Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page Course Textbooks
1.1.1: Introduction and Doing Good as a Core Business Strategy URL Introduction to Principles of Management

Read the introduction and section 1.1, which introduces the fundamental principles of management and provides an example of a real-world implementation of these managerial concepts. Try the exercise questions at the end of the section.

1.1.2: Who Are Managers? URL Who Are Managers?

Read this section, which includes a discussion of the ten key roles that managers fulfill. It also establishes a framework for understanding the nature of the work that a manager regularly performs. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of this section.

1.1.3: Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy: A Manager's Guide URL Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy

Read this section, which establishes the concept of leadership and makes a clear distinction between a manager and a leader. Review the concepts of leadership and strategy as well as the framework for implementing these concepts cohesively. As you read, pay attention to the definitions of leadership, entrepreneurship, and strategy. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of this section.

1.1.4: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling: The P-O-L-C Framework URL Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling

Read this section, which reviews the P-O-L-C (Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling) framework. This framework outlines the four principal functions of management. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of the section.

1.1.5: Economic, Social, and Environmental Performance for Managers URL Economic, Social, and Environmental Performance

Read this section, which reviews how managers analyze economic, social, and environmental elements to support the effective execution of customer service within an organization. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of the section.

1.1.6: Understanding the Performance of Individuals and Groups URL Performance of Individuals and Groups

Read this section, which explains how to distinguish between individual- and group-level performances. While there are indeed differences between the two, managers strive to make sure that individual and group-level performances are compatible. Take notes that compare and contrast the distinctions between individual and group-level performances, and answer the questions at the end of the section.

1.1.7: Your Principles of Management Survivor's Guide URL Your Principles of Management Survivor's Guide

Read this section, paying particular attention to the concept of a managerial tool guide. This guide seeks to help you understand your own learning style so that you may more fully respond to and manage the learning styles of others. In this section, you will analyze the gauge-discover-reflect process of managing, which should help you identify your knowledge and capabilities, establish effective goals and develop a plan to work toward those goals, and explain the difference between what happened and what should have happened in a particular situation. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of the section.

URL What's Your Learning Style?

Read this article and consider the following questions: Why is it important to understand your learning style? Why does a manager need to be aware of an employee's learning style? What is your learning style preference? How can this information help you become a more effective learner?

1.1.8: Management Principles throughout the Ages URL History of Management

Read this article. How is today's work environment different from that of the past? How did the division of labor theory change an organization's productivity? Do companies in the modern business world still embrace the classical approach, the qualitative approach, and the organizational behavior approach? If so, how?

1.1.9: A Final Thought: An Alternative Perspective on What Management Is URL What Is Management?

Read this article and consider the following questions: What does management mean to you? What are some key functions of managers? Does your current manager, or a manager you are familiar with, effectively perform these key management functions? If not, why? What is the difference between a manager and a leader?

1.2.1: An Introduction to What Managers Do: The Four Functions URL What Do Managers Do?

Read the introduction and section 6.1, which introduces the four functions of management and describes how they work together to provide a template from which managers draw in order to properly execute their workplace tasks.

1.2.2: What Is the Management Planning Function? URL Planning

Read this section, which introduces the process that an organization uses to create and implement strategic, tactical, and operational plans. Managers use these plans to provide a roadmap from which a company's business develops. Pay attention to the discussion of how to conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis and the discussion on mission statements and establishing goals and objectives. Review contingency planning, which requires managers to identify an alternative route toward achieving a goal or objective. Work through the exercises at the end of the section.

1.2.3: How to Organize People, Equipment, and Money URL Organizing

Read this section and focus on the discussion of the top, middle, and first-line levels of management, which will provide you with a better understanding of the various ways to organize a business and its correlating activities. The organizational charts will help you better understand the flow, coordination, and reporting relationships of the managerial model. Review the authority of managers and the concept of delegation.

1.2.4: Managers Have To Possess Great Directing Skills URL Directing

Read this section and closely examine the foundational elements associated with leadership. This section discusses what managers do to achieve organizational goals and objectives. It also emphasizes how to identify your own leadership style. Leading is sometimes referred to as directing.

URL What Is the Difference between Management and Leadership?

Read this article and consider the following questions: What is a manager? What is a leader? How do a manager's approach and a leader's approach set each role apart? Why does an organization need both managers and leaders? What would happen if an organization had only managers or leaders, but not both?

1.2.5: Effectively Controlling the Environment Is a Management Essential URL Controlling

Read this section, which takes a close look at the five-step control process that is necessary for keeping a plan on target. Work through the exercise at the end of the section.

1.2.6: Managers Need a Variety of Skills to Be Successful URL Managerial Skills

Read this section, which examines the core skills that are essential to a manager's success and explores the process of solving problems in business. An effective manager will face a variety of problems that require a decision. Some of a manager's decisions will be more successful than others, but the steps outlined in this process will help you minimize the possibility of a bad decision. Be sure to complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Management Skills and Styles Assessment

Read this article and think about your own management style. Has your company used any of the assessments discussed in this essay? If so, have you taken any of these assessments? Have you ever been responsible for evaluating the assessment of another worker? Do you feel that these assessments are accurate measures of an individual's management skills and capabilities? Why or why not?

1.2.7: The Role of Tomorrow's Leaders URL The Role of Tomorrow's Leaders

Read this article and consider the following questions: What shifts in the modern business world have caused leadership roles to change? Can a focus on leading globally, building partnerships, being innovative, and collaborating enable leaders to be more effective? If so, how? As a leader, do you currently practice these four essential roles? Why or why not?

1.2.8: Developing Influencing Skills URL Influencing Skills

Read this article and think about your own influencing skills. Consider the different types of approaches you may use to suit a particular situation or individual. Do you generally employ a push or a pull strategy? Are you flexible enough to vary your style, as needed?

URL The Influencing Skills of President Obama

Read this article and consider the different techniques you use when you make a presentation or speech. As you prepare your presentations, do you consider the styles of other speakers? Which styles do you feel most suit your personality? After reading this essay, what steps will you take, if any, to revise your speaking style and employ different strategies when preparing your presentations?

1.3: The Personal Side of Management URL Personality, Attitudes, and Work Behaviors

Read the introduction and section 2.1, which examines how the SAS Institute treats its employees and how this policy has affected the company. Being an effective manager requires more than just understanding concepts and principles. Managers have to be able to express a personal, softer side in order to achieve trust, commitment, and buy-in from those they manage. Basically, you have to show your human capital (your employees) that you care about them as people.

1.3.1: Identifying Your Personality and Values URL Personality and Values

Read this section, which examines the dynamics of personality traits and will help you to develop an understanding of how they impact workplace behaviors. In order for a manager to properly implement the P-O-L-C framework, s/he must be able to provide value within her/his own task executions, set the pace and tone to be followed in the workplace, and build relationships that support the greatest return on investment for both the employer and the employee. 

1.3.2: Behavior = Values + Perception URL Perception

Read this section, which will help you develop an understanding of the personal biases that you use in order to support how you go about making decisions for yourself and others. Be sure to carefully consider the bridge between your personal biases and your personality, and how the combination of this information can be used to make you a better manager.

1.3.3: Workplace Attitudes and Job Satisfaction URL Work Attitudes

Read this section, which describes how managers shape opinions, beliefs, and feelings regarding the workplace environment. Pay particular attention to the factors contributing to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

1.3.4: KSAO (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other Characteristics) vs. Fit URL The Interactionist Perspective: The Role of Fit

Read this section, which discusses the concept of workplace "fit". In today's business world, it is not enough to have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to execute the role and functions of a particular job; many organizations are relying more on fit. Fit refers to whether or not you have the personality and character dynamics to successfully integrate into the organization. In this section, you will explore how to identify several fit dynamics: person-job-position fit, person-organization fit, etc. You will also develop an understanding of how fit dynamics connect to and integrate with work behaviors. 

