Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page External Art Resources

Keep this list of links to great external art resources, collections, and libraries handy. Several activities in this course will ask you to find works of art at these links. This is by no means an exhaustive list of all the great online galleries. If you find another collection you like, let us know about it!

1.1: Introduction and Definitions URL Discussion Topic 1: Exposure to Art

Reflect on the following discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

What has been your prior exposure to visual art? Has it been primarily from your family? School? Social activities? Personal explorations? Do you make art? If so, what kind? What is the medium you use? What kind of style is it? Who is your audience? If you haven’t made any art, have you ever wanted to? What kind?

Note: You will need to create an account at discourse.saylor.org to participate in the forum. Signing up is free and only takes a moment.

Page Defining Art
Read this short article and consider how we define art.
URL Discussion Topic 2: Defining Art

Reflect on the following discussion prompt. If you wish, please post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Do you agree with the definition for 'art' as it is explained in this unit? Why or why not? Can you add to the definition? Is your definition coming from a subjective or objective perspective?

1.2: Form and Content Page Form and Content
Understanding how to identify and think about the form and content of art is a basic first step to getting the most out of the experience of visual art. Here, we will define form and content are, and begin to understand why they are important.
1.3: Aesthetics Page Aesthetics

Read this short definition of aesthetics, and how it relates to works of art.

File What is Art?

Read this section to get a better understanding of aesthetics in fine art. Pay attention to the role of aesthetics as a way of articulating ideas about art from various points of view.

1.4: Subjective and Objective Perspectives Page Subjective and Objective Perspectives

This page will help you differentiate between subjective and objective ways of looking at art.

1.5: Artistic Roles Page Artistic Roles

This article gives an overview of the social roles that art can perform.

1.6: Artistic Categories Page Artistic Categories

This article examines the distinctions between fine art, pop art, and the decorative or "craft" arts.

1.7: Artistic Styles Page Artistic Styles

The search for truth in art is not limited to making accurate representations in the classical tradition of mimesis. From viewing many of the examples which use widely different approaches, you can see how individual artists use general and identifiable styles to communicate their ideas.

1.8: Cultural Styles Page Cultural Styles
Art shapes and is shaped by cultural identity. Pay close attention, since the theme of art and identity recurs throughout this course.
Page Representational, Abstract, and Nonrepresentational Art

This article provides contrasts between representational, non-objective, and abstract styles of art. Review to make sure you understand clearly how these styles differ from each other.

1.9: Perception and Visual Awareness Page Perception and Visual Awareness

This article continues a major theme in this course: subjective versus objective analysis. An acute sense of visual awareness and perception is important for your understanding and enjoyment of art.

Artistic Process Primer URL Discussion Topic 3: The Artistic Process

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Consider replying to your classmates' posts as well.

Who makes art? Do you think artists have innate ability or acquired skill (or both)? How do artist’s roles change with different cultural considerations? Support your answers with examples, and provide any links or images that help in your explanations.

2.1: The Artistic Process Page The Artistic Process

This article is an introduction to the elements involved in creating a work of art.

2.2: The Individual Artist Page The Individual Artist

Artists work in a variety of ways. Read this section to get a sense of the individual differences in artists' style of work.

URL Discussion Topic 4: Art21

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Watch at least five short videos from Art21. Watch how they work and what they say about their process. In your post, cover the following:

  • List the artists you viewed.
  • Who surprised you the most?
  • Which artist was most concerned with the process of making the work?
  • Which artist was most concerned with creativity in the idea for their art or the work itself?
  • Which artist was most concerned with materials?
2.3: Artistic Training Methods Page Artistic Training Methods

Read this text to understand the ways people have historically trained to become artists and how artists are trained today.

2.4: Art as a Social Activity Page Art as a Social Activity
Historically, many artworks were not created by a single person, and art production today is also often the result of people working together. Read this section as an introduction to how artists collaborate with other artists as well as non-artists when producing works of art.
3.1: Objective vs. Subjective Meaning Page How We See: Objective and Subjective Means

Read this section for more on the differences between objective and subjective viewing.

3.2: The Four Levels of Meaning: Formal, Subject, Context, and Iconography Page The First Level of Meaning: Formal

When we see any object, we can immediately understand its form: the physical attributes of size, shape and mass, for instance. With art, this may at first appear to be simple: we can separate out each artistic element and discover how it is used in the work. You had practice doing this in the last two units. The importance of the formal level of meaning is that it allows us to look at any artwork from an objective viewpoint.

Page The Second Level of Meaning: Subject

Art can be grouped into specific genres, or patterns of subject matter, that are found over time. Many of them are present in some cultures, but never present in others. These differences give us another lens for finding meaning when we approach these types and patterns of art.

Page The Third Level of Meaning: Context

This article highlights the importance of understanding the context in which art is made. Pay close attention, because context, as you will have already noticed, is an important theme in this course.

Page More on Context

Read this short article and watch the video, which explores the key dimensions of context as it differs between artists and viewers. How are the contextual factors different between viewers and artists?

Page The Fourth Level of Meaning: Iconography

At a basic level, we can think of iconography as the conveyance of deeper meanings through simple visualizations. It makes use of symbolism to generate narrative, which in turn develops a work's meaning.

3.3: Critical Perspectives Page Critical Perspectives
This article discusses some of the most important perspectives in art criticism: structural, deconstructive, formalist, ideological, psychoanalytical, and feminist.
4.1: The Basic Elements Page The Point

This article is about the most basic visual element: the point.

Page The Line

When you put two or more points together, you create a line between them. Put more lyrically, a line is a "point in motion". Read about the many different types of lines and their functions in art.

Page Shapes and the Figure-Ground Relationship

This article defines what a shape is and how shapes are used to articulate figure-ground relationships in artworks.

Page Mass

This article defines mass and its significance for two- and three-dimensional works of art.

4.2: Space, Value, Color, and Texture Page The Element of Space

This section introduces the various kinds of space that artists represent in their works, and the different techniques of perspective for creating the illusion of space on a 2D surface.

Page The Element of Value

Value is the relative lightness or darkness of a shape in relation to another.

Page The Element of Color

In this article, you will discover color theory, which is used to guide the composition and combination of the colors in art.

Page The Element of Texture

Texture is the tactile sense we get from the surface of a shape or volume, such as smooth, rough, velvety, or prickly.

URL Discussion Topic 5: Objective Description and Subjective Analysis

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Find two works of art from this list of online galleries. The first work should be two-dimensional, and the second should be three-dimensional. For each one, write four sentences describing the elements present in the work using the Formalist Method. This method describes what you see in a totally objective way. Do not refer to any subject matter. Remember, be objective in your descriptions. An example might be; "The work uses a majority of organic shapes", or "It uses the complimentary colors yellow and violet for contrast".

Then, for each work, write one sentence that describes your subjective reaction. An example might be "the artwork has a chaotic feeling to it", or "looking at the work made me feel lonely".

4.3: The Principles of Design Page The Artistic Principles

This subunit explores the artistic principles, which are the means by which the elements in a work of art are arranged and orchestrated. They include visual balance, repetition, scale and proportion, emphasis, time and motion, unity, and variety.

Page Balance

Read this article to get a sense of visual balance in art, of which there are three kinds: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial.

Page Repetition
Repetition has a dual role in art: it can be used to organize and plan artistic elements, and it can help to create interest and command attention.
Page Scale and Proportion

Like repetition, the element of scale and proportion is both a planning tool for artists and adds an attractiveness that commands the attention of the viewer.

