Topic Name Description
Course Syllabus Page Course Syllabus
1.1: Attitude and Attributes Page Human Relation: Personality

It is impossible to lead or manage people if we do not understand human relations, including psychology and sociology. This resource explores personality and attitude, individual perception, self-esteem and self-confidence, emotional intelligence, goal setting, and the effects of different types of stress. As you read, consider people you have worked with and yourself in the workplace. Try to identify individual factors that you recognize. Think of ways to work with people with some of the attributes you read about. There are also some links to a personality test you may take for your knowledge.

Book Work Attitudes

This chapter explains the difference between work attitudes and work behaviors. Our attitudes toward our job and careers affect our workplace behavior. We hear and read about having a positive attitude, but as managers and leaders, we need to know how to create an environment that fosters the attitudes and behaviors we want people to have. This text helps us understand how people's personalities and fit with their work environment affect their performance and commitment to the organization.

Book Perceptions
You may have heard the old saying "perception is reality", and to each of us, it is true. Our reactions to the world are based on our perceptions of what the world is. Sometimes our perceptions are a true reflection of what is happening outside of us, but we have all known people who have a perception that is incorrect despite their convictions. Each of us "sees" or perceives information differently, and we select, screen, organize, and interpret stimuli differently. This resource will help you understand how our perceptions and reactions affect those around us. That understanding can help us change our behaviors as managers and leaders. The concepts of job satisfaction and interpreting the causes of behavior are introduced.
Page Employee Productivity

Watch this video to learn tools and tips from a well-known company for managers, which help create a supportive environment where people feel empowered to achieve their greatest success.

1.2: Workplace Behavior Book Organizational Behavior

As managers and leaders, we must consider positive and negative work behaviors and develop tactics to achieve organizational goals. This resource discusses job performance, organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. The text also explains how the organization treats people and affects work behaviors.

Page Understanding Workplace Behaviours

Student perspectives on workplace behavior are examined in this video. Students discuss workplace behaviors they have experienced and how they can change their behaviors. They also explore what professionalism is. As you watch the video, consider how this might help managers when they interact with employees. Also, think about whether you agree with the student's observations.

Book Key Work Behaviors

This article describes work behaviors that affect job performance, organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. You will explore the factors that negatively affect work behaviors and predictors of positive behaviors.

Page Professionalism in the Workplace

This video explores professionalism as individual behavior. Think about the behaviors you exhibit in the workplace and try to think about them in the same terms as your manager. As you learn about these behaviors, keep them in mind, as the next video will be the employers' point of view.

Page Building Professionalism

Watch this video for perspectives from several employers as they consider the professional behaviors they expect from their employees. Consider these professional behaviors when you enter the workplace to ensure that you present the best side of your behaviors to your manager and colleagues.

1.3: Job Satisfaction Page Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory

This text introduces the early research of Frederick Herzberg, who studied job satisfaction in the late 1950s. While related to research on employee motivation, Herzberg was more focused on what factors are a source of job satisfaction. Interestingly, Herzberg found that dissatisfaction is not the opposite of job satisfaction. Rather, employees might not be inclined to do their best job if they worked at jobs with few satisfiers. As you go through the resources and videos, you will notice some of them look at the issues from the organization's perspective, and others look at them from the perspective of individuals or management.

Page What Makes Employees Happy at Work

Watch this video to see how the company's leaders and managers affect employees' satisfaction in their job roles. Employees seek trust, fairness, being truly listened to, and respect. When these factors are present, employees are more satisfied in their jobs. That satisfaction can translate into increased productivity and profitability for the company.

Book The Effect of Compensation

Read this study on the influence of compensation on job satisfaction in Indonesia. One thing that we need to remember is that different cultures may be satisfied by different job factors. Furthermore, we also need to consider that different types of jobs or working conditions may change the factors that affect job satisfaction. For example, a factory or a restaurant setting may give rise to different job satisfiers than a more professional office setting such as a bank.

Book Job Satisfaction of Generations X and Y

Research has focused on employees as if they were a homogenous workforce with similar desires, needs, and capabilities. While this approach may have been adequate when the first studies on job satisfaction were conducted, researchers now recognize that we should consider more criteria in professional business management. This study examines the factors contributing to job satisfaction among different generations of workers. The authors identified four indicators of professional job satisfaction: working conditions, sense of self-worth, the possibility of development, and relations with other employees.

1.4: Person-Job Fit Book Matching Employees with Jobs
Earlier, you discovered that job commitment affects employee innovation. A problem that employers may face is high employee turnover. When employees leave the firm, efficiency is lost, and employee morale drops. This study considers how employee engagement is impacted by person-job (P-J) fit and person-organization (P-O) fit. As you read, you will learn how you can align the values and goals of the employer and employee.
Book Multicultural Experience

This resource examines how employee and environmental characteristics should match in a multicultural workplace. For example, when looking for someone to fill a construction position versus an office position, you will need to use different factors to judge the person's fit.

1.5: Person-Organization Fit Book Individual and Cultural Differences
Studies have shown that businesses benefit from having employees from different cultures. This text examines the nature of culture and cultural diversity as it affects behavior in organizations. As read, consider how individual personalities can impact an organization's expressions of culture.
Book Compatibility with an Organization

Read this case study to understand how having a positive relationship with an organization produces commitment to citizenship behavior in the organization. The research suggests that organizations should clearly explain their mission and goals so individuals can determine if they will fit with the organization.

Page Keep Culture in Mind When Hiring

Watch this video to review recent high-profile sports team employee termination and learn how to better assess a job candidate's potential ability to fit in a corporation's culture.

1.6: Factors in Job Satisfaction Page The Interactionist Perspective

According to the interactionist perspective, behavior is a function of the person and the situation interacting with each other. Read this article to explore this concept, which will help you as a manager and leader to determine your actions and approach when hiring employees and making organizational decisions.

Page Determinants of Job Satisfaction
This resource explores the work organizational psychologists have done to understand job satisfaction, different styles of management, different styles of leadership, organizational culture, and teamwork.
Book The Mediating Role of Job Involvement
This study explores the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia. Consider how work characteristics in Serbia differ from those in developed countries like the United States. Studies such as this can help multinational companies manage workforces in other countries.
1.7: Decision-Making Page Understanding Decision Making

This article defines decision-making and lists ethical questions to ask yourself when making a critical decision. It also discusses different types of decisions, when to employ various decision-making approaches, and determining which decision-making process is appropriate for any given situation.

Page Groupthink in the Decision-Making Process

Read this text, which explores the effects of groupthink on the decision-making process. It includes a compare-and-contrast outline for individual decision-making and group decision-making. Pay attention to the pros and cons and the techniques associated with each. Why is groupthink an unhealthy habit for a manager or an organization?

Book Decision Making in Management

This text considers the decision-making process and differentiates analyzing a problem from decision-making. It looks at the decision-making process from the perspective of achieving the organization's strategic goals. More than steps to follow, pay attention to managers' difficulties when trying to balance strategic objectives and select appropriate alternatives. This text also takes a different perspective on decision-making styles and proposes some approaches to decision-making when the future is uncertain. Finally, it explores the idea of avoiding decisions as a conscious choice.

1.8: Decision-Making in Dynamic Business Environments Book Faulty Decision-Making
Making decisions as a manager usually involves the P-O-L-C Framework, where decisions are about Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. This resource examines common themes in faulty decisions and decision-making traps.
Page Overview of Managerial Decision-Making

Read this article for a slightly different perspective on making decisions within an organization. It looks at the different stakeholders that often have conflicting needs. Ethical decision-making is also explored.

Page Idea Meritocracy

In this video, one of the world's most successful hedge fund creators suggests that individuals should be encouraged to speak their minds, and even calling out the manager is fair game. Have you ever voiced a controversial opinion that contradicted your manager's?

