X86 Instructions and ARM Architecture

Read this article, which gives two examples of instructions set architectures (ISAs). Look over how the different microprocessors address memory. Take note of similarities and differences of format, instructions and type of instructions, and addressing modes between these two as well as between these and the MIPS instructions of the previous sections.

x86 Interrupts

What is an Interrupt?

In modern operating systems, the programmer often doesn't need to use interrupts. In Windows, for example, the programmer conducts business with the Win32 API. However, these API calls interface with the kernel, and the kernel will often trigger interrupts to perform different tasks. In older operating systems (specifically DOS), the programmer didn't have an API to use, and so they had to do all their work through interrupts.

Interrupt Instruction

int arg

This instruction issues the specified interrupt. For instance:


Calls interrupt 10 (0x0A (hex) = 10 (decimal)).

Types of Interrupts

There are 3 types of interrupts: Hardware Interrupts, Software Interrupts and Exceptions.

Hardware Interrupts

Hardware interrupts are triggered by hardware devices. For instance, when you type on your keyboard, the keyboard triggers a hardware interrupt. The processor stops what it is doing, and executes the code that handles keyboard input (typically reading the key you pressed into a buffer in memory). Hardware interrupts are typically asynchronous - their occurrence is unrelated to the instructions being executed at the time they are raised.

Software Interrupts

There are also a series of software interrupts that are usually used to transfer control to a function in the operating system kernel. Software interrupts are triggered by the instruction int. For example, the instruction "int 14h" triggers interrupt 0x14. The processor then stops the current program, and jumps to the code to handle interrupt 14. When interrupt handling is complete, the processor returns flow to the original program.


Exceptions are caused by exceptional conditions in the code which is executing, for example an attempt to divide by zero or access a protected memory area. The processor will detect this problem, and transfer control to a handler to service the exception. This handler may re-execute the offending code after changing some value (for example, the zero dividend), or if this cannot be done, the program causing the exception may be terminated.