1.3.5: Influencing Workplace Behaviors URL Work Behaviors

Read this section, which examines the factors that have the strongest influence over workplace behaviors. In understanding these factors, a manager should be able to develop programs and a workplace environment that supports improved dynamics between the employer and the employees. Ultimately, knowing these patterns can help increase productivity within the workplace. 

1.3.6: Developing Your Positive Attitude Skills URL Developing Your Positive Attitude Skills

Read this section, which provides a guideline for cultivating and conveying a positive attitude in the workplace. Positive attitudes are contagious and will greatly affect productivity in your work environment.

1.3.7: Workplace Personality Tests URL The Big Five Personality Test

Read this article and think about what, if any, personality tests are conducted by your organization. Have you taken a personality test, or given one to others? Do you believe that the five personality traits accurately portray human beings? Why or why not? As society advances and new technologies impact our lives, will our personalities adapt and change? What about the possibility of individuals displaying different personalities based on their form of interaction? For example, will introverts feel more comfortable expressing themselves in an online environment? What other personality characteristics will be impacted by the use of technology.

URL Discussion: The Big Five Personality Test

Reflect on the Big Five Personality Test that you have just explored. What type of personality do you believe defines your individual preferences? Do you feel that your personality style has changed over time based on your experiences? Share your thoughts on these questions in the discussion forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

2.1.1: The P-O-L-C Framework URL History, Globalization, and Values-Based Leadership

Read the introduction and section 3.1 for a brief review of the Planning-Organizing-Leading-Controlling (P-O-L-C) framework, which has been utilized by firms large and small throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. This section also explores the case of the Hannah Anderson Corporation, and how the company has implemented the P-O-L-C framework to create a thriving clothing-import business.

2.1.2: Understanding Early Management Principles URL A Timeline of Management and Leadership

Study this visual timeline of 19th- and 20th-century management and leadership theories.

URL Ancient History: Management Through the 1990s

Read this section to explore the thought process behind early management theory, with a particular emphasis on Henri Fayol's 14 principles of management. Pay close attention to these principles, as they have great applicability to contemporary management. You will also be introduced to a more recent management thought process spearheaded by Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman in their book In Search of Excellence. Be sure to take detailed notes on these principles.

2.1.3: The Role of Social Networking in the 21st Century URL Contemporary Principles of Management

Read this section, which explains why managers need to be able to identify social and political trends. These trends significantly shape how a manager performs his or her tasks and often dictate the foundational success of an organization. It also covers the evolution of social networking, from its origins as a way for college students to connect, to its present-day role as a viable, effective, and efficient way for corporations to utilize the viral nature of the Internet as a marketing tool. As you read, consider how social networking has blurred the lines between personal, professional, and business activities. Consider both the advantages and disadvantages for businesses using social networking.

URL Social Networking and the Workplace

Read this article and consider the growing ways in which you use email as compared with your use of email two years ago, or even five years ago. How much has your usage of email increased? Do you now rely on this method of communication more than you did in the past? How involved are you in social media, on both a personal and a business level? In your own work, are you often encouraged to use social media as a way to expand business opportunities?

URL Discussion: Social Networking and the Workplace

Reflect on the social networking article that you just read. Is social networking, as a business activity, part of your workplace responsibilities? Do you feel that personal social networking activities are conducted too much during the workday, distracting employees from their duties? Why or why not? Share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

2.2: Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management URL Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management

Read this article and think about the differences between the early scientific and bureaucratic approaches to management. Viewing these ideas within their historical context, do you think the two theories could have coexisted, or was it only possible for a company to use one or the other? As you read about the advancement of management theories, consider the approaches used in your own organization, or another contemporary organization. Can you see business areas in which some of the older theories are being implemented? If so, do they mesh well with some of the more modern approaches being used?

URL Frederick Winslow Taylor: The Father of Modern Management

Read this article and think about what you have learned in this course regarding personality types. What traits do you see in Taylor as a person that resulted in the development of his theories? Where did Taylor's ability to develop management theories fit in with his ability to come up with innovative inventions? Recognizing the fact that Taylor's theories may have been misunderstood or misapplied, do you see any modern applications and uses for his methods? Are any of these methods being used in your own organization, or another contemporary organization you can think of?

Page Tribal Leadership

Watch this lecture, which explains how and why we work well in so-called "tribes". Take notes as you watch.

URL Discussion: Theories of Management

Reflect on some of the theories of management that you have just explored. Consider the management theories that are in operation in your own workplace. Do you believe that these principles are being effectively implemented? What other practices do you feel might be better suited to your work environment? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking the on link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

2.3: Scientific Management Theory URL Scientific Management Theory and the Ford Motor Company

Read this article and consider the Ford Motor Company's manufacturing processes prior to Henry Ford's implementation of the assembly line. Think about what might have occurred had Ford not hired Frederick Winslow Taylor to evaluate Ford's manufacturing methods. How did Ford's strategy of lowering automobile pricing – so that his own employees could afford to buy one of his cars – change the automobile industry, consumer behaviors, and the future of urban and suburban environments?

2.4: A Modern Look at Management URL Mintzberg and Managing

Read this article and consider Henry Mintzberg's view of technology and email. Do you agree that these phenomena have a negative impact on a manager's effectiveness? What about Mintzberg's view that aiming for a specific goal can ultimately be detrimental to an organization's success? Also consider Mintzberg's view on creating sense of community within an organization. Does such a community exist in your own organization, or another contemporary organization you can think of?

URL Managing: Pure, If Not Simple

Read this article and think about Henry Mintzberg's view that management is a result of an individual's experience and the situation in which that person finds himself or herself. Do you agree with this view? Do you, or those around you, manage based on this approach, or do you/they use a more scientific and structured method? In your experience, which approach has proven to be more effective? How does Mintzberg's management approach complement or contrast with other theories?

2.5.1: Business Is Going Global, and Management Has To Change URL Business in a Global Environment

Read the introduction and section 3.1, which discusses why countries and corporations, both large and small, engage in international trade. With globalization in mind, pay particular attention to the different models and incentives for international trade and business cooperation. Trade deficits and surpluses affect many aspects of our day-to-day lives. Think about how some of these determinants might impact the business market in your country.

2.5.2: Getting Involved in International Business URL Opportunities in International Business

Read this section, which discusses companies' various challenges and opportunities as they engage in international business. When a company enters the global market, the application of management principles intensifies as stakeholders' demands begin to take shape. It also gives a roadmap to how companies expand internationally, emphasizing international licensing agreements and franchising opportunities. Pay attention to how companies outsource manufacturing to countries with lower costs of labor to maximize profits. Domestic and international manufacturing options have advantages and disadvantages regarding environmental conditions, skilled labor, financial incentives, and cultural differences.

2.5.3: The Environment of Global Business: Cultural, Economic, and Legal URL The Global Business Environment

Read this section, which describes how to identify legal, political, cultural, and economic differences between two countries. These are considered to be invaluable skills in the international business environment. Consider how business professionals utilize this information to increase organizational success. The concepts of language, time, and communication will help you improve your business while managing employees, resources, and capital. 

2.5.4: Managing and Controlling Global Business URL Trade Controls

Read this section, which describes the ways in which governments and international bodies promote and regulate trade. You should be able to identify and discuss the various tools and policies that governments typically utilize to encourage economic growth. This information can be used by managers and leaders to make strategic decisions, including deciding if and when a business should expand on a global scale.

2.5.5: Managing through Trade Barriers URL Reducing International Trade Barriers

Read this section, which provides insight into the various ways to minimize and/or remove trade barriers, a process that directly supports the concept of free trade among designated nations. One example of this idea is NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement), an agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. It also introduces you to initiatives that countries and international organizations are taking to bridge the gap between developing and developed economies, allowing rapid growth in emerging markets, and encouraging competition on a global scale.