Study Guide: Unit 1 URL Study Guide: Unit 1
2.1: Motivation Theories Book Motivating an Organization
Analyzing motivation allows managers to connect with people at different levels. Ultimately, the goal is to help people increase their productivity, achieve their full potential, and increase their commitment to the organization. This article will introduce you to the nine specific theories that fall into these four basic categories: job-oriented theories, behavior-oriented theories, cognition-oriented theories, and needs-oriented theories.
Book Motivating Employees
Read this resource to understand motivation in terms of the P-O-L-C framework. You will explore needs, goal-setting, and process-based theories, which consider the mental process of the employee as key to understanding their motivation.
Book Work Motivation for Performance
This resource delves into the theories of motivation and explores process theories of motivation, content theories, and newer theories of motivation. Pay close attention to social motives and their corresponding definitions.
2.2: Managing Motivation Book Retention and Motivation
Read this resource to look at the problems that employee turnover can cause. It also explores how to structure a retention policy so companies can understand why employees are dissatisfied and what can be done about it.
Page Manager's Role in Promoting Motivation
It is the manager's responsibility to determine what motivates employees as individuals. This article reviews the manager's role in the process of motivating employees.
Page Managerial Responses to Motivation
Motivating employees to accomplish the organization's goal involves various tools, such as employee recognition, employee involvement, job redesign, and variable pay. This article explains how to use employees' needs to increase motivation.
Book Decision Support Systems
Task motivation is impacted by various factors, including the perception of the task, the characteristics of the task, and the decision environment. This resource discusses how a Decision Support System (DSS), which involves data analysis in decision-making, interacts with a task's characteristics. You will explore how managers can use DSS to examine the effects of feedback and rewards on employee motivation.
Page How to Motivate Employees
Watch this video to review the psychology of motivation and tips on how managers can use leadership skills to build a culture of motivation.
2.3: Coaching and Employee Empowerment Page The Puzzle of Motivation

This video indicates that a reward-based incentive may work for routine or mechanical tasks. When creativity or problem-solving is required, the reward system is ineffective in improving performance.

Book Managed, Enabled, Empowered
When employees are enabled, they can self-direct within certain boundaries. When employees are empowered, they are completely self-directed within the organization's limits. This article examines the important connections between empowerment and innovation.
Book The Benefits of Managing Openly
To be a successful manager, you must create an atmosphere that encourages open communication so that individuals feel invested in the organization's success. Read this article to learn how open communication improves employee engagement, which leads to greater job satisfaction, reduced stress, loyalty, and mutual respect throughout the organization.
Page How to Break Bad Management Habits
If we want managers to become an organization's future leaders, how should they be trained? Watch this video to see ways organizations can coach managers as they climb the corporate ladder so that their skills development aligns with goals for the future business.
2.4: Training Page Training and Evaluating Employees

This article reiterates that employees need training to succeed and provides an overview of the 360-degree performance appraisal system.

Page Selecting and Managing Your Team: Employee Training
Companies need to develop effective training systems which can use multiple training systems. Companies also need to consider external professional development opportunities for their executive and professional employees. Read this resource to learn about the benefits of training employees. This text also mentions the value of mentoring, coaching, and team-building activities.
2.5: Performance Management Book Employee Assessment
A performance review system is an approach to assessing and encouraging positive job performance. It is a tool for development, but it also provides the basis for the company to give raises and promotions or take corrective actions. There are various evaluation methods, including rating scales, essays, checklists, critical incident appraisals, work standards approach, and ranking methods. With the management by objectives (MBO) approach, performance is measured against the goals set by the manager and employee. A narrative is included with the behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) approach for each rating. This text addresses how to design an effective performance appraisal system.
Book Performance Appraisal
Read this review of the performance appraisal process. Performance appraisals can be one of the most mishandled aspects of management. The use of performance appraisals, problems with them, and methods for reducing errors are explored.
Book Motivating Employees through Performance Appraisals

Frequent feedback on high and low performance is distinguished from the performance appraisal. This resource considers the components of an effective appraisal system and provides tools for conducting an effective performance appraisal meeting.

Page Performance Evaluation

This video argues that you should keep the annual performance review in a new form. The professor posits that any performance requiring corrective feedback should be given when the action needs to be taken.

2.6: Feedback Page Performance Evaluation: Systems and Processes

This video discusses the process of asking for feedback from our colleagues. Knowing how we receive our performance feedback from our supervisors will help us develop our feedback delivery to others. Note that this approach to coaching and receiving feedback relies on trust in the employee and their desire to perform well.

Page Giving Great Employee Feedback

Watch this video for tips on using effective management skills to deliver employee feedback. Note that it is important to focus on examples of behavior that can help employees improve their performance.

Page Closing the Loop on Feedback
Modern organizations should provide feedback promptly and in the context of the actual performance. The goal is to have the recipient implement the feedback as quickly as possible. This video discusses how traditional feedback methods are less effective in a modern and dynamic business environment.
2.7: Engaging in Difficult Conversations Page Managing poor performance

This video focuses on managing poor performance using reframing as an integral part of day-to-day management.

Page Having Difficult Conversations

Having difficult conversations is what spurs growth. Watch this video to see how we can learn how to do it with practice.

Page Difficult Conversations Made Easy

In this video, Joy Baldridge will give you tools to work with language and personality types. It points out that the future workforce must be flexible and adaptable.

Book Delivering a Negative News

This text offers the goals when delivering negative news. It also offers information on how to mitigate the risk of litigation and how to avoid polarizing terms.

2.8: Compensation, Incentives, and Rewards Book Reward Systems in Organizations
This text examines the aspects of reward systems in organizations, such as the bases of reward distribution, intrinsic vs. extrinsic rewards, the relationship between money and motivation, and pay secrecy.
Book Compensation
This text looks at salary and bonuses, benefits, insurance, long-term incentive plans, and paid expenses. Some companies offer employee stock options believing that they incentivize employees with an ownership stake in the firm to boost the company's stock price (ordinarily a function of firm performance). Managers may use some of these tools when organizational systems govern salary.
Book Positive Employee Relations with Millennials

The differences in what motivates and satisfies millennials versus baby boomers are explored in this resource. Millennials are now the largest demographic segment in the workforce, outnumbering Gen Xers and Boomers. Thus, outdated performance systems will not serve modern employees and organizations. This text explores millennials' values and characteristics and their relationship with management.

Book Compensation and Benefits

This resource reminds managers and leaders that compensation packages need to align with the company's core values.

Study Guide: Unit 2 URL Study Guide: Unit 2
3.1: Sending the Right Message Book Types of Communication
Read this resource to learn about the types of communication that communicators can use in the initial transmission phase and that receivers can use in the feedback phase.
Page Levels of Communication

The video outlines the five levels of communication: intrapersonal, interpersonal, group communications, public speaking, and mass communication.

Book Communication Channels
Read this article to see the topics we will cover in this unit.
3.2: Communicating with Followers Book Managerial Communication
In the informational role, the manager acts as a spokesperson. The manager has to act in an uncertain environment in the decisional role, which requires a longer-term view. This resource explores message encoding and decoding as well as feedback and noise.
3.3: Communicating with Leaders Book Emerging Issues in Internal Communications
This article points out the importance of how generational shifts affect internal communications. Two-way symmetrical communication will positively influence employee engagement. While some communications involve the human resources department, this study examines the use of the public relations department for internal communications. Consider what the study says about establishing commitment from employees and how expectations about communication are changing.
Page Managing Your Boss

Watch this video about managing up and establishing relationships with senior management. Bringing solutions to the table, being proactive about solving the boss's problems, and how to appropriately challenge a boss' decision are all useful tips for working with senior managers.

Book Mindfulness and Leadership
This research used surveys with leaders and followers to examine how mindfulness (which they define) impacts interactions between leaders and followers.
3.4: Encoding and Messaging Book From Assignment to Message
This resource provides strategies to ensure that your message will be delivered clearly and in the most effective format.
Book Communicating with Precision
Read this article to learn about the benefits of applying the 7 Cs to your writing.
3.5: Written Communication Book Look Good in Print
This text will refresh your memory or introduce you to the common writing rules for Standard American English. It addresses the 22 most common errors found in writing. Applying and using the fundamentals of good writing will ensure that your writing is clear, concise, and achieves your intended purposes.
Page Formal or Informal Writing

There are two main styles of writing in English: formal and informal. Read this article to understand how to distinguish these two specific styles to classify the writing accurately.

