Project close down or project closure is the final phase of project management and the last process covered in the PMBOK. Project closure is much shorter than the other phases we have reviewed and can usually be accomplished in just a few days.
Here are the steps to project closure:
Unfortunately, project closure is usually done poorly, if at all. The project manager and team are often so relieved the project is finally finished that they simply want to move on to the next undertaking. They miss out on important processes that can protect the business when questions arise after the project is completed and help them succeed in future projects.
Implementation engenders elements of the execution and close-down phases of project management. While implementation and execution are often used interchangeably, think of implementation as the pretest of the deliverable. Implementation activities ensure the product created during the execution phase actually performs as intended.
The implementation phase includes:
One of the final steps of project management is developing a list of lessons learned during the planning and execution process. The project team should discuss what went well and where they can make improvements if they are asked to conduct a similar project in the future. The participants should create a project post mortem report during this post-mortem meeting to share and discuss with other project managers in the organization.
To review, see Project Closure.
Final acceptance is an important part of the project close-out phase. Before presenting the completed deliverable to the client or project owner, project managers should update the project records that detail the final results of the work on the project rather than present the original contract for work.
This final report should reflect any adjustments made during the execution phase, so the client or project owner knows exactly what they are accepting.
On receiving the deliverable and final report, the client or project owner should give the project developer (vendor or seller) a formal written notice stating whether they have accepted or rejected the deliverable. If they accept the deliverable, the contract is officially closed. However, if they reject the deliverable because it does not meet the client or project owner's criteria, the project development team needs to make changes until the client or project owner accepts the deliverable or agrees the contract is fulfilled.
To review, see Project Closeout.
Let's consider global project management, an application of project management where the project initiator, team members, or work is conducted across different countries and cultures. In learning outcome 3e, we considered how to create effective teams, which is a critical component of global project management is creating teams that reside in different geographical regions.
For example, since team members are spread across the globe, located in different time zones, it may be difficult to meet daily, which means only part of the team may be able to meet each day.
Cultural competency is a key skill for all team members since they must communicate and work with people from different cultural backgrounds.
As we reviewed in learning outcome 1c, the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) defines five project management processes:
You should thoroughly understand each of these processes to successfully complete the PMP (project management professional) certification exam. While we have covered each of the processes as a standalone or self-contained process throughout this course, you have probably noticed that these processes do not work in a vacuum. The results of one process play a large role in the development of the next process.
For example, you will use the plans devised during the planning phase throughout the execution and implementation processes; the deliverable you create in the execution process is vitally important in the closeout phase. You will use the standards and criteria you developed in the initiation and planning processes during the execution and monitoring and controlling processes. The phases depend on one another.
To review, see Introduction to Project Management, Introduction to the Project Management Knowledge Areas, Project Phases and Organization, and Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification Study Guide.