Page Emphasis
The main idea of a work of art is often expressed through the artist's treatment of the element of emphasis.
Page Time and Motion
One of the problems artists face in creating static (singular, fixed images) is how to imbue them with a sense of time and motion. Some traditional solutions to this problem employ the use of spatial relationships, especially perspective and atmospheric perspective. Scale and proportion can also be employed to show the passage of time or the illusion of depth and movement. For example, as something recedes into the background, it becomes smaller in scale and lighter in value. Also, the same figure (or other form) repeated in different places within the same image gives the effect of movement and the passage of time.
Page Unity and Variety

Ultimately, a work of art is the strongest when it expresses an overall unity in composition and form, a visual sense that all the parts fit together; that the whole is greater than its parts. Read this section to learn more.

URL Discussion Topic 6: Objective Description of Artistic Principles

Reflect on the following discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Find two works of art from this list of online galleries. The first work should be two-dimensional, and the second should be three-dimensional. For each one, write four sentences describing the artistic principles present in the work. Do not refer to any subject matter. Remember, be objective in your descriptions. Be objective in your descriptions. An example might be "the work makes an abundant use of pattern" or "this work uses asymmetric balance in its composition".

Then, for each work, write one sentence that describes your subjective reaction. An example might be "the artwork has a dynamic feel to it" or "the scale in this work disorients me".

5.1: Two-Dimensional Media Page Drawing
Drawing is the simplest, most efficient, and oldest way to communicate visual ideas.
Page Painting
When most people in Western societies think of art, painting is probably the medium that comes immediately to mind. However, did you know there are actually six major distinct painting mediums?
Page Printmaking
This article examines the three basic techniques of printmaking: relief, intaglio, and planar.
Page Collage

Read this article to understand the development of collage as a new approach to creating 2D media.

URL Discussion Topic 7: The Medium is the Message

Marshall McLuhan's quote that "the medium is the message" helps us understand the frontiers and limits of the tools we use. Artistic mediums are not only extensions of our creativity but avenues that help define changes in scale. For example, the introduction of painting extends by leaps and bounds what drawing could do. 

Using this list of online galleries, find one example of each two-dimensional medium we have covered: drawing, painting, printmaking and collage. Write a short summary of how the nature of each medium dictates the expression of the artist using it. In other words, what makes each medium unique, and how does it limit or expand what the artist is able to do with it?

5.2: The Camera URL Discussion Topic 8: Here a Photo, There a Photo, Everywhere a Photo!

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Visual information is the key in making social networking so popular. From digital cameras to mobile phones, taking pictures has become an everyday experience for most of us.

  • How often do you take pictures? 
  • What device do you usually use to take them? 
  • How much attention do you devote to composition, lighting or arrangement in your pictures? 
  • How do you use the images? 
  • How do you think you can improve your photos?
Page Early Development

This article describes the history of the development of the camera.

Page Affect on Other Media

Read this article to get a sense of how the advent of photography caused changes in the use of other two-dimensional media.

Page Form and Content

Photographers must consider form and content just as much as artists in other mediums. Read on to learn more.

Page Darkroom Processes

This section discusses the difficulties inherent in photography and detailed processes that occur in the darkroom.

Page The Human Element

Perhaps due to its ability to recreate images as the human eye would see them, the human element is an enduring central theme in photography.

Page Color Images

The use of color film changed the aesthetics of photography, which had been primarily based on black and white (greyscale) before 1935.

Page Photojournalism

Because it enables artists to replicate and reproduce many copies of reality, photography lends itself naturally to reporting on human events via photojournalism.

Page Modern Developments
Camera technology changed at a rapid pace. Barely three generations after Edwin Land invented the instant camera in 1947, smartphone companies began putting cameras (and sometimes more than one!) in phones.
Page Time-based Media: Film, Video, and Digital

This article introduces the time-based representations in art introduced by film and video, and discusses the impact that computers and digital technology have had on the visual arts through software and interactivity.

URL Discussion Topic 9: Film Study

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, please post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

The film industry is a major part of the economy and, like other artistic mediums, it reflects and anticipates the culture surrounding it, although Hollywood arguably has a culture all its own. Now, independent films (those made outside of the big Hollywood studios) are having a larger effect on audiences because they can examine themes and ideas beyond what the big studios decide to finance.

  • How often do you see a film? 
  • Do you view films in a theatre or on other digital media? 
  • What kind of films do you like; human interest stories, action films, romances, fantasy or animation? 
  • What are your thoughts on film’s role to entertain and inform? 
  • What is your favorite film? Why?  
5.3: Three-Dimensional Media Page Definitions, Processes, and Sculptures

Three-dimensional art includes much more than sculpture. This article provides an overview.

Page Types of Sculpture and Three-dimensional Media
Read this section on the main types of sculptural media. Make sure you can identify them by name.
Page Methods

This article details the major methods involved in creating three-dimensional art: carving, casting, modeling, and construction (which is sometimes also called assemblage).

Page Modern Variations of Three-Dimensional Media

Installation art and performance art are also varieties of three-dimensional art.

Page Decorative Arts

The final kind of three-dimensional art we will examine is decorative art. Reflect on how decorative art is different from the other kinds of two- and three-dimensional art that we have learned about so far in this course

URL Discussion Topic 10: Form and Content

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

For thousands of years sculpture has (literally) been the bedrock of three-dimensional art. Carved from stone or wood, or cast in bronze, so often figurative and, from a western cultural perspective, in a realistic style.

The advent of modern art in the first half of the twentieth century has radically changed the formal characteristics of sculpture and, in some cases, the content. View these three sculptures and comment on the issues of form and content in each one.

6.1: What is Architecture? Page Introduction

Architecture is the art and science of designing structures and spaces for human use. Architectural design in itself is an art form realized through considerations of spatial design and aesthetics.

6.2: Traditional Methods and Materials Page Methods and Materials

People have been manipulating materials in their local environment to create expressive dwelling-places since prehistory. Read this text as an introduction to traditional architectural methods and materials.

6.3: Architecture in China and East Asia Page Architecture in China and East Asia

This article is an introduction to Chinese and East Asian architecture.

6.4: Cross-Cultural Influences Page Cross-Cultural Influences on Architecture

This article presents several examples of how the migration and interaction of peoples from different cultures has affected architecture.

6.5: Architecture and the Industrial Revolution Page Architecture and the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution brought about new needs and new capabilities for architecture and infrastructure.

6.6: Modern Architecture: A New Language Page Modern Architecture: A New Language
Take your time reflecting on the concepts discussed in this article.
6.7: Post-Modern and Contemporary Architecture Page Post-Modern and Contemporary Architecture

Read this introduction to some of the movements in architecture today.

6.8: Green Architecture Page Green Architecture

Green architecture incorporates ecologically and environmentally sustainable practices into site preparation, materials, energy use, and waste systems.

URL Discussion Topic 11: Gone Green

Using this list of online galleries or other sources you are familiar with, research and explain three examples of sustainable technologies and 'green' architecture. These could include anything from energy production sources to architectural design and engineering or urban planning models.

What are your reactions to these examples? What is the context surrounding them? For example, how will they be used? What are the costs involved? Will they replace or interact with existing designs? Do you think they are good alternatives to traditional design?

Include images or links for each of your examples, and be sure to cite all your research sources used for the worksheet.

7.1: Identity Page Identity

In this section, we will focus on art and identity, which has been a recurring theme in this course.

File Art and Identity

Read this chapter for an in-depth discussion on this aspect of art. Make sure you can identify the ways that identity can be used as a source of material for art.

7.2: Self-Portraits Page Self-Portraits

Self-portraits indicate the artist's inward gaze and present view of themselves to the world.

7.3: The Natural World Page Nature

This article is an introduction to how the natural world has inspired artists throughout time.

7.4: Social, Collaborative, and Political Art Page Social and Collaborative Art

This article describes the role that art can play in a society and gives several examples of how artists work collaboratively.