Page Spoken Versus Written Communication

This resource provides an overview of the differences and similarities between verbal and written communication. The concepts of formal and informal communication are addressed. The text also addresses how technology is used appropriately or inappropriately.

3.6: Language and Presentations Book Delivering Your Message
Language can be abstract, but our connotation or denotation lends meaning as it organizes and classifies our reality. This text reminds us of syntactic, semantic, and contextual rules of language. The use of jargon, clichés, slang, sexist and racist language, euphemisms, and doublespeak as barriers to communication is explored. The text also offers tips on improving verbal communication.
Book Presentations to Inform

Read this article to explore the elements of presentations meant to describe knowledge about a particular event, process, object, or concept.

Book Presentations to Persuade

Read this article to explore the elements of presentations meant to have the audience share a belief or feeling about a particular event, process, object, or concept.

Book Powerful Presentations

This resource offers some terrific tips on preparing to deliver a presentation.

3.7: Nonverbal Communication Book Nonverbal Communication

This section explains the principles of nonverbal communication, types of nonverbal communication, movement when giving a speech, and strategies you can use to improve your nonverbal communication.

Book Improving Verbal and Nonverbal Group Interactions

This resource explains how nonverbal communication can supplement or replace verbal communication. One thing to remember is that people tend to believe nonverbal communication more than verbal communication. It also explores time, physical characteristics, body movements, touch, paralanguage, artifacts, and environment.

3.8: Digital Communication Page Communication Models

Understanding communication models helps us see specific concepts and steps within the communication process, define communication, and apply communication concepts. As we become aware of how communication functions, we can think more deliberately through our communication endeavors and prepare for effective communication. This text discusses the transmission, interaction, and transaction models of communication.

Book Digital Leadership
Digitalization has fostered virtual organizations, and nothing has made that clearer than the shutdowns due to the Covid-19 pandemic. There have been structural changes in how leaders interact with followers and vice versa. This has changed the power dynamics between followers and leaders. This resource will introduce you to how the leader and follower roles can change situationally and examines approaches to leader-followership in the digital age.
Book Management and Communication

This article discusses the flow of information within an organization, including upward, downward, and horizontal communication.

3.9: Business Communication Page Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation

There is a relationship between good communication and getting things done. Furthermore, the right words impact the reputation of the corporation. This text emphasizes the importance of using language well to get things done.

3.10: Receiver Analysis and Decoding Page Audience Analysis

Although primarily focusing on giving a speech, the process of audience analysis that it follows is helpful for any communicator. This text addresses language, values, ethnocentricity, psychological attributes, beliefs, and demographics. It also addresses some of the inferences we make about our audience. Pay particular attention to table 5.1, which is about tailoring a speech to demographic characteristics.

Page Connecting with the Audience

This resource provides a scenario to apply the information as you read. It points out the importance of self-awareness and how it affects you as a communicator and addresses tailoring your message to the specific audience, and addresses perceptual strategies.

Book Group Communication Theory
This resource will help you group your audience based on their common characteristics. It also introduces a group's roles, status, power, and hierarchy. The purposes of different groups in the workplace are explored.
Page Audience Segments: Psychographics

This text will show you how to use psychographics to segment an audience. This includes looking at people's motives, attitudes, personalities, and lifestyles.

3.11: Perception Book Overview of Perception
This text provides examples of problems with messages and how we can provide cues to the recipients. It addresses the conventions we use when we communicate.
Page Interpersonal Needs

The perception of the recipient becomes the filter through which they receive and interpret information. This text examines how people select information, organize it internally, and interpret it.

Page Process of Perception

Watch this video to see the psychology behind the process of perception. It introduces and explains the process of perception in terms of selection, organization, interpretation, and negotiation.

3.12: Organizing Presentations for the Receiver Book Presentation Organization
This resource shows how to organize information based on cognitive strategies. The text also addresses the rhetorical situation for the messaging based on the purpose, context, and audience. You will review formulating a central idea and its main points so that the communication achieves its purpose.
Book Communication and Perception
In the prior sections, you have learned about selection and organization as components of perception. This section will address how people interpret the information that they are receiving. Interpretation is the final component of perception. It is important to remember that people have different communication preferences. Some people want a face-to-face meeting or phone call; others will be fine with a letter or memorandum; others will still be fine with email or voicemail. As we work to communicate with people, pay attention to their preferences in communication as it will impact their interpretation of the message. This resource introduces the concept of the schemata that we use to interpret information. As you read the section on impressions, you will be able to apply that knowledge to your perceptions and use the information in your communication. You will also explore the effects of culture and personality, including the Big Five Personality traits.
Book Stages of Listening
Read this resource on how to listen effectively.
Page Listening and Reading

This text explains the importance of the connection between you and your audience. It points out the importance of self-awareness and how it impacts you as a communicator.

