### Unit 3: Spreadsheet Design and Implementation

The final unit of this course will build upon the concepts discussed in the previous units. You will apply what you have learned by creating a spreadsheet that can be used in a real world environment. The design of the columns and rows allows you and those who view your spreadsheet to quickly understand how the cells relate to one another. If you set up your spreadsheet correctly, you will be able to make quick data calculations. For example, you could quickly demonstrate the costs for specific services or products to potential clients. Also, spreadsheet functions can be used with home budgeting, grade averaging, quotes, invoices, cost analysis, etc. Do not be afraid to experiment, as spreadsheets can be instrumental to saving time in our business and personal lives.

**Completing this unit should take you approximately 1 hour.**

Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:

- explain the structure of a function and how to insert one into an Excel spreadsheet;
- decide how to organize data in Excel to make it most useful for its intended purpose;
- format and organize data in a way that a viewer can easily understand; and
- describe various spreadsheet applications.

### 3.1: The Purpose of Spreadsheets

Study the example spreadsheets linked below.

There are unlimited ways to use a spreadsheet. Typical uses include household budgets, sales reports, inventories, and other reports. The power of Excel is that the user totally controls the function of the spreadsheet, as well as the look and feel of the end product.

As you learn to manipulate cells and build the basic sheet, the purpose of why you are building it ought to guide every detail of your creation. Excel has the power to allow you to control almost anything you desire to accomplish your purpose.

A straightforward and plain sheet would look like this example:

Some people may prefer to add emphasis, as in this example:

Then, of course, some may go to the extreme, as in this example:

### 3.2: Putting the Fun in Functions

By now you should know how to use Excel to enter, edit, and organize data, create tables, and perform basic calculations using formulas. The preset formulas in Excel are called functions. Functions can be used for more than just simple calculations. Read this article to learn how to enter a formula, insert functions, and copy and paste the formulas. Excel functions can be used for more than just performing calculations.

Glance at this glossary of to discover other functions available in Excel. Test a few of these out in an Excel worksheet. Notice that when you enter "=" and a letter, a list of possible functions will appear.

### 3.3: Organization Is Key

If you create a spreadsheet without a clear purpose or you do not plan its organization, the end product will be useless or confusing. You need to draft the concept in your mind and perhaps on scratch paper before you start building the sheet. It is a good idea to make a simple sketch before you begin. This will help you determine how many rows and columns you will need as well as what headings ought to be included.

When you work in Excel, your organization skills will begin to show. After you develop the basic structure, you can add headings, data (numbers or text), and formulas.

Sometimes, when you first enter data into Excel, it can be difficult to read. Watch this video to learn how to organize and format data so that it is easy to work with and understand. After watching the video, go back to the budget you created in Unit 1. If you have not already done the guided practice for creating a budget in subunit 1.2.2, do it now.

Practice formatting the cells to make the data in your budget easier to read. You can resize cells, edit fonts, or even add colors. Make sure all of your columns and rows are labeled and easy to understand. Remember that someone viewing a spreadsheet needs to be able to look at it and understand the data. Is there anything else that you can change to make the budget more readable for the viewer?

At this point, you should understand what makes up a spreadsheet and be able to create a basic spreadsheet using Excel. You should also be able to organize and format data in your spreadsheet and use functions to perform basic calculations. As you become more proficient at Excel, you can find more tools through online support, forums, and search engines. Google offers a free online spreadsheet program, called Google Sheets that is similar to Excel. As you continue to practice, you will find that there are nearly limitless possibilities for spreadsheets!

### Unit 3 Assessment

Take this assessment to see how well you understood this unit.

- This assessment
**does not count towards your grade**. It is just for practice! - You will see the correct answers when you submit your answers. Use this to help you study for the final exam!
- You can take this assessment as many times as you want, whenever you want.

- This assessment