Page Politics, Conflict, and War

The experiences of politics, conflict, and war have been represented in works of art for thousands of years. They become documents, signifiers and symbols for power, remembrance, culture, and national pride.

Page Memorials

The aftermath of war gives rise to memorials as vessels of remembrance for those who died. They are literally touchstones for families, friends, communities and entire nations to grieve. As works of art, they provide a public space of honor and resolve to never forget the lives and sacrifices made by those who go to war

Page Peace

Like so many other things we experience in our world that translate into art, those that engender ideas of peace and tranquility take many different forms. View some excellent examples in the article below.

8.1: Myths Page Myths

This article discusses art that represent mythic figures and mythological stories.

File Meaning in Art

Read sections 5.4.2.to 5.4.3 to understand more about the role of myths in art. Think about why the mythes of antiquity might have been so appealing to artists in much later periods.

8.2: Dreams Page Dreams

The influence of dreams in art is significant. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream is an example from Elizabethan literature. Dreams provide creative subject matter for visual artists, too, and play an additional role in art through ceremony and ritual.

8.3: Spirituality Page Spirituality

The art historical record is filled with works from many cultures that refer directly to spirituality.

File Art and Ritual Life

Read this chapter. How do you see practices of ritual and ceremony being different from what is usually called "religion" in discussions on art?

URL Discussion Topic 12: Art and the Spirit

Reflect on this discussion prompt. If you wish, post your thoughts on the discussion forum. Leave a reply to your classmates' posts as well!

Using this list of online galleries, find a work of art from a culture other than your own that represents a form of spirituality. Explain why you chose the work you did, and how it represents the spirit. You will need to understand the context in which the artwork was made and how it is used within the culture.

9.1: The Earliest Art Page Prehistoric Art: Paleolithic Origins

This article will help you get a sense for the way art and representation have been an inherent part of human activity since the Paleolithic period. Note the way in which paintings recovered from that time tend to revolve around the themes of game, hunting and fertility.

9.2: Art of the Ancient Near East and Egypt Page Cuneiform and the Invention of Writing

This article discusses the significance of the Ancient Near East in the development of the written word and the emergence of figural representation. Think about how the technologies of writing changed society and culture

Page Sumerian Art

Read this article about the art associated with Sumer's oldest known cities, Ur and Uruk. What do these works say about the importance and role of administrative organizations in these early societies, as reflected in their artifacts?

Page Victory Stele of Naram-Sin

This video discusses an important military victory commemorated in the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin. Think about why are military victories so important as a topic in sculpture of this time?

Page Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi

This article discusses Hammurabi's rise to power and the stele on which his legal code was inscribed. Note what new ideas begin to emerge in this time and the role of this new medium in shaping society.

Page The History of Ancient Egypt

This article covers the emergence and longevity of ancient Egyptian society and culture. Why do you think Egyptian artistic styles were so long-lasting, given what you've learned about the society and its history?

Page Egyptian Art

Read about the aesthetics and social function of Egyptian art. What were the main social roles for art in Egypt?

Page Materials and Techniques

Read about the methods and materials for producing Egyptian sculpture, and make sure you can describe the different processes involved.

9.3: Art in Ancient Greece and Rome Page Ancient Greece and Rome

This article introduces the 900-year period of Antiquity, discussing the emergence of Greece and Rome and their respective arts. As you go read, note how classical themes from antiquity will emerge in later eras, such as the Renaissance, Romanticism and Academicism.

Page Geometric Greek Krater

Watch this video about the Greek krater vase, one of this period's most abundant and well-documented artifacts. Take special note of the different styles of these vases as they evolved over time, and their many uses in daily life.

Page The Kouros

Watch this video about the Greek kouros sculptures, which represented ideas of male beauty. Think about what was new in the development of this art form.

Page Polykleitos' Doryphoros

Watch this video about Roman sculpture and its relationship to Greek precedents. Roman and Greek art are often compared with each other, given the strong influence of the latter on the former. What do you see as being similar and different in the styles of the Greeks and Romans?

Page Nike of Samothrace

Watch this video about the Nike of Samothrace sculpture and its reconstruction. How much do you think a major reconstruction of art might change the original experience and meaning?

Page Augustus of Primaporta

This video and article discusses the Augustue of Primaporta sculpture, its connection to Greek aesthetics and the Roman political context. What ideas of Roman political culture do you see being manifest in the artwork?

9.4: Art During the Middle Ages Page Early Christian Art: An Introduction

Read this excellent introduction to art and early Christianity. What do you see as the main differences between art of this era and the preceding ones?

Page Early Christian Art and Architecture After Constantine

Read this article, which discusses the importance of the legalization of Christianity by Constantine for the development of Christian art. Note the impact of the political realities on developments in art.

Page Byzantine Art: Justinian and His Attendants

Watch this video, which discusses of a mosaic in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna. "Byzantine art" refers to art that bears the influence of the Byzantine Empire's Christian art style. Mosaic was one of the preferred mediums of Byzantine art. Reflect upon the formal qualities of this art form, asking why it might have been a medium of choice for Christianity in its early stages.

Page 'Barbarian' Art

Read this article to get a sense of the different populations in Europe during the Middle Ages, and to gain an understanding of the meaning of the word "Barbarian."

Page Fibulae

Read this article to learn about the formal qualities associated with Barbarian art through examples of one of its common artistic objects: the brooch.

Page Ottonian Art: St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim (1001-1031)

This article explores the cultural and artistic developments in the Saxon Empire. What forms remind you of Barbarian art and what forms remind you of Roman art? What historical background can help explain the varied elements of style present in Ottonian art and architecture?

Page Romanesque

The name gives it away: Romanesque architecture is based on Roman architectural elements. The rounded Roman arch is the literal basis for structures built in this style.

Page Gothic Art: Jamb Figures, Chartres

Read this article to understand the role that some forms of sculpture played in Gothic architecture. How does sculpture of this period differ from earlier ones?

Page English Gothic Architecture

This article discusses the architectural innovations associated with the Gothic style of architecture. Many of the advances in building techniques that took place during the Gothic period were achieved with the goals of building higher structures and creating brighter interiors.

9.5: European Art During the Renaissance Page Cimabue's Trinita Madonna and Giotto's Ognissanti Madonna

Watch this video to understand the new formal qualities that made their way into art during the transitional phase between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Page Florence in the Early Renaissance

Read this learn about the intellectual climate associated with the Renaissance.

Page Masaccio's Holy Trinity

Masaccio's Holy Trinity exemplifies the ideals of the Early Renaissance in Florence.

Page Flanders
Read this short article about Flanders, the site of another 'Renaissance' in European art.
Page Campin's Merode Altarpiece

Watch this video to get a sense for how the ideas and ideals of the Renaissance started taking shape in Northern art.

Page High Renaissance

Read this introduction to the art of the High Renaissance. What distinguishes art of this time from the earlier Renaissance periods? What new ideas are artists using at this time?

Page Raphael's School of Athens

Raphael is one of the masters of the High Renaissance. This article explains why his work is considered so significant to this period.

Page Leonardo Da Vinci's The Last Supper

Read this article and watch the video, which discuss Leonardo Da Vinci's The Last Supper, an artwork often considered exemplary in terms of its expression of High Renaissance values.

Page Michaelangelo's David

Watch this video for a description of the sculpture by Michelangelo, another master of the High Renaissance. How does his work seem to differ from that of others, such as da Vinci and Raphael?

9.6: Baroque and Rococo Art Page 1600-1700: The Baroque

Watch this video, which discusses and compares artworks from Protestant Holland and Catholic Flanders. Reflect and take notes upon how the differing religious contexts of these two regions affected the form and content of their art.