Study Guide: Unit 3 URL Study Guide: Unit 3
4.1: Managing People Book Investing in Human Capital
This resource shows investment in human resources can help a small or medium-sized enterprise prosper. Be attentive to how investment in human capital affects productivity, lower turnover, intellectual capital, and salary.
4.2: Management Processes Book Virtual Work Collaboration
This resource describes the processes that need to be in place to support a virtual team. The processes include computer-based communication, work methodologies, and collaboration technology. While the focus is on using these tools in a virtual situation, we might also use the tools in other settings.
Page Transforming Talent
Watch this video to learn how technology, politics, and changing generations are transforming the face of today's workforce. This transformation represents real challenges for acquiring, developing, and retaining talent.
Book State Government Managers
Public employees may feel under public scrutiny; thus, managers may be averse to risk. Read this case study for a comprehensive view of all the issues managers and leaders face in planning and developing their workforce in the public sector.
4.3: Forces Affecting Human Capital Management Book Leading Change in a Complex World
One of the challenges of the external environment businesses face is the aging of their workers. Recall that we discussed this in the context of motivating factors. There is a demographic shift in the workplace as baby boomers retire. With that comes a loss of knowledge and skills, which managers and companies have to address, and which training may help address. As part of the HR process, managers must remember that older, professionally competent workers can mentor newer employees as part of training and talent management. This article explores the challenges of population aging and the opportunities it provides.
Book Implementation of a Digital Workplace Strategy
The digital workplace strategy may require a cultural change that needs to be supported by "learning measures". The article points out the benefits of a good digital strategy to the firm. It also discusses the ways that the digital strategy impacts the employees. Be attentive to the digital toolbox and how the digital strategy can be a business driver.
4.4: Business Ethics in Human Capital Management Book Business Ethics
This resource introduces the concept of business ethics and the relationships with stakeholders that give rise to legal duties and ethical responsibilities.
Page Whistle Blowers
Remember that it is up to the employees to make and uphold ethical decisions. We seem to have a double standard where whistle-blowing is concerned. How do we act with courage in a difficult business environment? Watch this video to examine ethical issues in the workplace and how difficult it is to decide to get involved in whistle-blowing.
Book Managing Employee Performance
One of the reasons companies have processes and human resources departments is because there are employment laws. This resource starts with an employee dilemma. You will be introduced to various performance issues and employee rights as you read.
4.5: Managing People Ethically Book How Ethical Leadership Shapes Employees' Readiness to Change
Organizations must continuously adapt to compete in today's changing business environment. However, employees tend to resist change viewing it as a threat. When organizations need to change, employees need to be ready for it, a concept known as individual readiness. Employees are less resistant to change when they perceive their leaders are trustworthy and have "faith in their intentions. This resource points out how ethical leadership can aid employees when undertaking change initiatives. The research analyzes the mechanisms that ethical leaders can use.
Book Workplace Environment and Working Conditions
Beyond providing a safe workplace free from harassment, workers want to be treated with dignity. Generally, we expect our employers to be honest with us and transparent in their communications. However, there are times when the company should not be transparent such as when negotiating the firm's sale. Thus, managers can be placed in a difficult position. This text highlights some of the challenges managers face when fostering an environment where people can thrive. Pay attention to the end of the discussion on what people expect and want from firms regarding the benefits they are offered. Also, note that managers need to be authentically interested in the employees who report to them.
Page Ethical Leadership
Research shows that ethical leadership and culture positively affect employee well-being and job satisfaction. The text states that emerging research finds that ethical leadership is not a leadership style but a behavioral component. You will also read about the behaviors associated with unethical leadership and their negative effects.
4.6: Discriminatory Practices Book Prejudice and Discrimination
We have previously learned about many of the descriptions of social groups that constitute diversity. This resource explains how stereotypes play into prejudice and discrimination. The prejudice and discriminatory conduct of racism, sexism, ageism, and homophobia are explored. The text also looks at how stereotypes can lead to scapegoating and how we can overcome these potential conflicts by expressing empathy, acknowledging the problem and conflict, and changing destructive behaviors.
Book Employment Discrimination
Discrimination leads to earnings gaps by gender and race. However, economic forces can also lead to reasons not to discriminate. The resource provides an overview of the laws passed to prohibit discrimination.
Book Multiculturalism and the Law
This text explores the laws against discrimination and how they are enforced. You will read about legal protections against discrimination, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and retaliation.
Book Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Knowing how to change discriminatory attitudes and behaviors is knowing how they develop in the first place. This text explores how people become prejudiced and how it becomes embedded in society. It looks at prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination in terms of social psychology rather than how they directly impact business. You will learn how to reduce discrimination, and while you may not be able to change society, there are practical tips on dealing with specific instances.
Study Guide: Unit 4 URL Study Guide: Unit 4
5.1: The Role of Leadership Page Everyday Leadership
Watch this video for a humorous view of how we can all be leaders in our daily lives. It shows how small actions add up to leadership. It will help you understand that leadership may not always fit our preconceived notions.
Book Understanding Organizational Behavior
The text points out that we can examine individual, group, and organizational behavior.
Page The Crisis of Leadership
Watch this video to review the problems of continuing to do business the same way in a rapidly changing and very complex world. The speakers highlight the problems with trusting corporations and governments. They state that the world needs courageous, humble leaders who have a moral compass and are willing to tackle difficult global issues.
Book The Nature of Leadership
Previous units have addressed how organizations are changing in response to the dynamic business environment. This leaves questions about how the role of leadership will change as well. This resource offers insights into the nature of leadership, the process of leadership, and how leaders emerge in organizations.
Book Principles of Management
There has been a shift in emphasis from management to leadership in modern organizations, with the roles overlapping. This text will refresh your memory about the role of managers within the organization and distinguish them from the role of the leaders who inspire action.
Page What It Takes to Be a Leader
Leaders have an attitude that is different than that of followers. This video addresses taking risks as a leader and distinguishes leadership skills from a leadership attitude.
5.2: Theories of Leadership Book Four Theories of Leadership
This resource will give you an overview of the four major leadership theories.
Book Leadership Priciples
This text provides a high-level definition of leadership. It also differentiates between management and leadership. Interestingly, the author posits that the evolution of a managerial role may not develop into a leadership role. You will examine the theories of servant leadership, transformational leadership, collaboration/meta leadership theory, and shared leadership.
Book Leadership and Organization
This resource explains the difference between transactional and transformational leadership. It also addresses some of the challenges that organizations face in a rapidly changing workplace and the role of teams.
Page The Influence and Behavioural Theories of Leadership
Watch this video to see how the study of leadership has evolved. The video also introduces Theory X and Theory Y.
Book Goal Theory
This text examines the following leadership styles: directive, path-goal clarifying leaders, achievement-oriented leaders, participative leaders, and supportive leaders.
5.3: Styles, Behaviors, and Traits Page Leadership Styles
The autocratic leader leads from the top down and expects compliance with their decisions. Autocratic leaders rely on their position of authority, not relationships. Democratic leaders use a more collaborative approach and solicit feedback before making decisions. The laissez-faire approach is very hands-off, which gives people space to perform their work without much interference. Watch this video for clear examples of the different styles.
Page More on Leadership
The previous video explained autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. This video adds transactional, transformational, and charismatic leadership and concludes with ethical guidelines for leaders.
Book Trait Approaches to Leadership
Studying leaders in terms of their traits was one of the earliest approaches to researching leadership. There is no "wrong" way to study leadership. Even though this approach is older, it is no less valid. Leaders still have the traits identified in early research, and the theory has regained traction. Still, we limit our understanding if we take only one approach to learning about leadership and how to be one. This section will explore the history of studying leadership traits and modern approaches. This resource identifies the traits that are most commonly associated with leadership. The first trait is intelligence which includes both mental intelligence and emotional intelligence. Other leadership traits that researchers have identified are self-esteem and integrity. The text addresses the challenges of using the trait approach and its continued usefulness.
Book What Makes an Effective Leader?
The text is in furtherance to the traits discussed in the previous resource but adds the traits of drive, desire to lead, and business knowledge. Drive is an indicator of being highly motivated.
Page Traits of Bad Leaders
Watch this video to explore bad leadership qualities and the consequences of toxic traits.
Book Behavioral Perspectives on Leadership
We have previously been introduced to leadership styles and leadership behaviors. This section will explore both topics in more depth. Again, each of these concepts is just a construct for studying leadership. The more leadership is studied, the more researchers recognize that no single viewpoint captures all the facets of leadership. Each is just a framework that provides a particular way to view leadership. Consider how many of these styles and behaviors you have observed in leaders. Then think of the leaders you know that may exhibit more than one style or behavior. Trait theory has focused on the traits of the leader. However, the interaction with others begins to show whether a leader is effective or not. This text examines leadership in terms of what leaders do. Be sure to carefully examine the leadership grid, which classifies leaders' behaviors using a grid based on case studies.
Page Leadership Styles

There are different leadership styles, such as transactional and charismatic styles. This text introduces the idea of using different styles in specific situations.

