BUS206 Study Guide

Unit 6: Information Systems in Society and the World

6a. Explain the concept of globalization

Advances in telecommunication and transportation have accelerated globalization through information technology.

  • Technology has provided the gateway to connecting people through the network society.
  • According to Friedman, the third era of globalization introduced the graphical user interface of the personal computer, the build-out of the Internet infrastructure during the dot com boom, and software to automate and integrate business processes.

To prepare for the final exam, read the specific technologies Friedman noted in the third era of globalization under "The World is Flat" in Globalization and Information Systems.


6b. Describe the role of information technology in globalization

In addition to the specific technologies that Friedman noted in the flat-world platform, the open-source movement and advent of mobile technologies have helped global collaboration evolve.

  • SMTP, HTML, and TCP/IP are Internet protocols that became standards widely used by everyone during the late 1990s.
  • According to Friedman, workflow software allows people to work together easily and allows the integration of different software packages and databases.
  • Globalization 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 are the three eras of globalization, according to Friedman. Define each era of globalization.

Definitions of the three eras of globalization may be found in the section labeled "The World is Flat" in Globalization and Information Systems. How do your definitions of each era compare to what the textbook says?


6c. Identify the issues experienced by firms as they face a global economy

The latest era of globalization allows any business to become international. Castell's vision of working together as a unit in real-time can become a reality soon. Companies need to understand what challenges await them in dealing with employees and customers from different cultures to take advantage of new capabilities driven by technology.

  • Infrastructure differences, labor laws and regulations, legal restrictions, language, customs, and preferences all present challenges companies must be aware of in the latest era of globalization.
  • Advantages of globalization include the ability to operate 24 hours a day, locate expertise and labor globally, and a larger market to distribute and sell products.
  • Should new business owners stay local or expand globally as they grow their business? What are the pros and cons of each approach?

Read about globalization's advantages and disadvantages in "The Global Firm" in Globalization and Information Systems to understand the considerations businesses must include in a globalization plan.


6d. Describe Nielsen's three stages of the digital divide

The digital divide results from a separation between those who have access to a global network and those who do not. Those who do not have access to a global network are largely missing out on the benefits and often feel the worst of globalization's negative effects. The digital divide can occur between countries, regions, or neighborhoods.

  • An attempt to remedy the digital divide issue was the One Laptop per Child effort, which was designed to empower children in developing countries by issuing technology they otherwise would note have been able to access.
  • Jakob Nielsen noted there are actually three factors at play in the digital divide: an economic divide, a usability divide, and an empowerment divide.
  • What does each of these three factors of the digital divide mean to you? How does each contribute to there being a digital divide?

Read "The Digital Divide", "One Laptop per Child", and "A New Understanding of the Digital Divide" in Globalization and Information Systems to prepare for the final exam. Review Bridging the Digital Divide.


6e. Describe what the term information systems ethics means

Information technology has a profound effect on human behavior. New technologies provide capabilities we did not have before and present new situations that have not previously been addressed in ethical terms. New power as a result of new technology and may involve compromises. For example, when Henry Ford invented the assembly line, he reduced the value of humans as part of the production process.

  • A code of ethics outlines acceptable behaviors for professional or social groups and is agreed to by all group members.
  • What are the possible results of violating the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)?

Read "Information Systems Ethics" and "Code of Ethics" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the final exam. Then, review Ethics.


6f. Identify criteria for the ethical use of information systems

The ACM Code of Ethics contains many straightforward ethical instructions, such as the admonition to be honest and trustworthy.

  • Under the ACM code of ethics, nobody should use someone else's computer system, software, or data without consent.
  • Individuals should not design or implement a system that deliberately or inadvertently demeans an individual or group.
  • Organizational leaders are responsible for ensuring their computer systems enhance, not degrade, the quality of working life for employees.

Read the section "Code of Ethics" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems, which explains the ACM code of ethics in more detail. You will want to be confident in your understanding of ethics in information systems before you attempt the final exam.