2.5.6: Global Enterprise Management URL Global Enterprise Management

Read this article and consider the following questions: How has the spread of globalization provided growth opportunities for businesses? On the flip side, how has globalization challenged businesses? Does the company you work for, or one you are familiar with, implement the three management strategies? If yes, how so? If not, do you think these strategies could help the company excel as a global enterprise?

URL Globalization and the Coca-Cola Company

Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is globalization to Coca-Cola's success? How did Coca-Cola begin its globalization journey? What specific practices supported Coca-Cola's goal to be the best beverage company in the world? How did Coca-Cola's global marketing strategies, product differentiation, and technology efforts support the company's desire to grow globally?

2.5.7: Global Management on a Local Level URL Managing Local Practices in Global Contexts

Read this section, which describes how to apply global management practices to variations within local business contexts. To navigate to the next section, click on the arrow key at the bottom of the page, or click on the link to the section in the left-hand table of contents. 

3.1.1: Work Culture Case Studies URL Yahoo! Home Work Edict Is All About Rebooting Its Notorious Company Culture

Read this article, which explains how Yahoo! changed its corporate culture by eliminating its previous policy encouraging telecommuting and enforcing a new, stricter workplace policy that requires all employees to work on site in company offices. Consider how this change may impact productivity at Yahoo!, as well as how it may set a precedent for work cultures in other organizations. This case study will introduce you to some of the dilemmas faced by corporations and managerial staff in the 21st century.

URL Organizational Culture

Read the introduction and section 8.1, which briefly introduces the world of Google. As a real-life business application of the concepts you have learned in this course, this description of Google provides you with an understanding of how a modern, rapidly expanding company creates its own organizational culture.

3.1.2: Why Managers Need to Understand Organizational Culture URL Understanding Organizational Culture

Read this section, which discusses assumptions, values, and artifacts as they apply to organizational culture. You will learn how to identify elements of organizational culture and develop an understanding of why it has become such an important aspect of a manager's success. It discusses the layers of organizational culture and how you can better understand and interpret each one.

3.1.3: How Managers Can Measure and Identify Organizational Culture URL Measuring Organizational Culture

Read this section, which explains the seven dimensions of organizational culture and discusses how to use these dimensions to identify the impact of cultural strengths within an organization. The goal of studying this information is to help you better recognize the roles and functions that a manager must fulfill in order to make a successful impact on productivity, which in turn supports the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Carefully examine Figure 8.6, which provides an illustrated profile of organizational cultures.

URL Guide to Communication and Corporate Culture

Read this article, which explains the essence of corporate culture and the different types of cultures that exist within organizations.

3.1.4: How Managers Form and Maintain Organizational Cultures URL Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture

Read this section, which discusses strategies that will assist you in better understanding organizational culture in the workplace. Several of the key points are expressed through visual models to help you understand how to create and maintain a productive culture.

URL Shifting Corporate Culture

Listen to this audio clip featuring former Shell Oil executive Anita Burke, who considers controversial issues that have led to dramatic changes in corporate culture.

3.1.5: Managers Have To Be Aware of Organizational Cultural Changes URL Creating Culture Change

Read this section, which introduces a six-step process that managers can use to support and implement cultural change. As an organization grows and develops, so does its culture. A manager must be prepared to assist in adjusting organizational culture as needed. Pay careful attention to this model for change, especially under the headings in the text titled "Creating a Sense of Urgency" and "Role-Modeling".

3.1.6: Check Yourself: Do I Fit In? URL Developing Your Personal Skills: Learning to Fit In

Read this section, which further elaborates on the idea of employee fit. Usually, when a company decides to employ someone, it should be understood that the hiring managers have taken the time to assess the candidate's ability to fit within the organization's structure. It shows how to make similar decisions about an organization you may be joining. Focus on how to proactively assess an organization's environment to determine whether or not your skills, personality, and character dynamic fit, and the factors you should consider before joining a new organization. 

3.1.7: Building Organizational Culture in a New Business Venture URL Company Culture

Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is a company's culture to its bottom line? How do the eight guiding principles foster a positive company culture? Does the company you work for, or one you are familiar with, have a positive company culture? If yes, how so? If not, how do you think implementing these eight principles could help change the culture for the better?

URL Discussion: Company Culture

Reflect on the article about company culture that you have just read. Consider a company you have worked for, or one that you are familiar with, in which the culture was a positive one. What were the aspects of this culture that made your experience positive? On the flip side, have you ever experienced a negative company culture? How did you deal with this negative environment?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

3.2: Diversity URL Skills for Change – Diversity at Work

Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is it for an organization to incorporate diversity into every facet of its business? Why have many businesses chosen to adopt only a couple practices in support of diversity and change? What do all five examples of diversity champions have in common? How do you think their outstanding diversity efforts have contributed to their success?

3.2.1: Managing a Diverse Workforce URL Managing Demographic and Cultural Diversity

Read this section, which explains how diversity is changing the workforce.

URL Doing Good as a Core Business Strategy: The Case of Goodwill Industries

Read this section, which includes a discussion of the challenges and benefits of diversity, and the tools you can use in your work as a manager to address various aspects of diversity.

URL The Value of Ethnic Diversity in the Teaching Profession: A New Zealand Case Study

Read this article and consider the following questions: What is the impact of changing demographics on the workforce in New Zealand? And, as demographics change worldwide, how should organizations respond in terms of their hiring practices? Do you think the outcomes of this case study could be applied to other industries besides education? In conjunction with the findings within the education industry, do you think that educating all employees about diversity is beneficial to a business' success? If so, how?

URL Demographic Diversity

Read this section, which discusses cultural identity and how to better analyze culture in the business world using Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede's framework. Study this information to address the cultural impact on organizational behavior and become better equipped to make management decisions associated with culture filtered by understanding diversity.

URL Cultural Diversity and the Role of Ethics and National Culture

Read sections 2.3 and 2.4, which discusses how to integrate the concepts of culture, diversity, and ethics into a cohesive thought process that can be used to support national and international management decisions. Be sure to click "Next Section" to read section 3.4.

URL Managing Diversity for Success: The Case of IBM

Read this section, which provides a case study of the workplace environment at IBM. Think about how models and concepts of workforce diversity might apply to IBM and its efforts to promote a positive, fulfilling, and challenging work environment for its many employees.

3.2.2: Generational Diversity URL Generational Diversity

Read this article and consider the following questions: How prevalent is generational diversity in today's organizations? What are some of the differences between each generation group? How important is it for a person to know his or her own generational tendencies as well as the generational tendencies of coworkers? What generation group do you belong to, and what generational tendencies do you notice in your own behavior? How do these tendencies affect your interactions with others?

URL Discussion: Generational Diversity

Reflect on the article about generational diversity that you have just read. What, if any, impact does generational diversity have on your own workplace? Are younger, more technologically comfortable employees tolerant of older employees who may not possess as many technological skills? Have you observed the reactions of older employees to new technology, and if so, how did these employees deal with those changes?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

3.3.1: Defining Business Ethics URL Business Ethics and Social Responsibility

Read the introduction and section 2.1, which describes managerial duties in the workplace. Managers have a number of responsibilities when they take on the role of overseeing the resources of a company. As they carry out their tasks, managers must be ready and able to apply the core elements of ethics in the workplace.

3.3.2: An Individual Approach to Ethics for Managers URL The Individual Approach to Ethics

Read this section, which describes a variety of ethical approaches that managers can utilize in the workplace. You will learn the steps that a manager must use when making an ethical decision and how to solve particular ethical dilemmas or lapses. Review the key takeaways at the end of the section.