Page Honesty in Leadership
Kouzes and Posner are well-recognized researchers in leadership and management. Read this resource to identify the behaviors that they both have observed. Specifically, they found that the five behaviors of effective leaders are modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, challenging the process, enabling others to act, and encouraging the heart.
Book Types of Leaders
When we look at leaders' types (or styles), we can consider transactional versus transformational leaders or even a blended approach to leadership. We may fall into the trap of our thinking about leadership and think one way of leading is right for all situations. Instead, This text should help you understand that different situations may require us to exhibit different leadership skills. Consider a manager at a fast-food restaurant that mostly hires teenagers to work versus a senior manager with well-experienced professionals on their team. This section compares transactional and transformational leadership. Be attentive to the key differences between them. The section on transactional leaders explores how transactional leaders operate within the organization. This type of leader uses extrinsic motivational tools. The key behaviors of transformational leaders are more focused on how they interact with and inspire their followers. This leader fosters teamwork and has a broad, inclusive vision. Finally, the text explores the blended approach of transactional and transformational leadership.
Book Other Leadership Perspectives
This text will show you the multiple ways that leadership has been studied. Most of these perspectives are more contemporary viewpoints. We have previously looked at how the workforce is changing and considered the constantly changing business environment. We also want to consider leadership in different contexts. This text will briefly review emotional, interactive, moral, servant, shared, and e-leadership.
5.4: Situational Leadership Book Contingency Approach
This resource discusses the Fiedler leadership model, which uses the "Least Preferred Co-worker" (LPC) test to measure leadership traits. Be attentive to the end of the text that examines the criticisms of using this model.
Book Leadership and Followers
Read this text to look at how leaders and followers interact in task behavior and the relationship. The group's maturity in its ability and willingness to complete the job is one of the determinants of the leadership role that the leader should take – telling, selling, participating, or delegating.
Book Leadership and Task/Follower Characteristics
This resource identifies both leadership and task/follower characteristics. It explores leadership styles, including directive, achievement-oriented, participative, and supportive styles. You will examine the Path-Goal model as a framework for the Outstanding Leadership Theory.
Book Leadership and Decision-Making: The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model
Up to this point in our study of leadership, there have been multiple viewpoints and perspectives. This text uses the contingency approach and looks at leadership from working within the group and how leaders must make different decisions based on the tasks and situations. The decision tree presented in This text may prove helpful when trying to work out what to do and what leadership approach to take. Pay attention to the Vroom-Yetton-Jago model, which starts at the most autocratic style and moves along a continuum of five scales to a collaborative group decision.
5.5: Destructive Leadership Page Toxic Leadership
The organizational climate is surface level and changes quickly, whereas organizational culture runs deeper and is much less changeable. This video describes the constructs used to discuss leadership.
Page When Your Boss Is Plain Stupid
Watch this video for a description of the Peter Principle, which states that people are promoted in an organization until they reach their level of incompetency. At this point, they are not promoted further. The video provides a lively real-life scenario that helps illustrate the concepts.
Book Three Nightmare Traits in Leaders
Read this article to examine research conducted on the dark side of leadership. The author concentrates on leadership styles using the construct of personality. He uses a framework of various factors, including emotionality, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, to examine the negative effects of dishonesty, disagreeableness, and carelessness. Be attentive to the paragraph on psychopathic leaders. There is also a discussion about what organizations should do to prevent the rise of TNT (Three Nightmare Traits) leaders. Some thought that people with TNT tend to apply to work at organizations that have a culture that encourages certain behaviors.
Page Signs You Have a Toxic Boss or Leader
Watch this video on the seven signs of toxic leadership, including failure to listen and narcissism. These traits are negative and create a culture of distrust, anxiety, fear, and conflict. Think of the opposite behaviors as producing a more positive organizational culture.
Book The Dark Sides of Leadership and Followership
Read this article for an overview of research published on dark leadership.
Book Consequences of Destructive Leadership
This text explores the negative consequences of abusive supervision and exploitative leadership. As you read, focus on the theoretical and practical implications.
5.6: Strategic Workforce Management Page Business Strategy and Workforce Planning

This text is a short reading that introduces the concept of workforce planning applied to achieving business strategy. The text explains the process of workplace planning.

