Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page Course Terms of Use
1.1: Introduction to Biology URL Concepts of Biology: "The Process of Science"

Are you ready to dive into the study of science? First, you'll need to understand the scientific method used in scientific inquiry.  Read all of the material at the link above. Make sure you complete the Section Summary on this page, and be sure to complete the Art Connections, Review Questions and Free Response sections. Now is a great time to start a biology notebook to write down the terms and concepts you learn throughout the course. 

URL Modern Biology: "Introduction to Modern Biology"

Click "Enter Course" on this page, and read "Introduction to Modern Biology". You may wish to create a username and password this website, so you will not have to login as a guest each time.

1.2: Biology Systems and Water File Douglas Wilkin and Niamh Gray-Wilson's "Characteristics of Life - Advanced"

In this chapter you will explore the characteristics of living organisms, and identify characteristics common among all living organisms.  At the end of the chapter, take a few moments to consider the "Explore More" section and the review questions. Write your answers and any additional questions that may arise in your notes.

Page University of California, Berkeley: Jennifer Doudna's "Biology 1A-Lecture 1"

Watch this lecture. At the 30-minute mark, the lecturer misspeaks and says that "thymus enlarges." The thymus is a small organ in the upper chest involved in the immune system. The lecturer meant to say "thyroid" when referring to a goiter in the neck. The last portion of the lecture (properties of water) will be covered later on in unit 3.

2.1: Atoms and Molecules Page Khan Academy: "Atoms and the Elements"

Watch these lectures for an introduction to the atom and a discussion about the relationship between atoms and elements. Pay attention to the periodic table. What does it represent?

Page Khan Academy: "Orbitals and Electron Configurations"
Atoms have a specific structure that determines their behavior in an element or compound. Watch these lectures to gain a better understanding of orbitals and the structure of an atom.
Page Khan Academy: "Electron Configurations and Valence Electrons"

Watch these lectures to learn about electron configuration and valence electrons. In the second video, you will have the opportunity to work step-by-step examples to determine electron configuration. Knowledge of electron configuration allows you the opportunity to understand how elements will react with other elements.

URL Biology: "Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks"

Read the introduction to chapter 2, and then click "Next" to read the "Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks" section, which gives an overview of atoms and elements and reviews bond types formed between atoms. Be sure to complete the Art Connections, Review Questions and Free Response sections.

Page Khan Academy: "Atomic Bonding and Balancing Chemical Equations"

Now that you have learned about atoms and their structures, it is time to learn about the different ways that atoms bond together. Watch these lectures to learn about the details of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds, and how to balance chemical equations.

2.2: Thermodynamics URL Concepts of Biology: "Energy and Metabolism"

Energy is a basic process common among all living organisms. Read this section to learn how energy flows through a living system and how enzymes catalyze chemical reactions. Be sure to complete the Art Connections, Review Questions and Free Response sections.

Page Khan Academy: "First Law of Thermodynamics/Internal Energy"

Watch this lecture to review the first law of thermodynamics and its importance to living organisms.

3.1: Water and Organic Molecules URL Biology: "Water"

Water is one of the most important compounds on Earth, since no living organisms can survive without water. Understanding the unique properties of water is very important for the study of biology. Read this section, and be sure to complete the multiple choice and free response questions at the end of the section.

3.2: Acids and Bases Page Khan Academy: "pH, pOH, and pKw"

The hydrogen ion concentration of biological systems can be measured using the pH scale. Watch this lecture to learn about the pH scale and how it affects biological systems.

URL Modern Biology: "Electrolytes and pH"

Read this section and complete the "Did I Get This" activity at the end of the section. How can the pH measurements of acidic and basic solutions affect living organisms?

Page Khan Academy: "Acids and Bases"

Watch this lecture to learn about acids and bases, and how they relate to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

3.3: Biological Macromolecules Page University of California, Berkeley: Jennifer Doudna's "Biological Macromolecules"

Watch this lecture to review biological macromolecules and their role in biological organisms.