Page Baroque Art in Italy

This article explains the historical forces at play in the creation of the exuberant Baroque style in Italy during the 17th century.

Page Poussin's Landscape with Saint John and Rape of the Sabines

Watch this video to get a sense for the distinctive classicizing style of French art in the 17th century.

9.7: 18th and 19th Century European Art Page Fragonard's The Swing

Rococo is characterized by a light, erotic, exuberant style, which emerged in 18th-century France.

Page Neoclassicism

In contrast to Rococo, Neoclassical art is stark, classicizing, and idealistic.

Page Romanticism

Watch this video for a discussion of the Romantic style as it emerged in 19th-century Europe. Take note of the distinction between the Romantic style and the Neoclassical style.

Page 1848-1907: The Industrial Revolution

This video discusses various art styles associated with the rapidly-changing European societies of the second half of the 19th century. Take note of the innovations associated with Realist, Impressionist, and Post-Impressionist art.

Page Becoming Modern

Read this article, which discusses the forces that helped shape what we call "Modernism" and some of its characteristics.

9.8: Modern Art: Realism vs. Academic Art Page Realism

Read this article to get a sense of why, how, and when Realism emerged as an artistic movement.

Page Courbet's A Burial at Ornans

Watch this video on an important Realist work by Courbet. What makes this work an especially good example of the Realist movement in art?

Page The Stonebreakers

Read this article to get a sense of why Realism is considered a socially-conscious artistic movement.

Page Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass)

After Courbet, Manet is historically the most significant Realist painter. Watch this video about one of his works.

Page Édouard Manet's Olympia

Watch this video and read the accompanying article. They discuss an important artwork by the Realist painter Manet. Take note of its modern characteristics, as well as how it was received by its contemporary audience.

9.9: Impressionism Page Impressionism

This article introduces Impressionism, which was the movement that emerged after Realism. What were the main ideas that drove the development of this new artistic movement?

Page Monet's Rouen Cathedral Series

Watch this video, which discusses a series of paintings done by artist Claude Monet that are good representatives of the Impressionist movement as a whole.

Page Renoir's Moulin de la Galette
Watch this video about a historically significant Renoir painting. A still image of 'Moulin de la Galette' has been provided so that you may study the points made in the video more closely.
9.10: Post-Impressionism Page Post-Impressionism: Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884

Watch this video, which discusses an artwork by Georges Seurat. What characteristics of A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 can be considered reactions to Impressionism?

Page Van Gogh's Portrait of Joseph Roulin

Take note of the discussion of structure and color in Van Gogh's Portrait of Joseph Roulin.

Page Cézanne's Still Life with Apples

Watch this video and read the article, both of which discuss an artwork by the Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne. Take note of Cézanne's relationship to older artistic traditions, how he at once reflected on visual traditions (including Impressionism) and innovated through form.

Page Gauguin's Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel)

Watch this video, which discusses artwork by Post-Impressionist painter Paul Gauguin. According to Beth Harris and Steven Zucker, how is Gauguin's use of color innovative?

9.11: The Early 20th Century URL A Beginner's Guide to Fauvism
Read this article for an introduction to Fauvism.
URL Italian Futurism: An Introduction

Read this article on Futurism in Italy, and then be sure to check out several of the other articles and videos about Futurism and Dadaism in the context of World War I.

URL Art Between the Wars

Read and watch all the materials on this page related to surrealism, Latin American modernism, and American art through World War II.

9.12: World War II and Beyond Page Art in Nazi Germany

Read this article about the influence of Nazi Germany on the art historical record, and how the concepts of decadent art was used to promote a state-sanctioned view of art.

URL Abstract Expressionism and the New York School

Read and watch the resources on this page about Abstract Expressionism and the New York School. Make sure you that you focus on the ideas that informed the artists associated with this movement.

URL Architecture

Read and watch all the material on this page, which covers architecture after World War II. Pay attention especially to historical periods and geographic contexts.

Study Guides and Review Exercises Page Unit 1 Study Guide and Review: Defining Art
Page Unit 2 Study Guide and Review: Who Makes Art – Process and Training
Page Unit 3 Study Guide and Review: How Art Speaks – Finding Meaning
Page Unit 4 Study Guide and Review: How Art Works – The Elements and Principles of Visual Language
Page Unit 5 Study Guide and Review: Artistic Media
Page Unit 6 Study Guide and Review: Architecture
Page Unit 7 Study Guide and Review: Our World – Nature, the Body, Identity, Sexuality, Politics, and Power
Page Unit 8 Study Guide and Review: Other Worlds – Myths, Dreams, and Spirituality
Page Unit 9 Study Guide and Review: Art in Time and Place – The Western World
Optional Course Evaluation Survey URL Optional Course Evaluation Survey
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ARTH101 Images File Banksia coccinea

Banksia coccinea (Illustrationes Florae Novae Hollandiae plate 3)

This image is in the public domain.

File Young Hare

Albrecht Durer, Young Hare, c. 1505, gouache and watercolor on paper.

This image is in the public domain.

File Imperial Portrait of Emperor Xianfeng

咸丰皇帝朝服像

Imperial Portrait of Emperor Xianfeng, China, c. 1855. Palace MuseumBejing.

This image is in the public domain.

File Bust of Nefertiti

Egyptian, Bust of Nefertiti, painted sandstone, c. 1370 BCE, Neues Museum, Berlin.

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Nina Aldin Thune, and the original version can be found here.

File Gandhara Buddha

Gandhara Buddha from India

This image is in the public domain.

File Mona Lisa

Leonardo Da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503-19. Oil on poplar. 30,” The Louvre, Paris.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Public Mural, Seattle

Public Mural, Seattle.

The material abovehas been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without the explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Street handbills

Street handbills.

The material above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Ceramic Bowl, Mexico

Ceramic bowl, Mexico. Date unknown. Painted clay. Anahuacalli Museum, Mexico City.

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. It is attributed to Alejandro Linares Garcia and the original version can be found here.


File Landscape, New Mexico

Marsden Hartley, Landscape, New Mexico, about 1916. Pastel on paper. The Brooklyn Museum, New York.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Roman Bust of Sappho

Roman bust of Sappho. Capitoline Museum, Rome.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File African mask photo by Cezary Piwowarski

African mask photo by Cezary Piwowarski.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Cezary Piwowarski, and the original version can be found here.

File Casco y collera de lobo tlingit (M. América, Madrid) 01

Casco y collera de lobo tlingit (M. América, Madrid) 01

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Louis Garcia, and the original version can be found here.

File A Vanitas

A Vanitas, by Edward Collier

This image is in the public domain.

File Page from the Book of Kells

Page from the Book of Kells, around 800 CE. Trinity College, Dublin. 

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Sequence

Arne Quinze, The Sequence, 2008. Wood. Installed at the Flemish Parliament Building, Brussels.  

This image in the public domain.

File Veil of Venus

Veil of Venus. 

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Foggy Landscape

Foggy Landscape. 

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Gold Mask

Gold Mask

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Xuan Che and the original version can be found here.

File Migrant Mother

Dorthea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936. Photograph. Farm Security Administration collection, U.S. Library of Congress.

This image is in the public domain.

File The Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.

Photo by Jeff Kubina

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Jeff Kubina, and the original version can be found here.

File Franzi in Front of a Carved Chair

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Franzi In Front of A Carved Chair, 1910, oil on canvas, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File La Parade de Cirque

Georges Seurat, La Parade de Cirque, detail, 1887-89.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

This image is in the public domain.

File Lightning Storm Over Boston

Lightning Storm Over Boston, NOAA.

This image is in the public domain.