Book The Role of Leadership in a Digitalized World
This article reminds us that technology has impacted the workforce in many ways. It is a review of how digitalization shapes organizations and challenges leaders. Digitalization has increased connectivity and information sharing. Employees can use it to create new value when they are directly participating. It is up to leaders to capture that value. To do so, they need to incorporate digitalization in their management of people. Be attentive to the section on the relationship between e-leaders and organizations. The article also discusses the role of ethics in the organization and provides insights on how we can integrate leadership and digital tools.
5.7: Trust Page Some Lines Can't Be Crossed
Watch this video that explains how our trust in organizations is built on a foundation of ethical behavior. The speaker gives an example of an ethical dilemma and how the decisions were made. He brings out the heart-rending decisions that must be made even when the performer has good intentions. This video will make you think about how stepping over ethical lines can lead you down a slippery slope that undermines trust in an organization.
Book Building Trust in High-Performing Teams
This article explores what is required to build trust and the benefits of building trust. Having open communications is critical for building high-performance teams. The authors interviewed managers and asked how trust can be managed and supported. They found that it takes time and conscious actions, including one-on-one meetings and team-building exercises.
5.8: Characteristics of Trustworthy and Untrustworthy Leaders Book Trustworthiness and Its Impact on Leadership
This resource compares two companies. One company has a distrustful culture, and one has a trusting culture. The researchers look at the difference in managerial attitudes. One fostered fear and suspicion, which led to a lack of cooperation. The other fostered trust and collaboration. Be attentive to the different results when people are undervalued or appreciated. Also, think critically about the differences between authoritarian leadership and democratic (authentic) styles. Is there a way to use an authoritarian style yet still build trust?
Book Emotional Intelligence and Trust in Servant Leadership
This article points out that confidence in business leaders is declining. The researchers explore the relationship between trust, emotional intelligence, and the servant leadership style. Thie reading will help you understand the followers' perception of servant leadership.
Page Good Leaders Build Trust
This video posits that good leaders create a safe and trustworthy environment for their followers. After you watch, reflect on how trust inspires increased productivity and is the key to building a high-performing team.
Page Habits of Untrustworthy Leaders
This blog post is a short read on the sources of untrustworthy leadership and the behaviors of untrustworthy leaders. The post also gives five practical tips on dealing with an untrustworthy leader.
5.9: Organizational Trust Page Trust Underpins Organisational Effectiveness
When trust is missing, fear creeps in. One study shows that high-trust companies may outperform low-trust companies by 300%. This video points out how the lack of trust in an organization reduces innovation and increases anxiety. The speaker offers tips on building trust within the organization, including being competent, consistent, authentic, and interested in others.
Page How to Build (and Rebuild) Trust
Watch this video for ideas on what companies and organizations can do when trust has been broken. The speaker explains that the three components of trust are authenticity, empathy, and rigorous logic in thought processes. Empathy is the most difficult to show, usually due to pressures on time. Displaying empathy relies on deep listening.
Book An Empirical Study on the Organizational Trust
This case study explores the relationship between an organization and its employees. The researchers used social exchange theory and inducement-contribution theory to conduct the study. The research aimed to determine if employees are more innovative when organizational trust is high.
5.10: Creating a Collaborative Organizational Culture Page Listen, Learn, then Lead
This video supports the idea that collaborative leaders are good listeners with good facilitation skills and can manage conflict. The speaker discusses how a leader can let followers fail without making them feel like failures. After completing the text, you should know what an inversion of expertise is and what reverse mentoring is.
Page Organizations with Innovative IT Departments Value Collaboration
Read this article to review the value of collaboration in open-source communities. It examines research completed by the Harvard Business Review that shows that IT departments that are collaborative and are willing to take a more open approach are more innovative.
Study Guide: Unit 5 URL Study Guide: Unit 5
6.1: Group Behavior Book Work Groups
Reading this resource will introduce you to the factors influencing group behavior and dynamics. Groups can be formal or informal and are not always formed by the organization to accomplish a particular task. It is important to consider group type as a manager because it informs the managerial actions you should take to accomplish a task. For example, volunteer groups (such as civic or social groups) will exhibit different dynamics than work command groups. As you read, pay attention to the four stages of group formation: leadership, communication, decision-making, power and politics, and conflict and negotiation.
Book Group Structure
This text explains how role identity, perception, expectations, and conflict affect norms and group behavior. It also breaks down the common classes of norms and the influences of status and group size. Finally, you will explore the different actions that the group leader can take to build cohesiveness.
Book Intergroup Behavior and Performance
Groups require optimum information flow, integrated goals, and coordination with rules and procedures. This resource looks at the interaction between different groups. It asks, "What happens when one group in an organization must interact with another?" This is a critical question for organizations because all businesses are made up of different groups that have to interact with each other. This extends to small businesses because they must interact with external groups such as suppliers and contractors. As you read, take notes on the three types of group interdependence: pooled, sequential, or reciprocal. Think about what the author says about what interdependent groups need to function and apply those same criteria to what a single group needs to function.
Page Managing People and Other Horror Stories
This video points out that being a team manager is being a team member with a specific role. The speaker shares mistakes he made that led to team conflict and failure in team projects. As you watch, consider \whether you question your behavior when in a leadership position.
Book Decision-Making in Groups
All teams have to decide how to navigate through the decision-making process. Group decisions may suffer from groupthink, coordination problems, or process losses. This text explains the symptoms of groupthink and provides tools to avoid groupthink. The text will also offer tools and techniques for groups to make better decisions.
6.2: Group Dynamics Book Group Life Cycles and Member Roles
This text reviews the group lifecycle or stages. It expands the discussion by looking at the life cycle of member roles as potential members, new members, full members, divergent members, marginal members, and ex-members. You will also learn about the positive and negative roles played by the members. As you read this section, consider the roles you have observed in groups.
Book Group Dynamics
We have previously looked at group norms, but how much does our conformity matter? Read this text to examine group dynamics and how groups operate. The text recounts an experiment performed by psychologist Solomon Asch that studied how we can be influenced by our desire to conform with the group.
Book Five Models for Understanding Team Dynamics
There are various ways to analyze and study group development. This resource starts by reviewing the Tuckman linear model of group development, which is rarely used to form groups. It then discusses additional models by which groups are evaluated. For example, the DISC model considers the attributes of the team members using descriptors. The GRIP model states that highly effective teams require interpersonal relationships and the ability to be flexible and deal with conflicts. The Thomas-Kilman Conflict Mode model uses a scale of assertiveness versus cooperativeness. Lastly, the Lencioni model emphasizes the importance of trust, commitment, and accountability. Consider your behavior and attributes and how they affect the teams and groups you are a member of.
6.3: Group Cohesion Page How to Turn a Group of Strangers into a Team
In this video, the speaker considers "teaming" when applied to daily work situations, including emergencies. She suggests humility, curiosity about what others bring to the team, willingness to take risks, accept failure, and persevere. She also explains that today's complex problems and the global work environment call for us to be able to work with others from a multitude of backgrounds. After watching the video, consider the following questions: What are the barriers to teaming? Consider the barrier of professional culture clash. What makes teaming work?
Page Team Cohesiveness
Generally, team cohesion has positive consequences, but the social pressure to conform can hurt cohesion. Read this article for the definition of group cohesion and how it develops.
Page Team Success
This resource will briefly remind you of the five factors of team success: trust, effective communication, common goal, defined team roles and responsibilities, and group cohesion.
Book The Effects of Authentic Leadership on Employees' Well-Being
Read this text to examine the effects of a team leader's authenticity on the perception of relational cohesion. Generally, when people have a higher sense of relational cohesion, they are more collaborative within teams. The text will refine your understanding of how authenticity affects how team members feel about themselves and their relationships within the group. You will find the survey about authentic leadership interesting.
Book Teamwork and Leadership
This resource describes the process of leader development and the interactions in teams.
Book Group Dynamics in Healthcare Settings
The article offers a framework that can be used by company strategists when setting up a team. While we do not all work in a setting that could result in a life-or-death decision, the ways that companies assemble their teams contribute to the overall effectiveness and success of the team. Think about the framework and how you can use it in your organization and practice.
6.4: Characteristics of Group Development Book The Effects of Leadership Styles on Team Motivation
This article looks at different leadership styles and how they affect team motivation. The setting is healthcare. The article considers the organization's cultural dynamics and examines its relationship to dynamic leadership and team motivation. Pay attention to the table showing leadership styles and managerial applicability. The researchers offer their conclusion but not the evidence from the study. After you complete the text, note why transactional leadership correlates negatively to team motivation.
Book Group Potency and Its Implications for Team Effectiveness
Over time, the people in a group assess the group's potential more realistically. This text demonstrates that the potency of the group changes over time. As you read, be attentive to the literature review and background of the study. Also, pay attention to the discussion of the findings, which surprisingly found that group potency decreases over time. You may want to take note of the limitations of the research.
Page Building Effective Teams
In this video, an engineering manager at Facebook explains the effective use of agile retrospectives in forming a productive and efficient team. The speaker recommends being open to information and ideas rather than finding solutions. This video includes a discussion on the group formation process and how to guide it toward the desired end. While this speaker applies the team process to software engineering, her perspective is helpful. The very end of the video has great practical tips on group and team management.
Book Teamwork in the Workplace
This text reviews the functions of teams and the practices that make teams effective. The text also addresses collaboration. Interestingly, as the project becomes more complex, collaboration seems to break down. Consider factors that positively influenced collaboration in groups you have been involved in.
6.5: Diversity in Teams Book Diversity and Multiculturalism in Human Resource Management
This article defines the difference between diversity and multiculturalism. In today's workplace, the terms are used interchangeably; thus, as we progress in this section, we will use the term diversity to include people from different cultures. We will use inclusiveness to mean including people and understanding and respecting them. Diversity is a concept that focuses on differences, and we can look at power and privilege as the base for those differences. Inclusiveness has become a heated topic in the United States; thus, we must be aware of workplace issues.
Book Diversity and the Workforce
Read this resource for a description of diversity in terms of identity groups. The text gives perspective on surface-level, deep-level, and hidden diversity. It briefly mentions conflict that can arise when there are inappropriate interactions between individuals from different groups. The use of immigrant workers and workers with disabilities is discussed. The concepts of acting ethically and blind recruiting are also introduced.
6.6: The Value of Diversity Book Diversity and Inclusion in the Workforce
It is the responsibility of managers and leaders to create conditions where people can excel. This means creating a culture of inclusion. Read this resource to explore the changes in diversity over time and the importance of finding the right mix of people to work on teams. It includes charts of the projected diversity in the workforce through 2050 and results of studies that show that diverse companies are financially successful. Thus, there is a positive correlation between performance and diversity. However, there are also challenges to changing organizational culture and people's mindsets regarding diversity. The text provides several cases demonstrating problems and successes in developing a culture of inclusion.
Book Respect for Diversity
This text provides excellent explanations of diverse populations by looking at the common dimensions of categorizing diversity. The authors also explain the concepts of cultural competence and cultural humility. While the chapter is presented in the context of community psychology, the concepts are applicable in the workplace. Despite the text focusing on community psychology, think about how you can apply the concepts you learned in the workplace.
Page Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
This resource presents three perspectives of culture in the workplace: integration and learning, access and legitimacy, and discrimination and fairness. If you reflect on your own experiences, you will probably be able to think of times you have been exposed to each of these perspectives. The text expresses the researcher's position that the integration-and-learning perspective will use collective differences to "think critically about work issues, strategies, products, and practices in a way that will allow the group to be successful in its business operations".
Book Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
Read this article to explore the various impacts of diversity in the workplace. Be attentive to the graph showing the relationship between diversity and competitive advantage. The text assesses the advantages that diversity creates, such as cost advantages, resource acquisition, marketing, system flexibility, creativity, and problem-solving. It also introduces aligning strategy and human resource management using the resource-based view.
6.7: Managing Diversity and Inclusion Book Recommendations for Managing Diversity
This text reviews the steps organizations can take to fight harassment and discrimination and demonstrate their commitment to inclusion and equality. The first step is having a fair interview and selection process when hiring employees. Managers need to know how to manage a diverse workforce, and companies can use diversified mentoring relationships to improve management skills. Companies can also offer diversity training programs. In addition to looking at managerial and organizational actions, This text also points out that individual employees must control their own biases, beliefs about stereotypes, and behaviors in the workplace.
Book Inclusive Leadership and Potential Barriers
Leaders should reflect the organization's commitment to inclusiveness and diversity in all functions. This resource specifically addresses women being excluded from top leadership positions in corporations. The text considers the characteristics of an inclusive leadership style and the barriers to exercising that style. The culture that keeps out women also keeps out other diverse members. The author states that women, immigrants, people of color, and refugees may struggle to fit in and feel excluded.
6.8: Conflict Book Conflict and Negotiations
This resource looks at the causes and variants of conflict, the consequences of short and long-term conflicts in teams and groups, and conflict resolution tactics. You will learn about the stages of negotiation, bargaining strategies, and the negotiation process. The text also considers international negotiations and how cultural differences impact those. As you reach the end of the text, ensure that you understand what a BATNA is and why it matters in negotiation.
Book Managing Conflict in the text book Group Communication
Read this text for a somewhat different perspective on managing conflict in the workplace. The text refines the definition of conflict as something that occurs between interdependent people and must be expressed. While we have looked at the causes of conflict, This text examines the dangers of conflict in four ways. As you read through the text, you will learn about the roles leaders can take, such as motivator, delegator, structuralist, and promoter of constructive deviation.
Book Conflict Resolution by Managers
The authors of this article provide a concise overview of their research on workplace conflict. For instance, they found some gender differences in conflict resolution.
6.9: Teamwork Page Secrets of Successful Teamwork
Watch this video for tips on the secrets of creating a successful team.
Page Defining Teamwork
This text will clarify the definition of teamwork and common processes of teamwork. It will explain the characteristics of effective teamwork, how teams work within a modern organizational structure, and the purposes and different types of teams.
Page Teamwork in the Workplace

This resource takes a slightly different approach to the definition of a team, but you will see similarities with prior resources. You will recognize the term emotional intelligence and consider the ground rules of a team. The text makes a good suggestion to set some immediate goals that will result in quick wins. We will also introduce the practices that occur in successful teams.