3.3.3: Identifying Ethical Issues URL Identifying Ethical Issues

Read this section, which describes how ethical issues affect managerial decisions. Many business scandals revolve around individuals in powerful management positions who have made decisions laced with unethical behavior. In this section, you will learn how to analyze ethical behavior to appropriately address potential concerns as they may arise. Focus on concepts such as integrity and bribery, which help provide an ethical framework on which to base your managerial decisions.

URL Business Ethics

Read this section, which covers the typology of ethical lapses.

URL Top 12 Business Ethics Issues

Read the section and then review table on business ethics issues. After thoroughly studying these two resources, consider the following questions: Of the twelve ethical lapses mentioned in the article and table, which one is the most frequently broken in your own workplace? What actions might an organization take to fix these unethical behaviors? Do you think unethical behaviors are becoming more common in the workplace? If so, why?

3.3.4: Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility URL Corporate Social Responsibility

Read this section, which defines corporate social responsibility and provides an introductory discussion about the numerous responsibilities that corporations carry out in service to their stakeholders.

3.3.5: What Is Environmentalism? URL Environmentalism

Read this section, which highlights various ways in which companies have adopted green environmental manufacturing processes. Managers are often responsible for working alongside engineers and scientists in order to establish and implement improvements that lead to a more environmentally friendly mode of output. New movements toward sustainability and clean energy have pushed corporations and small businesses to minimize the negative effects of production on their surrounding environments.

3.3.6: Responsibilities to Stakeholders URL Stages of Corporate Responsibility
Read this section, which introduces the five stages of corporate responsibility.
URL Stakeholders and Corporate Social Responsibility

Read this article and consider the following questions: Who are the shareholders and stakeholders of a business that you are familiar with? What is the primary source of conflict between shareholders and stakeholders? Why is stakeholder responsibility so important? How does following the five stakeholder principles lead to stakeholder satisfaction?

3.3.7: Making CSR Work for All Stakeholders URL Business Case for Corporate Social Responsibility

Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is CSR to you as a consumer and a business professional? How can CSR positively and negatively impact a company? Do the benefits of CSR activities outweigh the drawbacks? If so, why?

3.3.8: Ethical Issues and Considerations URL The Organizational Approach to Ethics

Read this section, which describes how unique business cultures help shape managers' and employees' professional lives. Codes of conduct and verbalized expectations are of tremendous importance in the 21st century. They help raise awareness about the issues and business practices that are of greatest concern to an organization. In this section, you will learn how companies use various means to promote ethical leadership. You will also see how a clear and concise code of conduct can be a significant asset to an organization.

URL Values-Based Leadership

Read this article and consider the following questions: What is values-based leadership? How is values-based leadership different from other leadership styles? Do you know any values-based leaders? If so, do they apply the key values-based leadership qualities noted in this article? In what ways do these leaders apply these qualities?

Page Ethics in Corporate Life

Watch these two short videos featuring Carly Fiorina, the former CEO of Hewlett-Packard (HP). She introduces some important points to consider when approaching company ethics, including the long-term advantages gained by a company that emphasizes ethically based work.

URL Ethics and Business Success

Read this article and think about examples of ethical companies you are familiar with. If you work for a company with strong ethics and values, how do you feel about working for this organization? Does your company have a code of conduct or code of ethics? Next, think about how you feel when you purchase products or services from companies with good ethical reputations. Also consider companies you are aware of that have exhibited poor ethical behavior; as a consumer, how do you feel about purchasing products or services from those organizations?

URL War Against Corruption

Read this article and answer the following questions: Does corruption exist in society today? If so, where? How widespread a problem do you consider corruption to be? Does the organization you work for, or one you are familiar with, implement any of the anti-corruption actions noted in this article? How can you make a difference in the war against corruption?

URL Business and Human Rights

Read this article and consider how international laws and US courts provide jurisdictions over human rights violations. What position do you think the US Supreme Court should take on this issue? How can international entities, such as the United Nations Global Compact and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, continue to have a positive impact on corporate global human rights policies?

4.1.1: Management vs. Leadership Page Everyday Leadership

Watch this short video for a refreshing view on the definition of leadership and the impact leaders can make on the lives of others.

Page How Great Leaders Inspire Action

Watch this lecture for a motivational message on what makes leaders great.

URL The Four Capabilities of Leadership

Read this article, which features an interview with Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Deborah Ancona. Should all leaders throw away their old models of leadership? Which of the four capabilities discussed in this article would you consider to be of greatest importance? Or, should all capabilities be given equal importance? Why or why not?

4.1.2: Leaders and Leadership URL Leaders Must Drive Change

Read this article and consider whether or not you agree with Mr. Immelt's argument that leadership may have no shelf life. Do you feel that it is necessary for GE, or any large organization, to continually change its leadership strategies? Are some strategies universal and time-tested? Do you think that any of the 10 qualities of leadership stand out more than others? Or, should they all be given equal weight? Why or why not?

4.1.3: Common Failures in Leadership URL The Most Common Failures in Leadership

Read this article and consider Warren Bennis' ongoing references to William Shakespeare. Do you agree with Bennis' premise that people purposefully choose to avoid negative comments? Or, is our aversion to negativity an unconscious act? What do you think of Bennis' theory that we do what we believe we should without considering whether or not we are moving toward what we desire?

4.1.4: Management's Power and Influence URL Focus on Power: The Case of Steve Jobs

Read this section, which introduces power and politics within the business world. This section closely examines Steve Jobs, the former CEO of Apple Inc., and the ways he used power strategies to achieve business success.

URL The Basics of Power

Read this section, which addresses the meaning of power. Power ultimately can be considered to be one's ability to influence others, a skill that all managers need to possess, regardless of their level of management within an organization. It also discusses the consequences of power as managers use it.

URL The Power to Influence

Read this section, which discusses and defines different types of power. As you are learning about these different types of power, keep in mind that all managers have a dominant style of power, or a style they are most comfortable with. But if a manager relies only on utilizing one type of power, they may find themselves in situations where their management loses some of its effectiveness. A good manager has to develop an understanding of all types of power, and then use this understanding to shape how he or she will respond within any given situation.

URL Organizational Politics

Read this section, which discusses how to interpret, manage, and prioritize organizational politics. As you will see, lack of opportunity often leads to feelings of contempt and jealousy in the workplace. One example is the absence of upward mobility within a given company. If employees believe there is an absence of these opportunities, they in turn may perceive the organization as being overly political. This section gives strategies to minimize politics within an organization and promote a more harmonious environment.

URL Understanding Social Networks

Read this section, which emphasizes the benefits of working towards improving internal and external social networking. In today's management environment, no one should overlook or underestimate the power of social networking. As you read, focus on the discussion of social networking as it applies to management and the analysis of social networking's influence on an organization's ability to remain relevant within the marketplace.

URL The Role of Ethics and National Culture

Read this section, which examines how ethics and culture impact power. Having power without the ability to exercise some level of control will inevitably lead to a variety of ethical challenges. This potential for the misuse of power increases significantly when a company makes the decision to conduct business globally. Regardless of the setting and field in which a business operates, an organization should consider how power is harnessed and applied, and how it can be used to minimize or eliminate cultural or ethical challenges.

URL Conclusion and Exercises

Read sections 13.8 and 13.9, which review the tools necessary to create a thriving work environment. Earlier in this course, you were introduced to the concept of social networking and its impact on an organization's ability to remain competitive and relevant. As you read this section's real-life application of social networking, keep in mind that before you can actually apply any of these concepts in an organizational setting, you have to first understand how these concepts impact you individually. Too often individuals mismanage themselves and prematurely claim to possess the tools needed to properly manage strategic business environments. Throughout your studies in this course, you should be applying important concepts to your own business studies and analyzing how you can use this information to achieve individual success in management. Be sure to click "Next Section" to read section 13.9.