File Las Meninas

Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas, 1656, oil on canvas, 125.2" x 108.7", Prado, Matrid

This image is in the public domain.

File Laocoon Group

Laocoon Group, Roman copy of Greek original, Vatican Museum, Rome.

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Marie-Lan Nguyen.

File Straight or Classic Lines

Straight or Classic Lines

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Expressive or Organic Lines

Expressive or Organic Lines

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Outline or Contour Line

Outline or Contour Line

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Cross Contour Lines

Cross Contour Lines

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Hatch Lines

Hatch Lines

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Cross-Hatch Lines

Cross-Hatch Lines

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Jagged Line - Meandering, Organic Line

Jagged Line - Meandering, Organic Line

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Ways of Creating Shapes

Ways of creating shapes

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Implied Planes on a 2-dimensional Surface

Implied Planes on a 2-dimensional Surface

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, Peter Breughel the Elder, 1558. Musee des Beaux-arts, Brussels.

This image is in the public domain.

File Eve After the Fall

Eugene Delaplanche, Eve after the Fall, 1869. Marble. Musee d’Orsay, Paris.

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Rama, and the original version can be found here.

File Gedenkfigur Kamerun

Gedenkfigur Kamerun. Berlin-Dahlem

Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

File One Point Perspective

One Point Perspective

HL = horizon line.  VP = vanishing point

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File The Last Supper

Leonardo da Vinci, 'The Last Supper,' 1498. Fresco.Santa Maria della Grazie.

Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

File Two Point Perspective

Two Point Perspective

The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Three Point Perspective

Three-point perspective (with vanishing points above and below the horizon line shown at the same time).

Terms of Use: Design by Shazz, licensed under Creative Commons

File Third Court of the Topkapi Palace

Third Court of the Topkapi Palace, from the Hunername, 1548. Ottoman miniature painting. Topkapi Museum, Instanbul.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Castle at La Roche Guyon

George Braque ‘Castle at La Roche Guyon’ 1909 Oil on canvas. Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Sunblind

Juan Gris, The Sunblind, 1914, Gouache, collage, chalk and charcoal on canvas. Tate Gallery, London.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Brancusi's Studio

Edward Steichen, Brancusi’s studio, 1920. Metropolitan Museum, New York

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Value Scale

Value scale

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Two-Dimensional Shapes

Two-dimensional shapes

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File With Value

With value, the shapes take on the illusion of three-dimensional forms

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Guiditta Decapitates Oloferne

Caravaggio, Guiditta Decapitates Oloferne, 1598, oil on canvas. National Gallery of Italian Art, Rome

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Visible Light Spectrum

The Visible Light Spectrum

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File The Visible Light Spectrum 2

The Visible Light Spectrum

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File The Color Wheel

The Color Wheel

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Additive Color

Additive Color

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Subtractive Color

Subtractive Color

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Hue and Value

Hue and Value

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Chroma

Chroma

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Analogous Colors

Analogous Colors

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Sets of Warm/Cool Pairs

Sets of Warm/Cool Pairs

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Complementary Colors

Complementary Colors

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Split Complementary Color Scheme

Split complement color scheme: yellow, violet blue and violet red

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Color Subtraction Example

A color subtraction example where the same orange hue appears more yellow against a red background

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Color Shift Example

Color Shift Example

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Self Portrait, Vincent van Gogh

Self Portrait, Vincent van Gogh, 1889, oil on canvas. Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Still Life in the Artist's Studio

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in the Artist’s Studio, 1837

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Balance

Balance

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Examples of Visual Balance

Examples of Visual Balance

Left: Symmetrical. Middle: Asymmetrical. Right: Radial.

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder

File Moon Jellyfish

Moon Jellyfish, digital image, Luc Viator

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Luc Viator, and the original version can be found here.

File Madonna of Humility

Sano di Peitro, Madonna of Humility, c.1440, tempera and tooled gold and silver on panel. Brooklyn Museum, New York.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Gateway Arch

Eero Saarinen, Gateway Arch, 1963-65, stainless steel, 630’ high. St. Louis, Missouri.

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Eero Saarinen, and the original version can be found here.

File Tilted Spheres

Richard Serra, Tilted Spheres, 2002–04, Cor-ten steel, 14’ x 39’ x 22’. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, Canada.

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Richard Serra, and the original version can be found here.

File Poster from the Library of Congress Archives

Poster from the Library of Congress Archives

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Still Life with Apples and Grapes

Claude Monet, Still Life with Apples and Grapes, 1880, oil on canvas. The Art Institute of Chicago.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Shinagawa on the Tokaido

Hiroshige, 'Shinagawa on the Tokaido,' ukiyo-e print, after 1832.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Reclining Figure

Henry Moore, Reclining Figure, 1951. Painted bronze. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo by Andrew Dunn.

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Henry Moore, and the original version can be found here.

File Tibetan Mandala of the Six Chakravartins

Tibetan Mandala of the Six Chakravartins, c. 1429-46. Central Tibet (Ngor Monestary).

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Australian Aboriginal Softwood Coolamon

Australian aboriginal softwood coolamon with acrylic paint design

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Malila Diptych

Alfredo Arreguin, Malila Diptych, 2003. Washington State Arts Commission

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Alfredo Arreguin.

File Pieta

Michelangelo, 'Pieta', 1499, marble. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Stanislav Traykov, and the original version can be found here.

File The Third of May, 1808

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, 'The Third of May, 1808', 1814. Oil on canvas. The Prado Museum, Madrid

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Eadweard Muybridge, sequences of himself throwing a disc, using a step and walking

Eadweard Muybridge, sequences of himself throwing a disc, using a step and walking

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Fujimi Fuji View Field

Fujimi Fuji View Field in the Owari Province

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Self Portrait Under the Influence of Morphine

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 'Self Portrait Under the Influence of Morphine', around 1916. Ink on paper.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Standing Nude with Drapery

Gaston Lachiase, 'Standing Nude with Drapery', 1891. Graphite and ink on paper. Honolulu Academy of Arts.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Charcoal

Left: vine charcoal sticks. Right: compressed charcoal squares.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Pastels

Pastels

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Clementina, and the original version can be found here.

File Flag

Jasper Johns, 'Flag', encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to eschipul, and the original version can be found here.

File The Crevole Madonna

Duccio, 'The Crevole Madonna', c. 1280. Tempera on board. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena, Italy

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Crevole Madonna Detail

The Crevole Madonna Detail

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Dante's Divine Comedy

Domenico di Michelino, 'Dante’s Divine Comedy', 1465, buon fresco, the Duomo, Florence, Italy

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Flowers in a Vase

Jan Brueghel the Elder, 'Flowers in a Vase', 1599. Oil on wood. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien, Germany.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Cityscape #1

Richard Diebenkom, 'Cityscape #1'

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to rocor, and the original version can be found here.

File Watercolor and Light

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Wash versus Dry Brush

Examples of watercolor painting techniques: on the left, a wash. On the right, dry brush effects

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Boy in a Red Vest

Paul Cezanne, 'Boy in a Red Vest', c. 1890. Watercolor on paper

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Basic Printmaking Techniques

An illustration of the basic techniques used in printmaking

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Bar

Carl Eugene Keel, 'Bar', 2006. Woodcut print on paper

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Carl Eugene Keel, and the original version can be found here.

File Boathouse

Christopher Gildow, 'Boathouse', 2007, from the Stillaguamish Series. Reduction woodcut print

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Correccion

Francisco Goya, 'Correccion', 1799. Etching on paper

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain. Private collection, used by permission.

File Lithographic Stone

Lithographic stone is on the left with the negative image. Printed positive image is on the right

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under a GNU Free Documentation License. Image by Chris73.