6g. Define intellectual property

Digital technologies have influenced the domain of intellectual property. Intellectual property is much more difficult to defend in today's digital world.

  • Intellectual property is any idea, invention, or process derived from someone else's work or intellect.
  • Intellectual property laws are written to protect the tangible results of an idea. (If you think of a song in your head, you need to actually write it down to protect it.)
  • Intellectual property laws offer protection that gives people an incentive to release their creative ideas.
  • How can you protect your inventions or ideas in the event someone hacks into your computer and steals them?

Read the section "Intellectual Property" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the final exam and discover ways intellectual property protect ideas.


6h. Explain the protections provided by copyright, patent, and trademark

1. Copyright, patent, and trademark are methods to protect inventions and intellectual property. Each of these protection methods covers products, services, ideas, inventions, and other information from being copied and used without the consent of the originating group or individual.

  • Copyright helps content creators retain their rights over their work and helps them answer questions about who can make copies of it, who can make derivative works from it, who can share it and how, and more.
  • Sometimes a work is owned by a publisher who has an agreement with the author.

Read the sections "Copyright", "Obtaining Copyright Protection", and "Fair Use" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the final exam.


2. A patent creates protection for someone who invents a new product or process. Many works may qualify as inventions, including firearms, locks, plumbing, engines, etc. However, business processes are also often invented and should thus be protected under patent law.

  • After obtaining a patent, the inventor has protection from others infringing on their patent.
  • A patent holder can exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention throughout the US or importing the invention into the US.
  • What is the limit of time a patent can protect someone's invention?

Read "Patent" and "Obtaining Patent Protection" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the exam.


3. A trademark is a word, phrase, logo, shape, or sound that identifies a source of goods or services. Taco Bell's purple bell logo, Coca-Cola's iconic bottle shape, and Chevrolet's bowtie logo are examples of trademarks.

  • Two types of trademarks exist: a common-law trademark and a registered trademark.
  • Much like with a copyright, a trademark protects an individual or organization if it is used in the normal course of business.
  • Do trademarks ever expire or need to be re-registered?
  • Can companies legally use a similar logo or phrase that already has trademark protection?

Read "Trademark" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the final exam.


6i. Describe the challenges that information technology brings to individual privacy

Privacy has several definitions; for this course, privacy means the ability to control information about oneself. Our ability to maintain our privacy through technology has eroded greatly over the past few decades.

  • Personally identifiable information is information that can be used to establish a person's identity. This includes name, social security number, place of birth, medical records, and mother's maiden name.
  • Information entered in online forms, our tagged location in social media, and other information are susceptible to monitoring and can be aggregated to create a profile of someone.

Read "Privacy", "Personally Identifiable Information", and "Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness" in The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems to prepare for the final exam. Revisit Youth, Privacy, and Online Media to see how privacy expectations have changed in the past few generations.


6j. Describe future trends in information systems

Information technology innovations have changed the world of business and everyday life. New trends, ideas, and innovations are constantly being developed by groups and individuals and continue to change everyday life.

  • The first trend of the future of information systems is the ever-expanding globalization that closes the gap between countries through the Internet.
  • Through the advent of Web 2.0 and e-commerce, information systems use has expected to modify their experiences to meet personal tastes.
  • What current trends in information systems technology were only a faint idea just a few years ago?

Read "Global", "Social", "Personal", "Mobile", "Wearable", and "Printable" in Future Trends in Information Systems to get a better sense of these future trends. Revisit A Tour through Mary Meeker's 2016 Internet Trends Report to see research on current and upcoming trends in Internet technologies.


Unit 6 Vocabulary

This vocabulary list includes terms that might help you answer some of the review items above and some terms you should be familiar with to be successful in completing the final exam for the course.

  • Aggregate data
  • Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • Copyright
  • Fair use
  • Globalization
  • Information systems ethics
  • Intellectual property
  • Patent
  • Personally identifiable information
  • The digital divide
  • Trademark