4.2.1: Case Study: General Electric Allows Teamwork to Take Flight URL Managing Groups and Teams

Read the introduction and section 13.1, which discusses the concept of teamwork through an analysis of GE's employee practices. Once you have finished this unit, you may want to take another look at this case study to solidify your knowledge of teamwork.

4.2.2: Managing Group Dynamics URL Group Dynamics

Read this section, which discusses both formal and informal group dynamics. Pay particular attention to the foundational model of team and group development. Several other team development models are available, but the Tuckman model is one of the most popular today. Punctuated equilibrium is a more radical approach to understanding groups and teams. This team-building model is based on the idea that teams go through periods of stability and periods of rapid change. What happens during these alternating periods is what makes this approach to managing teams so unique. 

URL Working in Groups and Teams

Read this article, which explains team and group formation and development. Pay particular attention to the section describing the five stages of group development.

4.2.3: Identifying the Characteristics of a Team URL Understanding Team Design Characteristics

Read this section, which identifies the main characteristics of a team. Note that a group and a team are not always one and the same. Make sure you understand these differences before you move on.

URL Defining Teams and Teamwork

Read this article, which describes the components of teams and groups and the pros and cons of effective teamwork.

4.2.4: How Do Managers Organize Effective Teams? URL Organizing Effective Teams

Read this section, which discusses how managers strategize when forming teams. Establishing team norms is an essential part of the team-building process. This section covers how to host team meetings and how to efficiently and effectively guide a team.

4.2.5: Managing the Barriers to Effective Teams URL Barriers to Effective Teams

Read this section, which examines some of the common challenges that managers typically face when presiding over workplace teams. How have some of these concepts been applied to some of your own workplace situations? If you have never participated in a team, look at some of the case studies in this course. 

4.2.6: The Areas of Team Development URL What Are the Areas of Team Development?

Read this article and consider Dr. Lafair's process for team formation. Think about whether or not this process can be consistently successful. Might there be situations in which team development might not ever get to the perform stage? Might there be situations in which a team might be consistently successful, yet not reach the transforming stage? What situations might render the transforming stage ineffective?

4.3.1: Leading a Diverse Team URL Leading Diverse Teams

Read this article and consider the following questions: Why are diverse teams so common in the modern business world? What are the differences between diverse and homogeneous teams? What are some of the challenges, advantages, and pitfalls of diverse teams? Why are Dr. Maznevski's three stages to implementing a high-performing team essential to a team's performance?

4.3.2: Major Pointers for Building Teams URL Team-Building

As you read this article, consider the following questions: Why do organizations need teamwork? Why do employees need teamwork? What is team-building, and when should teams engage in team-building activities? What characteristics are present in high-performing teams, and what characteristics are present in dysfunctional teams? How can team-building exercises help these two types of teams?

4.3.3: Controlling Your Inner Circle Page Who Should You Surround Yourself With?

Watch this video about the importance of surrounding yourself with positive people in order to become a strong leader. 

4.3.4: Team-building URL Building a Winning Team

Read this article. Why is team-building important to an organization? How can team-building activities improve team performance? Do you currently work in a team environment? If so, does your team implement any of the steps to build a winning team? How does this process affect the team's performance?

URL Discussion: Building a Winning Team

Reflect on the article you have just read about building a winning team. What roles have you played as part of a team in your own work environment? Do you prefer to work alone or with others, based on your past experiences with teamwork?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

4.3.5: Managing Team Conflict URL Constructive Conflict Management

As you read this article, consider the following questions: Why does conflict occur? What is your own typical conflict style? How can you improve the way you currently handle conflict?

4.3.6: All Managers Delegate URL Effective Delegation

Read this article and consider the following questions: Why is delegation an important management skill? Why do managers hesitate to delegate? How can planning help managers improve delegation results? In your current job, do you delegate as often as you should? If not, why?

5.1: Motivation Page The Puzzle of Motivation

Watch this video, which examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers do not: traditional rewards are not always as effective as we think. Listen carefully to the illuminating stories that the speaker shares.

5.1.1: Case Study: Zappos Creates a Motivating Place to Work URL Motivating Employees

Read the introduction and section 14.1, which provide an excellent glimpse into the concept of motivation by examining the company Zappos and the methods Zappos uses to identify and motivate effective contributors to the company's organizational success. Once an employee's initial training is complete, Zappos offers that employee a significant financial payment to quit his or her new job. That's right: after training is complete, Zappos will pay an employee to leave the company if they choose to. By implementing this unusual practice, Zappos attempts to create a strategic motivational environment in which all the people who work for the company have a strong desire to be there.

URL Delivering Happiness

Read this article and consider the following questions: What makes you, as an employee, truly happy? Does money alone provide you happiness at work? How might applying Tony Hsieh's four components to building happiness at work affect your own work happiness? Does the organization you currently work for, or one you are familiar with, incorporate Hsieh's four components? If yes, how so? If not, how could you consider implementing these components in your own organization?

URL Discussion: Delivering Happiness

Reflect on the article that you just read on workplace happiness. Consider the following questions: Are you happy at your job? If not, what is preventing you from finding work that is more satisfying?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

5.1.2: Need-Based Theories of Motivation in Management URL Need-Based Theories of Motivation

Read this section, which discusses several theories that will broaden your understanding of motivation as a management concept. While there are indeed some similarities among these theories, each will have distinct characteristics that will allow you to better understand this valuable management tool. Be sure that you pay careful attention to each of these theories on motivation and that you are able to distinguish each from the others in terms of application. Each of these theories of motivation has a foundation in the identification of an individual need or desire that may be a perceived or a real deficiency.

5.1.3: Process-Based Theories of Motivation in Management URL Process-Based Theories

Read this section, which discusses a management approach that focuses on how the design of a job impacts the motivation of an employee. Rather than focusing on a perception of deficiency, this approach draws on a succinct analysis of the effects of an employee's surrounding work environment.

5.1.4: How to Develop Your Personal Motivation Skill Set URL Developing Your Personal Motivation Skills

Read this section, which introduces you to the process of giving and seeking feedback. The effects of feedback are especially apparent when a manager completes a performance appraisal of an employee or when a member of an organization completes a self-appraisal. This section offers guidelines for giving feedback to employees and seeking feedback from your managers.

5.2: Empowerment URL Empowerment

Read this article and consider the following questions: What is empowerment? Why is empowerment important to organizations and to employees? How can an organization's culture encourage or discourage employee empowerment? Do you feel empowered in your own work environment? Why or why not?

URL The Benefits of Empowering Employees

Read this article and consider the following questions: What are some of the benefits associated with empowering employees? How important is employee empowerment to improving an organization's productivity? Does the company you currently work for, or one you are familiar with, empower employees? If so, how does this philosophy benefit the organization?

5.3.1: Case Study: PointCast URL Negotiation Failure: The Case of the PointCast

Read this section, which discusses negotiation failure through the example of a situation that occurred at the now-defunct PointCast Internet company. Workplace conflict stems from a multitude of sources; on occasion issues will arise after a manager mishandles resources or makes poor decisions that have a negative impact on an individual, a department, or even the entire company.

5.3.2: Management's Conflict Essentials URL Understanding Conflict

Read this section, which discusses several different types of conflict and how they should be framed within a workplace context. Note especially the idea that not all conflict is bad; in fact, some types of conflict can actually help bring about organizational change, which may in turn lead to improved working conditions and productivity. A healthy debate about conflict can often shed light on how to address several issues at once.

5.3.3: Identifying the Causes and Outcomes Associated with Conflict URL Causes and Outcomes of Conflict

Read this section, which attempts to establish some of the root causes of conflict. Pay particular attention to the discussion of some core jobs in the workplace that are prone to conflict. 

5.3.4: Implementing Conflict Management URL Conflict Management

Read this section, which discusses some of the foundational ways to address conflict and identify specific styles of conflict management that fit with leadership styles. These styles fall on a continuum that observes levels of cooperation and levels of competitiveness. Sometimes there is actually a deficiency of conflict in a workplace environment, which can negatively affect productivity.