URL Biology: "Chapter 3: Biological Macromolecules"

Biological macromolecules are the raw ingredients that allow living cells to exist and survive. Read the introduction, and then click "next" to also read sections 3.1 to 3.5, "Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules", "Carbohydrates", "Lipids", "Proteins", and "Nucleic Acids". Make sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions at the end of each section

4.1: Transport and the Cell Membrane URL OpenStax College: "The Cell Membrane"

The cell membrane is an important part of the cell that offers protection of the cellular contents, and monitors all components that enters and exits the cell. Read this overview of the cell membrane and note the process of transport across the cell membrane. These mechanisms will be examined in closer detail later in this unit. 

4.1.1: Membranes, Lipids, and the Fluid Mosaic Model Page University of California, Berkeley: Jennifer Doudna's "Cell Membranes"

Watch this lecture to review cell membranes and their role in cell function and survival. .

URL Modern Biology: "Lipids"

Read this section, and then complete the "Learn by Doing" activity and watch the animations. Also complete the "Did I Get This" activity.

URL Modern Biology: "Fluid Mosaic Model"

Read the "Fluid Mosaic Model" section. Watch the animation and complete the "Did I Get This" activity.

4.1.2: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport Page Khan Academy: "Diffusion and Osmosis"

Watch this lecture to review the movement of water and other molecules through the processes of diffusion and osmosis. Consider how these processes occur across cell membranes. 

URL Modern Biology: "Passive/Simple Diffusion"

Read this section. Try each simulation by clicking "add ink" and "begin simulation." Also be sure to complete the "Did I Get This" activity.

URL Modern Biology: "Osmosis"

Read this section and complete the "Learn by Doing" simulation and the "Did I Get This" activity.

URL Modern Biology: "Facilitated Diffusion"

Read this section, complete the simulation, and try the "Did I Get This" activity.

URL Modern Biology: "Active Transport"

Read this section, watch the animation, and complete the "Did I Get This" activities.

4.2: Cellular Organization and Organelles Page Khan Academy: "Parts of a Cell"

Watch this lecture for a visual tour of the cell. 

URL Biology: "Chapter 4: Cell Structure"

Are you ready to take an up close look at the cell? Read this chapter to review cellular anatomy, and pay close attention to the differences in animal cells, plant cells, and bacterial cells. Be sure to click "next" to read sections 4.1 to 4.6. Make sure you also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Modern Biology: "Quiz on the Cell"

Use this practice exercise to check your understanding of the functions of different organelles.

5.1: Reactions and Enzymes URL Concepts of Biology: "Energy and Metabolism"

Energy flows through all living systems, and the chemical reactions that build and break down energy-containing compounds are vital to all living organisms. Read this section to learn more about these important reactions.  Be sure to complete the multiple choice and free response questions at the end of the section.

5.1.1: Enzymes URL Modern Biology: "Enzyme Nomenclature"

Read this section to review enzyme nomenclature. Be sure to complete the "Did I Get This" activity.

5.1.2: Oxidation and Reduction Reactions Page Khan Academy: "Oxidation and Reduction"

Metabolic pathways consists of reactions known as oxidation and reduction reactions that work together to create energy in living systems. Watch this lecture to learn about these reactions, and make note of the differences between oxidation reactions and reduction reactions.

URL Modern Biology: "Redox Reactions"

Read this section. Be sure to also complete the "mini-tutor" and "Did I Get This" activities.

5.2.1: Cellular Metabolism and Fermentation URL Concepts of Biology: "Glycolysis"

Living organisms often break down glucose to create energy in the form of ATP. Read this section to review glycolysis, which is the first step in this process. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation"

Read this section to review the next steps in glucose breakdown, which is the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Fermentation"

Some organisms use fermentation to break down glucose when oxygen is not available. Read this section to review the process of fermentation. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

5.2.2: Pathways and Regulation URL Modern Biology: "Metabolic Pathways"

Read this section, which reviews the metabolic process. Complete the "Did I Get This" activity at the end of the section.

URL Modern Biology: "Regulation"

Read this section. Consider the importance of regulation and how it might be beneficial to cells. Complete the "Learn by Doing" and "Did I Get This" activities.

5.2.3: ATP and Biological Energy URL Concepts of Biology: "Glycolysis"

Read this page for a closer look at the energy-rich molecule ATP and the process of glycolysis.

Page Khan Academy: "ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate"

Watch this lecture for a review of the ATP molecule and its importance for cells.