File A Brush for the Lead

Currier and Ives, 'A Brush for the Lead; New York Flyers on the Snow', 1867. Lithograph. Library of Congress

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File TeeshirtCopyleft Cadre

TeeshirtCopyleft Cadre

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Meul, and the original version can be found here.

File Seattle Mural

Paul Horiuchi, 'Seattle Mural', 1962. Glass mosaic. The Seattle Center

Terms of Use: This imageis licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Joe Mabel, and the original version can be found here.

File Apertures

1. Large aperture. 2. Small aperture.

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Dicklyon, and the original version can be found here.

File Boulevard du Temps

Louis Daguerre, 'Boulevard du Temps', 1838

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey

William Henry Fox Talbot, 'Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey', 1835. Photographic print. National Museum of Photography, Film and Television collection, England

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Portrait of Ellen Terry

Julia Margaret Cameron, 'Portrait of Ellen Terry', 1864. Carbon print. The Royal Photographic Society, United Kingdom

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Paolo and Francesca

George Frederic Watts, 'Paolo and Francesca', c. 1865. Oil on canvas.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Safelight Used in the Darkroom

Safelight used in the darkroom

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License (HTML).  It is attributed to Douglas Whitaker and the original version can be found here.

File Photograph of the body of water with dodge and burn text overlaid

Photograph of the body of water with dodge and burn text overlaid in order to give an example of the two effects

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Taos Pueblo

Ansel Adams, 'Taos Pueblo', 1942. Black and white photograph. Collection of the National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Conf Dead at Chancellorsville

Conf Dead at Chancellorsville

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Landing Craft at Omaha Beach

Robert F. Sargent, 'Landing Craft at Omaha Beach', June 6, 1944. Black and White photograph. United States Coast Guard photo

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Polaroid SX-70 Instant Camera

Polaroid SX-70 Instant Camera

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Cburnett and the original version can be found here

File Golden Gate Bridge Retouched

Golden Gate Bridge Retouched

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to David Ball, and the original version can be found here.

File Sequence of a Horse Jumping

Eadweard Muybridge, 'Sequence of a Horse Jumping', 1904

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Visitation

Jacopo Pontormo, 'The Visitation', 1528, oil on canvas. The Church of San Francesco e Michele, Carmignano, Italy

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Venus of Willendorf

'Venus of Willendorf', c.25,000 BCE. Natural History Museum, Vienna

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License (HTML).  It is attributed to Oke and the original version can be found here.

File Banteay Srei Bas-Relief

Bas-relief sculpture at the temple Banteay Srei, Angor, Cambodia. 10th century. Sandstone

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. It is attributed to Christophe Archambault, and the original version can be found here.

File Supernatural Mask

Supernatural Mask

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Adam Collins, and the original version can be found here.

File David

Michelangelo, 'David', 1501, marble, 17’ high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to David Gaya, and the original version can be found here.

File William Seward

Richard Brooks, 'William Seward', bronze on stone pedestal, c. 1909

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Jimi Hendrix

Daryl Smith, 'Jimi Hendrix', 1996, bronze. Broadway and Pine, Seattle

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. It is attributed to David Herrera, and the original version can be found here.

File Fountain

George Tsutakawa, 'Fountain'. Bronze, running water. City of Seattle

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Tom Magliery, and the original version can be found here.

File Embankment

Rachel Whiteread, 'Embankment', 2005.

The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.  It is attributed to Fin Fahey, and the original version can be found here.

File Saarinen Tulpanstolen

Saarinen Tulpanstolen

The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Holger Ellgaard, and the original version can be found here.

File Shaker Style Staircase

Shaker style staircase, Pleasant Hill, Kentucky. Photo by Jack Boucher, National Parks Service

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Antique Tabriz Persian Carpet

Antique Tabriz Persian Carpet

The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Nazmiyal, and the original version can be found here.

File Sioux Tobacco Bag

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Cinerary Urn

Cinerary Urn, Roman. C. 1st century CE. Blown glass. National Archaeological Museum, Spain. Photo: Luis Garcia Zaqarbal

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Luis Garcia Zaqarbal, and the original version can be found here.

File The Holy City

Louis Comfort Tiffany, 'The Holy City', stained glass window, Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, Baltimore, Maryland. 1905

Terms of Use: The image above has been reposted by the kind permission of James G. Howe.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Chair

Henry van de Velde, Chair, 1895. Wood, woven fiber

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Chris73, and the original version can be found here.

File Ant Chair

Arne Jacobsen, 'Ant Chair', 1952. Steel and wood

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Arkines, and the original version can be found here.

File Turkman Woman and Yurt

Turkman woman standing at the entry to a grass and hide covered yurt. Collection of the Library of Congress Prints and Images File

Terms of Use: This image is not to be reproduced for commercial purposes.

File Restoration of Interiors, Catalhoyuk, Turkey

Restoration of interior, Catalhoyuk, Turkey

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Catal_H%C3%BCy%C3%BCk_Restauration_B.JPGThe image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Stipich Bela, and the original version can be found here.

File Stonehenge from the Northeast

Stonehenge from the Northeast

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Post and Lintel Support in Contemporary Use

Post and Lintel Support in Contemporary Use

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Greek and Roman Capitals

Greek and Roman Capitals. Top row:  Tuscan (L), Doric (R). Middle Row: Ionic. Bottom Row: Corinthian (L) and a composite Ionic Corinthian (R)

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Athenes Parthenon

2006 01 21 Athènes Parthénon

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.  It is attributed to Harietta171, and the original version can be found here.

File Floor Plan of the Parthenon

Floor Plan of the Parthenon

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Colonnade at St. Peter's Square

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 'Colonnade at St. Peter’s Square', the Vatican. 1656-67. Photo by D.F. Malan

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File Contemporary Colonnade

Contemporary colonnade

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File The Colosseum

'The Colosseum', Rome, Italy. 1st Century CE. Photo: David Iliff

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License. It is attributed to David Iliff, and the original version can be found here.

File Roman Aqueduct

'Roman Aqueduct', c. 1st century CE

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File Dome of the Pantheon

'Dome of the Pantheon with oculus', Rome. 126 CE

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Dennis Jarvis, and the original version can be found here.

File Arc Boutant Eglise Saint Denis

Arc Boutant Eglise Saint Denis

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Church of St. Dennis

'Church of St. Denis', France. 7th -12th centuries CE

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to MOSSOT, and the original version can be found here.

File Doges Palace

'The Doges Palace', 1309 CE, viewed from St. Mark’s Square, Venice, Italy

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Emustonen, and the original version can be found here.

File Doges Palace

'The Doges Palace', 1309 CE, viewed from St. Mark’s Square, Venice, Italy

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Emustonen, and the original version can be found here.

File The Great Wall of China at Badaling

Samxli, 'The Great Wall of China at Badaling', China, begun 5th century BCE, Stone

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. It is attributed to Samxli, and the original version may be found here.

File Zhaozhou Bridge

Li Chun, 'Zhaozhou Bridge', China. Stone. 595 CE

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Hall of Divine Might

Saad Akhtar, 'Hall of Divine Might', located in the Forbidden City, Beijing

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. It is attributed to Saad Akhtar, and the original version can be found here.

File Sagami Temple, detail

663highland, 'Sagami Temple', detail, 745 CE, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to 663highland, and the original version can be found here.

File Silk Road Map

Silk Road Map

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Dome of the Rock

David Baum, 'Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount', Jerusalem. 5th century CE

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to David Baum, and the original version can be found here.

File Dome of the Rock, Wall Detail

Wayne McClean, 'Dome of the Rock', wall detail, Jerusalem

Terms of Use: This image  is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Wayne McClean, and the original version can be found here.