5.3.5: Management Must Understand Negotiations URL Negotiations

Read this section, which introduces the process of negotiation and identifies the phases of negotiation and how to avoid common mistakes. Managers should develop the skill of identifying the BATNA (the best alternative to a negotiated agreement) within a given situation.

5.3.6: Conflict Resolution URL Four Ways to Deal with Conflict at Work

Read this article and consider the following questions: Why does conflict occur in the workplace? Have you experienced conflict at work before? If so, why did the conflict occur? How was the conflict resolved? How can managers help reduce conflict?

URL Steps To Resolve Workplace Conflict

Read this article. How important is it to resolve conflict at work in a peaceful way? What steps can a facilitator use to resolve conflict? How can a facilitator encourage resolving conflict healthily and positively? How can these four steps help you promote positive conflict resolution in your own workplace?

URL Meaningful Conflict in the Workplace

Read this article and consider past viewpoints you may have held about conflict. What issues have you encountered that resulted in conflict? Have you ever considered conflict to be a productive activity rather than one that is negative? Have you participated in positive conflict as a way of increasing productivity?

5.3.7: Bringing It All Together Page The Personal Side of Management

Watch this video, which features Carol Bartz, the former CEO of Yahoo! and Autodesk. In this brief video, Bartz discusses how managers should actively make an effort to find enjoyment in leading others, especially since they (like everyone else) spend most of their waking hours at work. As you listen to this presentation, be mindful that as a manager, your job includes having compassion for others. Carol Bartz provides a sound example of this tip, which you should use as a jumping-off point to analyze your own personal approach to management.

6.1.1: Where Are the Right People?  URL Hire the Right People

Read this article and consider the performance culture in your own organization, or an organization you are familiar with. Are employees in this organization made to feel that they are part of a team? Are high-achieving employees treated differently from employees who display average performance? Is there an appropriate level of pressure placed on employees to perform well? Does the corporate culture recognize that accomplishments take time to achieve, or does it encourage workplace shortcuts as the norm?

URL Recruitment Strategies

Read this chapter, which includes detailed information on recruitment strategies and how to manage the recruiting process. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the recruitment process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization seeking employees.

URL Pre-Selection Strategies

Read this chapter, which discusses how companies choose the criteria from which they will select employees, including pre-selection strategies and how candidates are evaluated. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the pre-selection process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization seeking employees.

URL Strategies for Interviews and Post-Selection

Read this chapter, which focuses on the last phase of the employee selection process, including the interview process, selection strategies, and making an offer. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the selection process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization choosing employees and making job offers.

6.1.2: Recruiting and Keeping Quality Employees URL Recruiting, Motivating, and Keeping Quality Employees

Read the introduction and section 7.1, which introduces you to strategies for employee recruitment, motivation, and retention. In today's world of doing more with less, managers at all levels of an organization have the responsibility of knowing how to implement foundational human resource concepts successfully.

URL Developing Employees

Read this section, which introduces you to three major concepts as they are applied within the framework of human resources: diversity; training and development; and new employee orientation. Globalization in the 20th and 21st centuries has produced a multicultural and varied workforce. Age, gender, ethnicity, religion, and other factors have created a broad workforce landscape. It is very important to understand these elements, as no manager can achieve organizational success without fully utilizing employee capital. As you read, be sure to pay close attention to the sections of the text that discuss the mutual benefits of formal and informal on-the-job training.

URL Discussion: Developing Employees

Reflect on the article you have just read about training and the development of employees. Often, employees feel that job training is ineffective or unnecessary. What experiences have you had with employee training that were beneficial, or, in contrast of little value?

Share your thoughts on this question in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

URL Motivating Employees

Read this section, which provides additional examples of employee motivation techniques. Earlier in this course, you were introduced to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This section expands on how Maslow's motivational theory can be applied in the workplace. Pay attention to the diagrams and the in-depth discussion of different motivational theories.

URL What Makes a Great Place to Work?

Read this section, which discusses how compensation and benefits help create a satisfying work environment for employees and how companies help their employees strike a balance between their jobs and personal lives. Because every employee requires a different work-life balance, companies must be creative in determining their work-life policies.

URL Performance Appraisal

Read this section, which covers the topic of performance appraisals. Conducting employee performance reviews is a key part of a manager's job. The feedback a manager gives about an employee's work may or may not align with the organization's expectations for that employee; thus, a manager's input is highly influential in directing an employee's career at a company. This section discusses how a manager can correct poor performance and how a manager can work to retain valuable employees.

URL Labor Unions

Read this section, which discusses labor unions. In some workplace environments, a manager may have to work with a labor union. There are foundational principles a manager should understand when dealing with unions and union activities. As you read, focus on collective bargaining, negotiation breakdowns, and unions' future in the United States, particularly in light of the decline in overall union membership.

URL Recruitment and Selection

Read this article, which explains various ways to recruit and select high-quality employees.

6.1.3: Not All Interviews Are Equal URL Interviewing at Google

Read this article and consider your own past interviewing experiences. How do they compare with this depiction of the interview process at Google? Which process do you prefer? Would you want to work at Google, given what you have read in this essay?

6.2.1: Case Study: Kronos Uses Science to Find the Ideal Employee URL Strategic Human Resource Management

Read the introduction and section 16.1, which discusses how the company Kronos Inc. has used technology to help screen potential candidates and reduce employee turnover. As you know from your coursework thus far, managers are charged with making strategic decisions that, in many cases, they have a minimal amount of time to respond to. This case study provides an example of a solution that one company created in order to improve decision-making among management.

6.2.2: Changing the Role of Human Resources URL The Changing Role of Strategic Human Resource Management in Principles of Management

Read this section, which provides information on the strategic nature of human resources and the significance of a manager's need to focus on and support an organization's human capital. As a manager, the focus of all of your efforts should direct you towards achieving a particular outcome.

6.2.3: Talent Management URL The War for Talent

Read this section, which discusses how to attract and keep employee talent within your organization. There is a direct correlation between the concept of talent management and the financial performance of an organization.

6.2.4: Developing Effective Selection and Placement Strategies URL Effective Selection and Placement Strategies

Read this section, which provides examples of effective selection and placement strategies for human capital. Every company has its own personality and philosophy, and it is essential for companies to hire individuals whose needs and ethics match those of the organization.

6.2.5: How Management Uses Pay Structure and Pay for Performance URL The Roles of Pay Structure and Pay for Performance

Read this section, which discusses the elements of a pay system from both an individual and a company perspective. How and at what level a manager sets pay for an employee is a critical component in creating incentives and communicating expectations for that employee's performance.

6.2.6: How Management Works To Develop a High-Performance Work System URL Designing a High-Performance Work System

Read this section, which discusses how to harness technology to improve performance. By creating workplace systems that increase the likelihood of great performance, companies can optimize and streamline many of their services. This section also discusses how to create and support succession plans, which are career tracks and advancement protocols that incentivize an organization's human capital.

6.2.7: Tying It All Together URL Using the HR Balanced Scorecard to Gauge and Manage Human Capital, Including Your Own

Read this section, which discusses the balanced scorecard method and how it can be applied to HR. It also emphasizes the importance of measurement systems as a way to determine employee results.

6.2.8: Being Strategic within an Organization Page Be Strategic with Your Workforce

Watch this video interview with Dick Beatty, a professor of human resource management at Rutgers University. Beatty explains how to identify the most important positions in your company and how to get your most talented employees into those positions.

