## Try It Now

Work these exercises to see how well you understand this material.

### Exercises

- For the sample space
*S*= {a, b, c, d, e} identify the complement of each event given.*A*= {a, d, e}*B*= {b, c, d, e}*S*

- The sample space for three tosses of a coin is
= {hhh, hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth, ttt}

S

Define events:*H*: at least one head is observed*M*: more heads than tails are observed

- List the outcomes that comprise
*H*and*M*. - List the outcomes that comprise
*H*∩*M*,*H*∪*M*, and*H*.^{c} - Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find
*P*(*H*∩*M*),*P*(*H*∪*M*), and*P*(*H*).^{c} - Determine whether or not
*H*and^{c}*M*are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

- List the outcomes that comprise
- A special deck of 16 cards has 4 that are blue, 4 yellow, 4 green, and 4 red. The four cards of each color are numbered from one to four. A single card is drawn at random. Define events:
*B*: the card is blue*R*: the card is red*N*: the number on the card is at most two

- List the outcomes that comprise
*B*,*R*, and*N*. - List the outcomes that comprise
*B*∩*R*,*B*∪*R*,*B*∩*N*,*R*∪*N*,*B*, and (^{c}*B*∪*R*).^{c} - Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find the probabilities of the events in the previous part.
- Determine whether or not
*B*and*N*are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

- List the outcomes that comprise
- The Venn diagram provided shows a sample space and two events
*A*and*B*. Suppose*P*(a) = 0.13,*P*(b) = 0.09,*P*(c) = 0.27,*P*(d) = 0.20, and*P*(e) = 0.31. Confirm that the probabilities of the outcomes add up to 1, then compute the following probabilities.

*P*(*A*).*P*(*B*).*P*(*A*) two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in^{c}*A*and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Probability Rule for Complements.^{c}*P*(*A*∩*B*).*P*(*A*∪*B*) two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in*A*∪*B*and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

- Confirm that the probabilities in the two-way contingency table add up to 1, then use it to find the probabilities of the events indicated.

*U**V**W**A*0.15 0.00 0.23 *B*0.22 0.30 0.10

*P*(*A*),*P*(*B*),*P*(*A*∩*B*).*P*(*U*),*P*(*W*),*P*(*U*∩*W*).*P*(*U*∪*W*).*P*(*V*).^{c}- Determine whether or not the events
*A*and*U*are mutually exclusive; the events*A*and*V*.

- Make a statement in ordinary English that describes the complement of each event (do not simply insert the word "not").
- In the roll of a die: "five or more".
- In a roll of a die: "an even number".
- In two tosses of a coin: "at least one heads".
- In the random selection of a college student: "Not a freshman".

- The sample space that describes all three-child families according to the genders of the children with respect to birth order is:
= {bbb, bbg, bgb, bgg, gbb, gbg, ggb, ggg}.

S

For each of the following events in the experiment of selecting a three-child family at random, state the complement of the event in the simplest possible terms, then find the outcomes that comprise the event and its complement.- At least one child is a girl.
- At most one child is a girl.
- All of the children are girls.
- Exactly two of the children are girls.
- The firstborn is a girl.

- A tourist who speaks English and German but no other language visits a region of Slovenia. If 35% of the residents speak English, 15% speak German, and 3% speak both English and German, what is the probability that the tourist will be able to talk with a randomly encountered resident of the region?
- A manufacturer examines its records over the last year on a component part received from outside suppliers. The breakdown on source (supplier
*A*, supplier*B*) and quality (*H*: high,*U*: usable,*D*: defective) is shown in the two-way contingency table.

*H**U**D**A*0.6937 0.0049 0.0014 *B*0.2982 0.0009 0.0009

The record of a part is selected at random. Find the probability of each of the following events.- The part was defective.
- The part was either of high quality or was at least usable, in two ways: (i) by adding numbers in the table, and (ii) using the answer to (a) and the Probability Rule for Complements.
- The part was defective and came from supplier B.
- The part was defective or came from supplier B, in two ways: by finding the cells in the table that correspond to this event and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

- The breakdown of the students enrolled in a university course by class (
*F*: freshman,*So*: sophomore,*J*: junior,*Se*: senior) and academic major (*S*: science, mathematics, or engineering,*L*: liberal arts,*O*: other) is shown in the two-way classification table.

Major Class *F**So**J**Se**S*92 42 20 13 *L*368 167 80 53 *O*460 209 100 67

A student enrolled in the course is selected at random. Adjoin the row and column totals to the table and use the expanded table to find the probability of each of the following events.- The student is a freshman.
- The student is a liberal arts major.
- The student is a freshman liberal arts major.
- The student is either a freshman or a liberal arts major.
- The student is not a liberal arts major.

- The sample space for tossing three coins is:
*S*= {hhh, hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth, ttt}

- List the outcomes that correspond to the statement "All the coins are heads".
- List the outcomes that correspond to the statement "Not all the coins are heads".
- List the outcomes that correspond to the statement "All the coins are not heads".

Source: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_introductory-statistics/index.html

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