Page Multicultural Teams
Read this resource to see how cultural differences can lead to destructive conflicts, including cultural communication differences, difficulties with fluency and accents, differences in attitudes about hierarchy, and conflicting decision-making norms. The text includes a great questionnaire to help you assess your cultural intelligence.
6.10: Team Challenges Book Optimal Structure for Managing NGOs
This article examines the effect of different project structures on the project's performance. Recall that projects are one reason that teams are formed. As the authors discuss selecting a project management structure, they consider the twelve factors that you should consider. Those factors affect all teams.
Book Organizational Factors Influencing Project Success
This article reviews organizational factors such as top management support, communication, change management, organizational culture, and training.
6.11: Team Effectiveness Book Principles of Team Effectiveness
Reading this text will help you understand the criteria that affect team effectiveness. Of particular note is the section on assessment. Teams formed to achieve specific tasks need to determine whether they succeed and meet performance benchmarks. The text provides information for you to think about your team's performance.
Page Team Building
This article considers how activities of team building contribute to team effectiveness.
Book The Team Interaction Process
This text looks at the team interaction process using an overview of the process with the three stages of input, process, and output. The study reviews the three stages and the theory of the team interaction process. Each stage of the process has influencing factors and components that ultimately affect the team's performance. This text combines the factors you read about and looks at them as part of the process.
6.12: Collaboration Page Cultivating Collaboration
What can we learn about collaboration from chickens? In this video, the speaker looks at the behavior of star performers using research done on chickens at Purdue University. Take notes on the topics of red zone environments and red zone behavior.
Page Collaboration In and across Teams
This resource uses the review of a team project to highlight the activities undertaken by the team and the team manager that led the team to success. As you read, consider the teams you have been on and how many of these activities your team did. If your team was successful, think about why. If it was not successful, what steps did your team fail to take that could have improved the outcomes?
Page A Guide to Collaborative Leadership
Here, you will watch a video where the speaker describes her learning journey to leadership. She emphasizes that it may be time to change the idea that only a "hero" can lead. In a globally connected system, business, community, and people are interconnected, and she suggests that the new paradigm should be radical interdependence. She looks at the B Corp movement, which comprises companies committed to their business as a "force for good". In this context, the leaders of businesses set goals differently and work to solve shared problems, including environmental and social issues. Interestingly, she says that these collaborators are willing to commit to the goals before they have a plan.
Page Effective Teamwork and Collaboration
This video promotes a holistic approach to problem-solving known as interdisciplinarity. The speaker suggests that creative problem-solving is not linear and has four stages: research, concept, evaluation, and implementation. From a more traditional perspective, different disciplines would enter the evaluation stage. However, she suggests that the collaboration needs to start with the research and concept stage.
Study Guide: Unit 6 URL Study Guide: Unit 6
7.1: Organizational Culture Page Corporate Cultures
This text will acquaint you with the internal dimensions of an organization. It introduces the Competing Values Framework (CVF). As we study corporate culture, we need a model to diagnose the corporation's cultural effectiveness. The model also indicates whether the culture is internally or externally oriented. The text explains Adhocracy Culture, Clan Culture, Hierarchy Culture, and Market Culture. You will recognize some of the leadership styles from your prior resources.
Book Organizational Culture
A culture can be strong (think of Disney) or weak. A strong culture is not necessarily an asset to the organization. An organization's culture will start with the founder's values and preferences and respond to industry demands. However, the culture is shaped over time as it deals with external and internal challenges. Additionally, the culture is shared with new employees. Companies can use a formal orientation program and mentoring to instill the organizational culture during the onboarding process. We can learn about an organization's culture by looking at its mission statement, rituals, rules and policies, physical layout, and stories. Read this text to consider organizational culture in more depth and provides some different perspectives to help us understand corporate culture, including how it forms.
Book Creating Culture Change
Read this resource for tips on how to create culture change. Leaders must be prepared to lead people through cultural changes when necessary. An example of when this would be necessary is when companies merge or acquire another company. This text examines the process of cultural change related to the people involved, including teaching employees the new norms through training and changing the reward system.
Book Shaping Organizational Culture
Corporate culture is derived from the top-down and consists of the expectations of the behavior that employees should exhibit. The text provides three models for examining the dimensions of culture in an organization: Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory, Schein's Cognitive Levels of Organizational Culture, and Gerry Johnson's Cultural Web. Each model provides a different perspective on organizational culture but gives a holistic picture of all the dimensions.
Page Key Dimensions of Organizational Culture
Complete This text for a different perspective on using the Organizational Culture Profile, including examining corporate dimensions as to whether a company is outcome-oriented or people-oriented. This framework suggests that different teams within an organization may exhibit different cultures, such as the sales team being aggressive while the marketing department is more team-oriented.
7.2: The External Environment Book Factors of Organizational Culture Change
This article examines various factors that affect organizational culture. It considers the macro-environment, the micro-environment, and leadership as influential factors in organizational culture. A company's founder(s) and its leadership are the biggest influencers on culture in their responses to external events. Furthermore, the organization's development stage also affects the organizational culture's change mechanisms.
Book External and Internal Organizational Environments
Read this resource to see how organizations adapt to meet external market threats and opportunities. It considers how different industries will address uncertainty and explores internal organizational dimensions.
7.3: Organizational Design Book What Is Organizational Structure?
Read this article for an overview of why a company might select different organizational structures. You will review the elements of an organizational structure, including departmentalization, the chain of command, and the span of control.
Book The Basic Building Blocks of Organizational Structure
This text explains the formation of organizational structures. It includes a case study as an example of one company's path to designing the organizational structure after several acquisitions. It also provides an overview of the linkages between leadership and departments.
Book Factors Influencing Organizational Design
This resource considers how the external factors, internal factors, and stages of the business growth cycle influence organizational design.
Book Understanding Team Design Characteristics
You have previously learned about interdependent teams, but this resource explores those ideas further. The text also examines self-managed teams and pooled interdependence. You will learn about team roles and how they are based on the five primary task roles and the five primary social roles. Additionally, some roles connect the team to the greater organization, which are boundary-spanning roles.
Book Organizational Structures and Corporate Cultures
This text discusses the internal factors that affect how organizational structures are designed. These structures are important to managers because they establish lines of formal authority and configure other reporting arrangements. One thing to remember is that the industry type influences the chosen structure. The text also considers the system approach and examines how the internal dimensions of the firm, such as leadership and culture, change in response to the external business environment. Note that the organizational alignment is not set in stone permanently. It will change in response to the external business environment from time to time.
7.4: Organizational Design Models Book Common Organizational Structures
This article explains six structures, including the functional structure, divisional structure, matrix structure, team-based structure, network structure, and modular structure.
Book Organization Design Challenges
Read this article for a practical look at the challenges consultants hired to redesign an organization face. The consultants did not focus on what model they should choose but more on the process or phases of the major steps in the redesign. Any company that wants to redesign its organization will face the same challenges and decision-making points. Thus, it will help to consider how the redesign is undertaken. The first step is to analyze where the organization is currently and then consider whether a new organizational model is needed or if the current one needs to be adjusted.
Book Strategy through Organizational Design
This resource presents the four types of organizational structures (simple, functional, multi-divisional, and matrix) and gives examples of companies that have used them. It then explores some of the newer ideas about organizational design and delves into the reasons to change for setting up control systems. Note the discussion on management fads.
7.5: Agile Organizational Design Book The Science of Organizational Design