6.2.9: Managers Should Understand Personnel Planning URL Talent Hunt: Getting the People You Need When You Need Them

Read this article and consider the idea that employees should be viewed in the same way that companies view supply-chain management principles. Do you think it is inevitable that employees will move from one company to another throughout their careers? Should companies cultivate more of their employees with the hope that good talent will stay with and will benefit the organization? If a company views employees as commodities, will such a view discourage workers from commitment and dedication to the organization?

7.1.1: Case Study: Transforming the Textbook Industry URL Strategizing

Read the introduction and section 5.1, which presents a case study of an online publishing company that used the P-O-L-C framework to support the development of its business strategy and create a new way to access college textbooks. The ability to strategize is a skill that a manager must possess to be successful.

7.1.2: Management Strategy Frameworks URL Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework

Read this section, which discusses how to apply strategic management techniques within the P-O-L-C framework, emphasizes the inputs that affect the formulation of a strategy, and provides a framework for performing a SWOT analysis. Developed in the early 1970s, the SWOT analysis technique is an essential tool in the strategic planning process.

URL An Overview of Strategic Planning or "VMOSA"

Read this article, which explains the strategic planning process. Pay special attention to why and when organizations should engage in strategic planning.

URL PESTLE and SWOT Analyses

Read this article, which describes how to analyze an external environment and create a SWOT analysis.

Page Resource-Based View

Read this article, which describes how to utilize an organization's valuable resources to create a long-term sustainable strategy.

URL The Knowledge-Based View of Strategy Formulation

Read this article and consider the following questions: What is the knowledge-based view (KBV) of business strategy formulation? What three intangible resources serve as the foundation for developing an organizational strategy using the KBV? What is the most critical component in developing a competitive advantage strategy using the KBV? Why?

7.1.3: Intended and Realized Strategies of Managers URL How Do Strategies Emerge?

Read this section, which focuses on the essence of how strategy is made. Keep in mind that there is a difference between what a manager plans to happen and what actually unfolds – identifying and analyzing intended versus realized strategies. A manager should know the best way to make a strategy.

7.1.4: Managers Have To Make Choices URL Strategy as Trade-Offs, Discipline, and Focus

Read this section, which discusses different schools of thought regarding strategy, emphasizing strategic focus within an organization. Managers need to focus on a specific strategy for an organization to achieve any level of success. Still, they also need to be flexible to meet the ever-changing demands of a business. This section will help you identify the trade-offs associated with strategy and outline how to create a competitive advantage. Pay particular attention to this section's discussion of Michael Porter's generic strategies.

URL What Trade-Offs Are You Building into Your Strategy?

Read this article, which encourages you to recognize the consequences of your strategic choices and how they impact your overall production and organization.

Page Porter's Competitive Strategies

Read this article, which describes Michael Porter's three competitive strategies: cost leadership, differentiation, and market segmentation.

7.2.1: Case Study: Nucor Aligns Company Goals with Employee Goal URL Goals and Objectives

Read the introduction and section 6.1, which includes a case study that discusses Nucor Corp's efforts to align company and employee goals through its policy of treating employees as if they are owners of the company as well as its implementation of a highly effective bonus program.

7.2.2: How Should Managers Define Goals and Objectives? URL The Nature of Goals and Objectives

Read this section, which introduces the difference between a goal and an objective. Broadly speaking, goals are wider in scope, and objectives are more focused. It is very important for a manager to be able to distinguish between these two concepts. As you read, make sure to take detailed notes comparing and contrasting goals and objectives and describing how goals and objectives work within the P-O-L-C framework.

URL Creating Objectives

Read this article, which discusses how organizations can create objectives that enable them to achieve industry success.

7.2.3: Managers Must Understand the Measurement of Goals and Objectives URL From Management by Objectives to the Balanced Scorecard

Read this section, which introduces a variety of measurement tools that can be used to establish and manage goals and objectives. It is a manager's job to keep track of project performance and to identify areas of opportunity. A manager uses a management measurement tool to readily identify these areas and to provide a means by which he or she can develop appropriate strategic responses to changing goals and objectives.

7.2.4: How To Identify Successful Goals and Objectives URL Characteristics of Effective Goals and Objectives

Read this section, which explains setting attainable goals and objectives and identifies the tools necessary to troubleshoot issues in the goal-setting process. Any time a manager makes a decision, there is the possibility of an ethical, economic, or moral challenge to that decision. Knowing how to troubleshoot will help a manager to address such challenges better.

7.2.5: Managers Use Goals and Objectives for Employee Performance Evaluations URL Using Goals and Objectives in Employee Performance Evaluation

Read this section, which discusses how a manager can use goals and objectives to better analyze employee performance. Knowing these strategies will help you to better identify the areas in which an employee needs to improve. As you have learned from your work in this course, it is a manager's job to maximize the use of resources. Knowing how to align human capital performance with organizational goals and objectives will help you to support the improvement of workplace relationships and productivity.

7.2.6: Connecting Goals and Objectives with Corporate Social Responsibility URL Integrating Goals and Objectives with Corporate Social Responsibility

Read this section, which discusses how to use goals and objectives in support of organizational strategies as they relate to social responsibility and environmental issues. Organizations make use of the balanced scorecard approach, which incorporates both financial and non-financial indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of an organization's corporate social responsibility activities.

7.2.7: Defining Your Own Goals and Objectives Makes You a Better Manager URL Your Personal Balanced Scorecard

Read this section, which discusses the balanced scorecard method. This method links a company's vision, mission, and strategy with the goals and objectives that its individual employees seek to achieve. Do the exercise that asks you to develop your own balanced scorecard.

7.2.8: An Overview of Goal-Setting Strategies URL Setting and Achieving Powerful Goals

Read this article and think about your past goal-setting activities. Have you used an effective process for setting your goals? Have you shared your goals with others to help keep you accountable? Have you kept your desired goals, or have you lowered your standards as some level of success was achieved? Will you take some time to re-evaluate how you go about setting your goals? If so, how?

URL Discussion: Setting and Achieving Powerful Goals

Reflect on the article that you have just read about setting and achieving goals. What steps do you take to ensure that you set goals and take action to achieve those goals? What do you do when you find that you have gone off track?

Share your thoughts on the discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

7.3.1: The Components of a Business Strategy Page The Five Components of a Business Strategy

Watch this short video, which sets the stage for our discussion of business strategy.

URL Strategy Formulation

Read this article and, if applicable, think about one of your own past experiences with strategic planning. Were you aware of your specific role in helping the organization achieve its goals? Did the organization implement its plan effectively? Was the company flexible enough to adapt to marketplace changes as they occurred? Did the organization take appropriate measures to monitor the plan and evaluate its success or failure in achieving its stated goals?

7.3.2: Strategy Is Essential for Management Success URL Developing Strategy Through Internal Analysis

Read this section, which further explores the importance of well-thought-out managerial strategies. You will learn how to evaluate resources, potential capabilities, and core competencies, and then use them to support the development and implementation. This section focuses on identifying what your company does better than its competition and how you can use this insight to your advantage when developing a business strategy. As a manager, you will need to understand your company's best assets and use them to meet business needs. Pay attention to the VRIO (valuable, rare, inimitable, organization) framework for internal analysis. This tool will help you to determine whether a company has identified its true core competencies.

URL Developing Strategy Through External Analysis

Read this section, which covers the external environmental forces that impact the strategy and success of an organization. It is important for you to note that as a manager, you likely will be unable to control many influential elements that are external to your organization. Therefore, you must gather as much information as possible in any relevant situation in order to meet challenges that may arise from you external environment. Keep in mind that not all external factors have a negative impact; some may actually present opportunities.

URL Formulating Organizational and Personal Strategy With the Strategy Diamond

Read this section, which discusses how to identify whether or not a manager has presented a well-crafted and concise strategy. Pay special attention to the strategy diamond presented in the text; it is a strong visual resource for determining the characteristics of a solid strategy.