File The Louvre Pyramid

Nick Rossino, 'The Louvre Pyramid', 1989, I.M. Pei

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Nick Rossino, and the original version can be found here.

File The Eiffel Tower

Benh Lieu Song, 'The Eiffel Tower', 1889. Gustave Eiffel. Iron, wood and glass, Paris

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Benh Lieu Song, and the original version can be found here.

File Reinforced Concrete Structure

Rebar being set in place for the foundation of a sewage treatment plant pump station

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. It is attributed to Argyriou, and the original version can be found here.

File Prudential Building 1

Louis Sullivan, 'The Prudential Building', (Also known as the Guaranty Building), 1894, Buffalo, NY. Photo: Jack E. Boucher. Collection Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives, Library of Congress

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Prudential Building 2

Louis Sullivan, 'The Prudential Building', (Also known as the Guaranty Building), 1894, Buffalo, NY. Photo: Jack E. Boucher. Collection Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives, Library of Congress

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Bauhaus

Walter Gropius, 'Bauhaus', 1924, Dessau, Germany

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Schroder House

Gerrit Rietveld, 'Schroder House', 1924. Utrecht, The Netherlands

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. It is attributed to Husky, and the original version can be found here.

File IBM Plaza

J. Crocker, 'IBM Plaza', Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1971, Chicago, Illinois

Terms of Use: This image is attributed to J. Crocker, and the original image can be found here.

File Falling Water

Sxenko, 'Falling Water', Frank Lloyd Wright, Bear Run, Pennsylvania. 1937

Terms of Use: The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. It is attributed to Sxenko, and the original version can be found here.

File Guggenheim Museum

Martyn Jones, 'Guggenheim Museum', interior, New York City

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Martyn Jones, and the original version can be found here.

File Casa Batllo

Tato Grasso, 'Casa Batllo', Antoni Gaudi, 1905, Barcelona, Spain

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. It is attributed to Tato Grasso, and the original version can be found here.

File Sagrada Familia

Bernard Gagnon, 'La Sagrada Familia'

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Bernard Gagnon, and the original version can be found here.

File Portland Municipal Services Building

Steve Morgan, 'Portland Municipal Services Building', Michael Graves,1982, Portland, Oregon

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Steve Morgan, and the original version can be found here.

File Seattle Washington Urban Skyline

Seattle, Washington urban skyline

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File The Experience Music Project

Chris Gildow, 'The Experience Music Project', Frank Gehry, 2000. Seattle Washington. Detail of the west façade with the monorail passing through

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Norpark Rail Station

Hafelekar, 'Norpark Rail Station', Zaha Hadid, Innsbruck, Austria. 2004-2007

The image above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Hafelekar, and the original version can be found here.

File Ballard Branch, Seattle Public Library

Chris Gildow, 'Ballard Branch, Seattle Public Library', Bohlin Cynwinski Architects. 2005

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Green Roof, Ballard Branch, Seattle Public Library

Chris Gildow, 'Green Roof, Ballard Branch, Seattle Public Library, with skylights'

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Tjibaou Cultural Center

Fanny Schertzer, 'Tjibaou Cultural Center', Renzo Piano, New Caledonia. 1998. Detail showing wind filter

Terms of Use: The image above is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It is attributed to Fanny Schertzer, and the original version can be found here.

File Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss

Eric Pouhier, 'Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss', Antonio Canova, 1787-1793, marble. Louvre, Paris, France

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Eric Pouhier, and the original version can be found here.

File Saint Michael and the Dragon

Adrian Fletcher, 'Saint Michael and the Dragon', stone bas-relief with traces of polychrome. Early Christian period. The Louvre, Paris, France

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted with permission for educational, noncommercial use by Adrian Fletcher. It can be viewed in its original form here.

File The Nightmare

Henry Fuseli, 'The Nightmare', 1781. Oil on canvas. The Detroit Institute of Arts

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to wartberg.edu, and the original version can be found here.

File Adoration of the Lamb

Jan Van Eyck, 'Adoration of the Lamb', detail from the Ghent Altarpiece, 1432. Oil on panel

Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.


File Name of God

Hans Osman, 'Name of God', 17th century. Arabic calligraphy

Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

File Islamic Name of God and Geometric Decorative Design

Chris Gildow, 'Islamic Name of God and Geometric Decorative Design', mosaic. Mosque exterior, Mountlake Terrace, Washington

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

File Five Deity Mandala

'Five Deity Mandala', Tibet, 17th century

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Dia Tang Buddhist Temple

Chris Gildow, 'Dia Tang Buddhist Temple', exterior. Lynwood, Washington

Term of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Ogbodo Enyi (Elephant Spirit)

Chris Gildow, 'Ogbodo Enyi (Elephant Spirit)' mask, Igbo culture, Nigeria. Wood and pigment. Collection of Simon Ottenberg

Terms of Use: This image has been reposted by the kind permission of Chris Gildow. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Manua Mask

'Manua Mask', Papua New Guinea. c. 1890. 37” x 18” x 10”. Wood, sea sponge, snail apercula, pigment. Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Egyptian Scribe

Egyptian, 'Scribe', 5th dynasty (2500 – 2350 BCE), painted limestone. The Louvre, Paris

Terms of Use: This image  is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Rama, and the original version can be found here.

File Faiyum Mummy Portrait

Roman, 'Faiyum Mummy Portrait', c.1st century CE. State Collections of Antiquities, Munich

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain

File California Artist

Robert Arneson, 'California Artist', 1982. Stoneware with glazes. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Image by Geoffrey A. Landis

Terms of Use: This image  is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. It is attributed to Geoffrey Landis, and the original version can be found here.

File Wall Scroll

Ma Lin, 'Wall Scroll', 1246. Ink on silk. National Palace Museum, Taiwan

Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

File Loquats and Mountain Bird

'Loquats and Mountain Bird', Chinese, Song Dynasty (1127–1279). National Palace Museum, Beijing

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Audubon Carolina Parakeet

'Audubon Carolina Parakeet'

File Machu Picchu Archeological Site

Colby Chester, 'Machu Picchu Archeological Site', detail

Terms of Use: Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

File Machu Picchu

Martin St-Amant, 'Machu Picchu'

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Martin St-Amant, and the original version can be found here.

File Haida Totems

'Haida Totems', wood and paint, no date. Collection of the Burke Museum of Natural History, Seattle

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File NAMES Project AIDS Quilt

'NAMES Project AIDS Quilt', Washington, DC

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Ariel View of the Burning Man Celebration

'Ariel view of the Burning Man Celebration', Black Rock City, Nevada

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. It is attributed to Kyle Harmon, and the original version can be found here.

File Lammasu

'Lammasu, the Human Headed Winged Bull', Assyrian, carved stone. 721-705 BCE. Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Trjames, and the original version can be found here.

File Standing Mayan Warrior

Michel Wal, 'Standing Mayan Warrior'

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Michel Wal, and the original version can be found here.

File Emperor Qin's Terra Cotta Army

Shawn Kinkade, 'Emperor Qin’s Terra Cotta Army', China, 210 BCE

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License. It is attributed to Shawn Kinkade, and the original version can be found here.

File Uncle Sam Recruiting Poster

James M. Flagg, 'Uncle Sam Recruiting Poster', 1916. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Burning of the Sanjo Palace

'The Burning of the Sanjo Palace', detail from the Heiji monogatori scrolls. Ink and colors on paper, 13th century. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, ariel view

Maya Lin, 'The Vietnam Veterans Memorial', ariel view 1982, Washington, D.C

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, detail

Maya Lin, 'The Vietnam Veterans Memorial', detail, 1982, Washington, DC

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Female Demonstrator Offering a Flower to a Military Police Officer

'Female Demonstrator Offering a Flower to a Military Police Officer', 1967

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File The Peace Arch

Arnold C. Buchanan-Hermit, 'The Peace Arch', Blaine, Washington, 1921. 67 feet high

Terms of Use: This image is under copyright, attributed to Arnold C. Buchanan-Hermit.  The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted.