5.2.4: Energy Storage in Metabolism URL Modern Biology: "Energy Storage in Metabolism"

Read this section. As you review, think about why energy storage would be vital to a living organism. Be sure to also complete the "Did I Get This" activity.

5.2.5: Thermodynamics URL Modern Biology: "Thermodynamics"

This section is a great review of energy and thermodynamic reactions. Be sure to also complete the "Tutorial" and the "Did I Get This" activities.

5.3: Cellular Respiration Page Khan Academy: "Cellular Respiration"

Watch these lectures to review the entire process of cellular respiration, from glycolysis to ATP generation, and the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in biological systems.

5.3.1: Glycolysis URL Modern Biology: "Glycolysis"

Read this section, which takes a deep dive into the process of glycolysis and its 'ingredients'. Be sure to also complete the "Tutorial" and the "Did I Get This" activities.

Page Khan Academy: "Glycolysis"

Watch this lecture for a tour of the process of glycolysis.

5.3.2: The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) URL Modern Biology: "TCA Cycle"

Read this section, which gives a detailed look at the Krebs/Citric Acid cycle and the chemical reactions involved in this cycle. You have probably noticed that there are multiple names for this cycle in Biology. All of these names (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle, and citric acid cycle) refer to the same process. Be sure to also complete the "Learn by Doing" and "Did I Get This" activities.

Page Khan Academy: "Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle"

Watch this lecture for a tour of the Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle. 

5.3.3: The Electron Transport Chain URL Modern Biology: "Electron Transport Chain and Phosphorylation"

Read this section, which outlines the final steps in cellular respiration. Pay close attention to the creation of ATP. Be sure to also complete the "Learn by Doing" and "Did I Get This" activities.

Page Khan Academy: "Electron Transport Chain"

Watch this lecture for a tour of the electron transport chain.

5.3.4: Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis Page Khan Academy: "Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis"

Watch this lecture for a quick review of oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis.

6.1: Overview of Photosynthesis URL Concepts of Biology: "Overview of Photosynthesis"

Plants and other photosynthetic organisms use sunlight and carbon dioxide to make their own food. Read this section for an overview of the process of photosynthesis. There are two cycles in photosynthesis: the light cycle and the dark cycle. You will explore these cycles later in the unit. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis"

Read this section to review the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "The Calvin Cycle"

Read this section to review the Calvin cycle, which is the light-independent reactions in photosynthesis. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

6.2: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration Page Khan Academy: "Photosynthesis and Photorespiration"

Watch these lectures to review the cycles of photosynthesis. Be sure to take notes about the chemical reactions that occur throughout the process and the products of these reactions. 

6.3: C-4 and CAM Photosynthesis Page Khan Academy: "C-4 and CAM Photosynthesis"

Some plants go through a modified version of photosynthesis. Watch these lectures to learn about C-4 and CAM photosynthesis. Be sure to take notes about the differences between these unique types of photosynthesis processes.

Page Khan Academy: "CAM Plants"

Watch this lecture.

7.1: The Basis of Molecular Biology URL Modern Biology: "Basis of Molecular Biology"

Read this section, which gives an overview of DNA and RNA and how these important nucleic acids are the foundation for life. 

7.2: DNA and RNA URL Modern Biology: "DNA and RNA"

Read each of the sections in Module 9. These sections give an in-depth look at DNA and RNA. Note the differences between the structures of DNA and RNA. Be sure to also complete each of the activities that accompany these sections.

7.3: Cell Division URL Concepts of Biology: "The Cell Cycle"

Read this section to learn about the cell cycle and mitosis. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

Page Khan Academy: "Mitosis"

Watch this lecture for a tour of the process of mitosis.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Prokaryotic Cell Division"

Prokaryotic cells typically reproduce by binary fission, which is much simpler than eukaryotic cell reproduction. Read this section and note the differences observed in prokaryotic cell reproduction. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

8.1: Chromosomes, Chromatids, and Chromatin Page Khan Academy: "Chromosomes, Chromatids, Chromatin, etc."
Chromosomes are unique collections of genetic material that make each of us an individual. Watch this lecture to learn more about chromosomes and their composition.
8.2: Cell Division, Meiosis, and Sexual Reproduction URL Concepts of Biology: "The Cellular Basis of Reproduction"