URL Developing Successful Strategies: Planning To Win

Read this article, which describes how organizations can develop effective strategies that enable them to achieve their goals. This article provides an excellent example of how a fictional community coalition might develop strategies to meet its goal of reducing teen pregnancy.

7.3.3: Discussing the Five Competitive Forces of Strategy Page The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy

This video features Professor Michael Porter of Harvard Business School. Porter is a leading thinker in the field of management. In this video, he discusses his Five Forces model and uses the airline and soft drink industries to reinforce and illustrate this model. Using this information, how might you use the Five Forces as a tool to improve strategy in your own organization (or one you are familiar with)?

8.1.1: Case Study: B. Ebbers Creates Biased Decision-Making at WorldCom URL Decision-Making

Read the introduction and section 11.1, which includes a case study featuring the story of Bernard Ebbers. As the CEO and top manager of a Fortune 500 company called WorldCom, Mr. Ebbers was frequently identified as a difficult man to work for, to the extent that managers working for him often avoided telling him vital information that might have shaped how he made executive decisions. Further adding to the severity of this systemic communication breakdown, Mr. Ebbers was extremely resistant to change, which is a quality that produces failures in management. Use this case as a foundational analysis of all the information presented in Unit 8 of this course. You may want to review this case again after you finish this unit to consider how the outcomes at WorldCom might have been prevented.

8.1.2: The Foundation of Management Decision-Making URL Understanding Decision-Making

This section defines decision-making and lists ethical questions to ask yourself when making a critical decision. It also discusses different types of decisions, when to employ various decision-making approaches, and how to determine which decision-making process is the appropriate one for any given situation.

8.1.3: Decision-Making and Management Challenges URL Faulty Decision-Making

Read this section, which addresses some of the obstacles that you may encounter during the decision-making process. Whenever a manager has to make a decision, he or she will encounter challenges. Such obstacles often arise from the biases of other people and can negatively impact the decision-making process.

8.1.4: Groupthink in the Decision-Making Process URL Decision-Making in Groups

Read this section, which explores the effects of groupthink on the decision-making process. This section includes a compare-and-contrast outline for individual decision-making and group decision-making. Pay attention to the pros and cons and the techniques associated with each. Why is groupthink an unhealthy habit for a manager or an organization?

8.1.5: Developing Your Own Management Decision-Making Skills URL Developing Your Personal Decision-Making Skills

Read this section, which suggests some techniques for customizing and maximizing your own managerial decision-making skills. You will be taught how to preemptively imagine and even avoid a particular issue altogether, which is a technique known as the "premortem process". The goal behind learning such a process is to minimize or even prevent bad decision-making.

8.1.6: Framing a Decision URL Framing a Decision

Read this article and think about the ways in which you make decisions. Do you frame the decision first? What are the benefits of this framing process? How can you apply some of these ideas to decisions that you may be in the process of making?

8.2.1: The Decision-Making Process URL Making Great Decisions

Read this article and think about the questions that you typically ask yourself when making decisions. When you decide, do you believe that there is always just one route to your desired outcome? Prepare a productivity table for some of the tasks that are currently on your to-do list. Are the items that come up as priorities the same items that you truly believe to be priorities?

URL Discussion: Making Great Decisions

Reflect on the article that you have just read about making decisions.Do you feel confident in your own decision-making skills? Are you able to make a decision and then stay the course and see your actions through to completion?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

8.2.2: Decision-Making Techniques URL How To Make Better Decisions

Read this article and consider the types of decisions you have made in the past. Can you determine, in retrospect, which types of decisions they were? Take a decision that you are currently considering and write a plan about how to resolve it. Does your decision-making plan match these steps? If not, how can your plan be adjusted to accommodate the 10 steps so that you can ensure your decision-making process will be effective?

8.2.3: The Challenges of Decision-Making Page The Art of Choosing

Watch this lecture by Sheena Iyengar, a professor at Columbia University Business School, who studies how we make choices and how we feel about the choices we make. She discusses both trivial choices (such as deciding whether to drink Coke or Pepsi) and profound ones. Her groundbreaking research has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions.

8.2.4: Decision-Making URL Decision-Making

Read this article and consider the areas within your own organization where the majority of decisions are made. Consider the following questions: Are the decision-making topics in your organization (or one you are familiar with) the same as those addressed in the McKinsey survey? Do decisions typically meet expectations within your organization? Do you find that decisions made within your organization are more effective when the process includes employees who are carrying out the implementation of decisions?

8.2.5: Complex Decision-Making Page The Emergent Genius of Ant Colonies

Watch this fascinating video on the world of ants and how each member of an ant colony knows its task. The speaker's research offers insights into all manner of complex systems, including decision-making in organizations.

9.1.1: Case Study: Toyota Struggles with Organizational Structure URL Organizational Structure and Change

Read the introduction and section 7.1, which includes a case study of the Japanese automaker Toyota. You will uncover some of the issues that the company encountered in 2009 and 2010 as it tried to make sense of millions of vehicle recalls due to unintended acceleration in its cars. Approach this case in light of your recent coursework, considering how important management practices could have been been applied to improve the situation at Toyota.

9.1.2: Coordinating Individuals Is a Big Part of Organizational Structure URL Organizational Structure

Read this section, which discusses the difference between centralization and decentralization (regarding who will make strategic and core decisions) and how to apply this information within the structure of an organization. This section also covers organizational hierarchy, departmentalization, and formalization, which are components that make up an organization's structure.

9.1.3: Contemporary Organizational Structures: Responding to Business Trends URL Contemporary Forms of Organizational Structures

Read this section, which discusses how to identify a matrix organization; how to eliminate barriers as identified within a boundaryless organization; and how to change organizational behavior.

Page Leading Change: Herding Cats Would Be Easier

This video describes some of the factors that frequently obstruct organizational progress and offers insight into how we can overcome these obstacles to move forward as a society. While the focus of this talk is on education, its principles apply to any business environment.

9.2.1: Change Management and Resistance to Change URL Organizational Change

Read this section, which discusses why people are so often resistant to change and how external forces affect change implementation within the workplace. This section also covers some of the possible reactions to change, which will help you understand how your employees might respond as you implement change in a work environment.

9.2.2: Plan for Change or Expect to Fail – Changing Effectively URL Planning and Executing Change Effectively

Read this section, which discusses the dynamics associated with Kurt Lewin's three-stage model for change management and introduces insight support or how you can get people to accept a continuous improvement or change process. Change is necessary to maintain a competitive advantage in a marketplace.

9.3.1: The Future of Management URL The Future of Management

Read this article and think about the management processes currently in place at your own organization (or one you are familiar with). Are there any innovative methods of management at work, or are older, more traditional models in place? How do you feel about gamification in the workplace? Can it be productive, or is it merely a fad? Do you agree that following the best practices of other organizations is no longer a valid management strategy?

URL Discussion: The Future of Management

Reflect on the article that you have just read about the future of management. Is there a balance of management styles being used in your workplace? Are older methods being implemented, or are newer methods being embraced?

Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.

URL Management in the Future: The Same as the Past?

Read this article and then think about how revising traditional management processes is essential to an organization's success. Does that notion contradict this article? Can traditional and innovative models of management truly coexist? Are you more comfortable with traditional models, or are you open to newer approaches?

9.3.2: The Future of Work URL The Future of Work

Read this article and consider the following questions: Do you see any signs among today's businesses that support Dr. Malone's prediction of organizations moving toward models that encourage more employee freedom and organizational decentralization? If yes, what are some examples of these signs? Has today's ease of communication allowed your current organization, or one that you are familiar with, to grow globally? Do you believe that employees' current behavior patterns support the future organizational model shift? If so, why? Have you started to see evidence of the three new decentralized organizational structures being implemented within specific organizations? If yes, what are some examples?

Study Guide Book BUS208 Study Guide
Course Feedback Survey URL Course Feedback Survey