This article suggests experimentation as a scientific way to prepare for organizational designs that may not even exist yet. The idea is to perform experiments to "understand the relationship between structure and coordination mechanisms of information, communications, decisions, trust, and incentives - the basis for the multi-contingency theory of organizational design". The value of this article is in the exploration of tasks in terms of function, information processing, and flow. The authors considered both the M-form (multidivisional) and the U-form (functional).
Book Pattern for Agile Organizations
Read this text to see the idea of sociocracy as a form of organizational design. This is a way for organizations to transcend the traditional approach to organizational change. While the model is primarily applied to software organizations, it can be used by other organizations that want to be sure that information flows to and from the appropriate parties and ensure that experts can participate in the decisions that affect them. The text considers governance, teams, and collaboration internally and externally. The graphics make the complexity of the linkages easy to understand as the author presents consent decision-making, double linking, and governance in iterations.
7.6: Mentoring and Talent Management Book Attracting the Right Workers
This text highlights the need to attract and retain the ablest employees. Managing talent includes planning for succession as people are either promoted or otherwise leave the position. The process starts with attracting the right workers for the organization and then keeping star employees. Managing talent well means helping them to grow, develop and stretch.
Book Building an Organization for the Future
This text points out that organizations need to anticipate their needs for the future and ensure that the competencies for that job are identified. The text suggests that leadership requirements should be reviewed every 2-3 years, including the organizational structure.
7.7: Developing Talent Book Human Capital Management: Don't Reinvent the Wheel
This article points out the recent shifts in the non-profit sector that are now aligning with for-profit organizations to manage talent more strategically. Two executives were interviewed that examine the challenges in human capital management.
Book Mentoring the Millennial Generation
Read this text to understand the importance of mentoring, particularly to bridge the transition from a Baby Boomer workforce to a Millennial workforce. Mentors help employees grasp their place in the firm, coach and counsel them and help them find challenging assignments. The text also mentions reverse mentoring as a social exchange tool where Millennials may mentor an older generation in using technology to collaborate with customers.
7.8: Structuring Career Progression Book The Professional Development of Subordinates
This text analyzes leadership performance in terms of their role in developing subordinates.
Book Superior-Subordinate Developmental Relationships
This case study looks at relationships that have succeeded and failed. When superiors consciously attempt to grow their subordinates, they experience more success when their culture is supportive. The article also looks at the characteristics of the relationships between the manager and the subordinate.
7.9: Succession Planning Book CEO Selection and Succession Planning
In this text, you will consider the need for succession planning at the highest levels of organizations. It looks at the responsibility of boards to keep succession planning in their minds at all times. In the second section, note the excellent information from Warren Buffett about succession planning at Berkshire Hathaway.
Book Reflect to Create
This text examines the habits of leaders and how they use the process of reflection to create conditions that foster growth in people and the collective well-being of the organization.
Study Guide: Unit 7 URL Study Guide: Unit 7
8.1: Power and Politics Book Power and Politics in Organizations
This resource provides an overview of power and politics, considers the effect of conformity, and reviews studies on the effects of conformity. The text explores the relationship between dependency and power. It uses Steve Jobs as an example of all six types of power, including legitimate power, expert power, reward power, information power, coercive power, and referent power. Because leaders can abuse power, the text also examines the direction of influence.
Book Political Behavior in Organizations
This text shows the organizational decisions that are most likely to involve politics. It also shows the reasons for political behavior and the most conducive conditions for political behavior. Even such things as the location of an office or its arrangement can involve politics. The text also introduces the idea of strategic contingencies.
8.2: Power Bases Page Bases of Power and Influencing Tactics
Watch this video for a review of the bases of power. In the previous section, we considered some of the most common bases when looking at Steve Jobs. However, there are more bases of power, such as reward power, coercive power, referent power (personal power), legitimate power, expert power, information power, affiliation power, group power, technological power, bureaucratic power, philosophical power (such as the Pope or the Dalai Lama). Leaders use various methods to influence people to achieve the organization's goals and need different tools in their toolbox. The leader can use compliance, coercion, exchange, commitment, or relational tactics. The speaker offers examples of when each tactic is appropriate.
Book Power in Interpersonal Relations
This resource asks how power bases work in organizational life. That is an excellent question whether we are in a role as a manager, leader, or follower (employee). We all have different roles within the organization, and while we might manage a division, we still report to a senior manager. The text reviews the definition of power and the bases of power. It then introduces the concept of power dependencies, where the subordinate's values, the nature of the relationship between parties, and counterpower are explored.
8.3: Counterpower and Strategic Contingencies Book Uses of Power
This text discusses the most common power tactics in organizations. As the text points out, some uses are more ethical than others. However, suppose you have worked at a company for some time. In that case, you will undoubtedly recognize some of these power tactics, including controlling access to persons and using outside experts. The text offers guidelines for the ethical use of power using five common bases of power.
8.4: Influencing Organizational Politics Book Limiting the Influence of Political Behavior
This text offers strategies to help ethically manage organizational politics. We can limit the effects of political behavior by reducing system uncertainty, reducing competition, breaking up existing political fiefdoms, and preventing future fiefdoms.
Book Politics and Politicking
If managers want to be effective, they must be fully aware of the political environment and tactics. This resource examines the features of the organizational structure, its power sources, leadership styles, features, and tactics. The text recounts the strategies and tactics that organizations may use.
Book Leveraging Power and Politics
This text addresses power as a motive (good or bad) and power competition. The text contrasts rational processes with political processes and which decisions are subject to one or both of those processes. Leading with power is described with tips on the specific tactics to use. The loss of power is also discussed. Note that the upcoming sections are about change and change management in organizations. If leaders cannot leverage their power in the organization's political environment, they will not be able to change the status quo.
8.5: Change Management Page Change Management
Watch this short video for a discussion of four possible reactions to change. The speaker shares some best practices for managing change.
Book Organizational Change
This text describes three types of organizational change: structural change, technological change, and cultural change. The changes that are called for will depend on the stage of growth the company is in. The text also discusses the scope of change needed, whether incremental, transformational, or strategic, and the level at which the change needs to take place.
Book Models of Change Management
If we recognize the need for change and the circumstances under which it must occur, we can look to the methods of change. Organizational researchers offer models for change management. Read this article to study several models for change management, such as Lewin's Three-Step model, Kotter's Eight-Step Plan, Nadler's System Model, and Action Research.
Page Why Is Organizational Change So Difficult?
This video explains why 70-80% of all planned organizational changes fail. The speaker recommends using models to address the dynamic and social change processes. She also addresses the "unintended consequences" of change and how people react.
8.6: Rapid Responses in a Changing Environment Page Leading an Organization in an Agile-Age
This video addresses how organizations must change in today's complex environment. The speaker points out that many issues faced by businesses are interconnected. There is a shift in the organizational dynamic to a view that the company is a living system that must be able to evolve using divergence, convergence, and then emergence.
Page Agile Leadership

In this video, the speaker says that agile leadership is entrepreneurial using mental agility. She says you must use an iterative process, build a tribe of resources, and get uncomfortable. Watch to find out what an opportunity enthusiast is.

Page Agile Culture
Agility means that we must accept failure as a part of the change process. Watch this video to see why we need an agile business mindset.
Book Creating an Agile and High Performance Team
This article promotes the use of the Authentic Leadership Model to manage change. The author provides examples of successful change, challenges, and solutions to help the company evolve.
8.7: Changing Mindsets Book Changing Mindsets
Developing a new mental mindset takes both individual and institutional change. Reading this article will help you understand mental models.
Page Develop the Mindset of a Leader
Read this article for tips on how to change your mindset.
Book Engage the Process
This resource explains the concepts of a closed, open, and dialogic mindset. It also explores the 3Cs of leadership: Commitment, Control, and Challenge. You have already exhibited the third C by taking the challenge of completing this course.
Book Strategies for Successful Organizational Change
This text provides tips on how to effect and implement change in the organization using transparency, effective communication, education and training, personal counseling, and monitoring the implementation. The text defines proactive and reactive change.
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