Read this introduction to sexual reproduction.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Sexual Reproduction"

Read this section for an overview of sexual reproduction. As you read, think about the ways that sexual reproduction benefits a species by creating diversity. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Meiosis"

The process of meiosis is unique to animals that reproduce sexually. Read this section to learn about the events that occur during meiosis. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Errors in Meiosis"

Read this section. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions. How would you describe stages of meiosis and how cells are produced? Can you explain why meiosis is needed for sexual reproduction? What are the cells involved in fertilization? How does fertilization occur?

Page Khan Academy: "Mitosis, Meiosis, and Sexual Reproduction"

Watch these lectures to see the steps of mitosis and meiosis. Note the additional step in meiosis that leads to genetic variability. 

9.1: Introduction to Genetics URL Concepts of Biology: "Patterns of Inheritance"

Read this brief introduction to genetics.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Mendel's Experiments"

Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics, and for good reason. Mendel's experiments in simple genetics provide a foundation for modern genetics. Read this section to review Mendel's laws, and spend time reviewing the figures. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Laws of Inheritance"

The laws of inheritance can be used to predict traits in offspring. Read this section to review these laws, and take time to review the figures to review the movement of traits to offspring.  Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance"

Read this section to explore the laws of inheritance in more detail. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

9.2: Heredity Page Khan Academy: "Heredity and Punnett Squares"

Watch these lectures for an explanation of inheritance and genetics. Punnett Squares are named after the geneticist Reginald Punnett, who developed the method for predicting probabilities. Work the examples to practice Punnett squares. 

Page Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Genevieve Gould's "Pedigrees"

Watch this brief lecture on pedigrees, which are the way we learn more about genetics in human populations. Pedigrees are useful in populations like these, where we cannot test in a controlled environment.

Page Khan Academy: "Sex-Linked Traits"

Watch this lecture to review the unique inheritance patterns linked to sex-determining chromosomes.

10.1: DNA Replication and Synthesis Page Khan Academy: "DNA"

Watch this lecture for a thorough review of DNA.

URL Modern Biology: "DNA Replication and Synthesis"

Read these four sections from Module 10, which cover DNA replication and synthesis. Be sure to attempt the challenge section as well.

Page The Howard Hughes Medical Institute: "DNA Replication"

Watch this brief video on DNA replication.

10.2: Transcription, Translation, and Synthesis URL Modern Biology: "DNA Transcription"

Read these three sections from Module 11, which cover DNA replication and synthesis. Be sure to complete the activities in each section.

URL Concepts of Biology: "Translation"

The process of protein synthesis begins with the process of translation. Read this section and be sure to complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

URL Modern Biology: "Protein Synthesis"

Read this section and complete the "Learn by Doing" and "Did I Get This" activities as you go.

10.3: Regulating Gene Expression URL Concepts of Biology: "How Genes Are Regulated"

Read this section, which explores the regulation of genes and how gene regulation is used in cells. Be sure to also complete the multiple choice and free response questions.

10.4: DNA Technology Page The American Museum of Natural History: "Genes and Health – Moving Beyond Race"

Watch this video and think about the topics from this course that are addressed in this project. As you watch, consider the following questions:

  • What disease are the scientists studying?
  • What is the hypothesis that the scientists hope to support?
  • What causes human genetic variation?
  • How do scientists determine ancestry?
  • In terms of asthma, what can scientists determine when they compare ancestral patterns?
  • How might these findings be used in the future?
Study Guides Page Unit 1 Study Guide: Introduction to Biology
Page Unit 2 Study Guide: Basic Chemistry
Page Unit 3 Study Guide: Biological Molecules
Page Unit 4 Study Guide: Cells and Cell Membranes
Page Unit 5 Study Guide: Enzymes, Metabolism, and Cellular Respiration
Page Unit 6 Study Guide: Photosynthesis
Page Unit 7 Study Guide: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis
Page Unit 8 Study Guide: Cellular Reproduction: Meiosis
Page Unit 9 Study Guide: Mendelian Genetics & Chromosomes
Page Unit 10 Study Guide: Gene Expression
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