File Arc de Triomphe

'Arc de Triomphe', inaugurated 1836, Paris France

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Peace Symbol

Gerald Holtom, 'Peace Symbol', 1958

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.


File Graffiti on the Lennon Wall

Juliano Mattos, 'Graffiti on the Lennon Wall', Prague, Czech Republic

Terms of Use: This image is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Juliano Mattos, and the original version can be found here.

File Chauvet Cave Painting

HTO, 'Paintings from the Chauvet Cave'

Terms of Use: This image is in the public domain.

File Arch of Titus and Colosseum

'Arch of Titus and Colosseum', late 1st century C.E., Rome

File Pantheon

'Pantheon', completed 126 C.E., Rome

File Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

'Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus', marble, 359 C.E. Treasury of Saint Peter's Basilica

File Catacomb of Domitilla

Representation of Christ at the Catacomb of Domitilla

File Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle

File Portrait of Sophocles

Portrait of Sophocles

File Constantine's Basilica at Trier

Markus Schroeder, 'Constantine Basilica', Trier, Germany

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 License. It is attributed to Markus Schroeder, and the original version can be found here.

File Byzantine Fibula

'Byzantine Fibula', ca. 430. Metropolitan Museum of Art

File Lombardic Fibula

'Lombardic Fibula', mid-6th century. National Museum of Slovenia

File Merovingian (Frankish) Looped Fibulae

'Merovingian (Frankish) Looped Fibulae', mid-6th century, silver gilt worked in filigree with inlaid garnet and other stones. Musée des Antiquities Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

File Uta Codex

'Uta Codex (Uta Presents the Codex to Mary)', c. 1020. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

File Hillinus Codex

'Hillinus Codex (Hillinus Presents the Codex to St. Peter)', c.1020. Cologne Dombibliothek

File Hildesheim Bronze Cast Doors

Rabanus Flavus, 'Bernward of Hildesheim's Bronze Cast Doors'

Terms of Use: This image is licensed under an attribution license. It is attributed to Rabanus Flavus, and the original version can be found here.

File Romanesque Pillars, Gloucester

Richard Spanswick, 'Romanesque Pillars,' Gloucester

File Wooden Roof

Richard Spanswick, 'Wooden Roof'

File Romanesque Arcade, Southwell

Richard Spanswick, 'Romanesque Arcade', Southwell

File Naves

Richard Spanswick, 'Naves'

File Jamb Statues from Porch of the Confessors

Jedhunsaker, 'Jamb Statues from the Porch of the Confessors' pictured are Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, ca. 1220-1230. Chartres Cathedral

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

File Chartres Cathedral Doors

Connie Ma, 'The West Facade/Doors'. Chartres Cathedral

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 License. It is attributed to Connie Ma, and the original version can be found here.

File East End of Salisbury Cathedral

Richard Spanswick, 'East End of Salisbury Cathedral'

File Early Gothic Arches

Richard Spanswick, 'Early Gothic arches, Southwell Minster'

File Nave of Salisbury Cathedral

Richard Spanswick, 'Nave of Salisbury Cathedral'

File Open Tracery, Southwell Minster

Richard Spanswick, 'Open Tracery at Southwell Minster'

File Lierne Vaults Gloucester Cathedral

Richard Spanswick, 'Lierne Vaults Gloucester Cathedral'

File Gothic Windows Gloucester Cathedral

Richard Spanswick, 'Gothic Windows Gloucester Cathedral'

File Holy Trinity

Masaccio, 'Holy Trinity', 1425-28. Santa Maria Novella, Florence

File Holy Trinity, Perspective Diagram

'Perspective diagram of Masaccio's Holy Trinity'. Santa Maria Novella, Florence

File Holy Trinity Architecture

Elements of ancient architecture in Masaccio's Holy Trinity

File Madonna and Child with Two Angels

Fra. Filippo Lippi, 'Madonna and Child with Two Angels', tempera on wood, ca. 1455 - 1466. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

File Baptism of Christ

Andrea del Verrocchio (with Leonardo), 'Baptism of Christ', 1470-75, oil and tempera on panel, 70 3/4" x 59 3/4" or 180 x 152 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

File School of Athens

Raphael, 'School of Athens', fresco, 1509-11, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

File School of Athens, detail

Raphael, 'School of Athens', detail (Raphael), fresco, 1509-11, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

File Pluto and Proserpina

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 'Pluto and Proserpina', marble, 1621-22. Galleria Borghese, Rome

File Pluto and Proserpina, detail

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 'Pluto and Proserpina', detail, marble, 1621-22. Galleria Borghese, Rome

File The Swing

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, 'The Swing', oil on canvas, 1767. Wallace Collection, London

File The Swing, detail
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, 'The Swing', oil on canvas, 1767. Wallace Collection, London
File Et in Arcadia Ego

Nicolas Poussin, 'Et in Arcadia Ego', 1637-38, oil on canvas, 185 cm × 121 cm (72.8 in × 47.6 in). Louvre, Paris

File Oath of the Horatii

Jacques-Louis David, 'Oath of the Horatii', oil on canvas, 1784. Louvre, Paris

File A Bar at the Folies-Bergere

Édouard Manet, 'A Bar at the Folies-Bergère', oil on canvas, 1882. Courtauld Gallery, London

File Le Journal Amusant no 595

Charles Albert d'Arnoux Bertall, in Le Journal Amusant, no. 595, May 25, 1867. The Research Library, The Getty Research Institute

File The Stonebreakers

Gustave Courbet, 'The Stonebreakers', 1849, oil on canvas, 165 x 257 cm. Gemäldegalerie, Dresden (destroyed)

File The Gleaners

Jean-François Millet, 'The Gleaners', 1857. Musée d'Orsay, Paris

File Olympia

Édouard Manet, 'Olympia', oil on canvas, 1863. Musée d'Orsay, Paris

File Impression Sunrise

Claude Monet, 'Impression Sunrise', 1872. Exhibited at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874.

File Moulin de la Galette

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 'Moulin de la Galette', 1876, oil on canvas, 51 1/2 x 68 7/8 inches (131 x 175 cm). Musée d'Orsay, Paris

File Portrait of Joseph Roulin

Vincent van Gogh, 'Portrait of Joseph Roulin', early 1889. Museum of Modern Art, New York

File Great Exhibition of German Art

Great Exhibition of German Art catalogue cover, 1937

File Opening of Entartete Kunst

Opening of the Entartete Kunst exhibition at the Schulausstellungsgebaude, Hamburg, 1938

File Degenerate Art

Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler inspect the installation by Willrich and Hansen of the Degenerate Art Exhibition in Munich, 1937

File Judging Great German Art

Hitler and Ziegler judging the Great German Art Exhibition, 1937

File The Reunion

Ernst Barlach, 'The Reunion (Das Wiedersehen)', 1926, mahogany, 90 x 38 x 25 cm. Ernst Barlach Haus, Hamburg. Photo: Rufus46

File War Cripples

Otto Dix, 'War Cripples (45% Fit for Service)', 1920, oil on canvas, lost work

File Decathlon Athlete
Arno Breker, 'Decathlon Athlete (Zehnkämpfer)', 1936, bronze
File Haus of German Art

View of sculpture exhibited at the Haus of German Art, n.d.

File U9-GuidedObservation


File Arnolfini Portrait

Jan van Eyck, 'Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife,'  oil on panel, 1434. National Galery (London)