts to maintain French cultural values and identities in these colonial regions despite resistance from locals who sought independence from the French international regime.

9.2.3: The Non-Aligned Nations URL "The Non-Aligned Movement: Description and History"

Read this article.

URL Jawaharlal Nehru's "Speech at the Bandung Conference Political Committee, 1955"

In this speech at the 1955 Asian-African conference of newly independent nations, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru argues that developing nations should not ally with either the United States or the Soviet Union, because such military alliances will not benefit developing nations in the Nuclear Age. Instead, developing nations should work together and pursue an independent developmental path free from burdensome alliances with pro-Communist or anti-Communist countries.

9.3.1: Atomic Arms Race URL National Science Digital Library: "The Cold War: A Brief History"

Browse these pages.

9.3.2: Revolutionary Politics in the West URL Steven Kreis "1968: The Year of the Barricades"

Read this lecture.

Unit 9 Assessment URL World Civilizations

Take the multiple-choice, true/false, and short answer quizzes in Chapters 32 and 34 to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 9.

Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

10.1: Global Society and the End of the Cold War URL European History: "Europe: 1945 to Present"

Read this chapter.

10.1.1: Fall of the Iron Curtin URL Steven Kreis' "1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down"

Read this article.

10.1.2: Reorganizing and Realigning URL Mark J. Rice's "NATO's New Order: The Alliance After the Cold War"

Read this article.

URL Wikipedia: "Effects of the Cold War"

Read this article.

10.2.1: "Chinese Democracy?": Tiananmen and Communist Rule in China URL George Washington University: Jeffrey T. Richelson and Michael L. Evans' "Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History"

This article discusses the contentious relations between the U.S. and China after the crackdown by the Chinese army at Tiananmen Square in 1989.

10.2.2: The Asian Miracle URL Economic Development in East Asia

Read this article.

10.2.3: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Republics URL George Mason University: T. Mills Kelly's "Breakup of Yugoslavia"

In this lecture, T. Mills Kelly of George Mason University discusses the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. He focuses on popular dissatisfaction with the Communist and post-Communist political regimes in Yugoslavia and efforts by ethnic nationalists to resolve centuries of political and cultural tension in the region through military force. Kelly goes into great detail about the breakup of Yugoslavia and explains the motivations of different ethnic groups involved in the decade-long conflict.

URL Robert J. Leiber's "A Contested Future"

Read this article on pages 13–20.

10.3.1: Population Growth and Immigration URL Anup Shah's "Stress on the Environment, Society, and Resources?"

Read this article.

10.3.2: Economic Inequalities URL Gresham College: Avinash Persaud's "Will the US Easily Relinquish Economic and Political Power to China and India in the 21st Century?"

Listen to this lecture.

10.3.3: Technology, Information Flow, Development, and Globalization URL The Nation: Kirkpatrick Sale's "Lessons from the Luddites"

In this thought-provoking article, journalist and social commentator Kirkpatrick Sale addresses the place of technology and industrialization in the modern global society. Sale argues that technology is not neutral and can have a detrimental impact on society. Similarly, industrialization is a cataclysmic process that always leads to social turmoil and destruction. He argues that people have a moral responsibility to take a stand against mindless industrialization and challenge the assumptions of pro-technology and pro-industry advocates. In doing so, society will be able to ensure social stability, economic equality, and environmental reform.

Unit 10 Assessment URL World Civilizations

Review the Chapter 36 outline, and take the multiple-choice, true/false, and short answer quizzes to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 10.

Unfortunately, the original provider for this quiz has rearranged the site in such a way that Submit Answers for Grading button does not work and no longer indicates the correct answers. This quiz should be fairly straightforward and easy for students with a good understanding of the course materials. Therefore, you should use this quiz as a self-assessment of how comfortable you feel with the material before you move forward.

URL World History

Review the Chapter 32 overview, and then take the 12 question "self-check" multiple-choice quiz to assess your understanding of the subjects covered in Unit 10.

Course Feedback Survey URL Course Feedback Survey