BUS301 Study Guide

Unit 4: Training and Development/Career Planning

4a. Create strategies to support the training and development of human capital

  • Define employee training and development.
  • Describe the four steps that generally occur for effective employee training: employee orientation, in-house training, mentoring, external training.
  • What are the goals of employee orientation?
  • Describe three examples of in-house training.
  • Describe an example of external training.
  • Define soft skills training.
  • Define job shadowing.
  • Describe three criteria for choosing mentors?
  • Describe the goals of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
  • Describe the considerations for developing a training program.
  • Describe the four levels of Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model.

Employee training and development are processes businesses use to help employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities, and overall job performance.

Four steps that generally occur for effective employee training include:

  1. HRM often creates employee orientation programs to welcome new employees. Two goals of orientation include explaining company policies and describing how their position fits within the organization.
  2. HRM may create in-house training programs to clarify company policies related to customer service, ethics, management, sexual harassment, and other issues. Quality training is an example of in-house training that helps employees prevent, detect, and eliminate inefficiencies and non-quality items.
  3. HRM may facilitate mentoring programs to help new employees feel welcome and learn from someone who knows the business, department, and ways to address or circumvent on-the-job challenges. Managers choose mentors based on their experience, willingness, and personality.
  4. HRM may make external training programs available to employees to enhance job-related learning and help develop management and leadership skills. For example, HRM may encourage an employee to take college courses or enroll in off-site seminars to enhance management potential or develop new job-related skills.

HRM creates various types of training opportunities, such as technical, quality, soft skills training, to develop a "holistic" employee.

Technical training teaches employees about the job's technological aspects, such as how to use relevant computer systems.

Skills training refers to proficiencies employees need, such as using the phone system or performing specific tasks to provide customer assistance.

Soft skills training refers to personality traits, such as communication, personal habits, and social graces that characterize relationships with co-workers and clients. For example, how to improve communication, become better listeners, and interact with customers in specific circumstances.

Job shadowing is a training method that places an employee who wants to learn or develop certain skills with a skilled employee who serves in a mentoring capacity. An apprenticeship is an example of this type of training.

Vestibule training is a method of on-the-job teaching that creates a simulated work experience for trainees. This training type often takes place in the company's classrooms, conference rooms, where orientations, safety, quality performance, and some skills-based training are delivered.

Safety training ensures employees are protected from injuries from work-related accidents. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the federal agency charged with enforcement of safety and health regulation. OSHA provides external and in-house training on OSHA standards. OSHA is discussed in more detail in Unit 7.

A needs assessment addresses the kind of training needed and allows HRM to set learning objectives to measure whether goals were met at the end of the training.

HRM should consider learning styles because individual employees acquire and process information differently. For example, a visual learner may require graphics, pictures, figures. An auditory learner will appreciate listening to a lecture or to someone explaining how to do something. A kinesthetic learner tends to learn by doing rather than listening or watching someone do the task. A successful training program will include various types of information delivery to appeal to the learning styles of the audience.

The delivery mode is the method used to present the training. Table 8.1: Types of Training and Delivery describes several delivery methods, such as on-the-job coaching, mentoring, brown bag lunch, web-based training, job shadowing, job swapping, and vestibule training, and the type of training suggested for each method.

The budget will determine the training a business can afford to offer. HRM should tabulate the indirect costs of planning, preparation, and employee time spent away from their job, in addition to direct costs (supplies and services), when calculating the total cost of the training.

Delivery style refers to various ways HRM appeals to the different learning styles of the trainees. For example, ice breakers, breakout discussions, role-playing, and interactive media can make the training more engaging for employees with various learning styles.

HRM should align its delivery method to its audience to make the training most relevant. For example, planners might consider the types of departments the employees work in, how long they have worked at the company, whether the group includes a diversity of job titles to determine focused and appropriate training.

Content refers to the information HRM needs to convey to employees in the best sequence. After HRM has determined the training's learning goals and objectives, it can formulate relevant topics and choose information it needs to present to support each topic. HRM should choose appropriate learning techniques to deliver the training, such as demonstrations, online courses, expert speakers, group discussions, slide presentations and visual aids, online post-event discussion, and other activities.

HRM needs to create realistic timelines for the specific type of training planned. For example, how long will the training program take, and how often should they offer it? When is the best time to present it? How does the training align with other company events and strategic planning initiatives?

Training programs are only good if they are effective. In other words, how well did HRM meet its training objectives?

The Kirkpatrick model measures four levels of effectiveness. See Figure 8.7: Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Training Evaluation.

Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Training Evaluation

  1. Reaction assesses whether participants react favorably to the training and find it relevant to their job performance.
  2. Learning assesses whether participants acquire the intended knowledge, skills, attitude, confidence, and commitment.
  3. Behavior assesses whether participants change their previous practices to apply what they learned during training to the way they perform their job.
  4. Results assess whether the training supports its targeted outcomes and benefits result from that support future accountability.

Review Steps to Take in Training an EmployeeTypes of Training, and Designing a Training Program.


4b. Describe the impact that career/succession planning has on human capital

  • Define succession planning.
  • What is a career development program, and why are they recommended for today's organizations?
  • How does the failure to address career development impact employee turnover and organizational goals?

Career Development Planning Process

Succession planning is the process businesses follow to identify and develop internal employees who exhibit the potential to fill key business leadership positions. It includes handling the departure of managers and making current employees ready to take on managerial roles when a manager does leave.

Career development programs help employees manage their careers, learn new things, and take steps to improve personally and professionally. These programs encourage and guide employees on ways to attain their short- and long-term career goals. Employees have an opportunity to contribute more to the company, take on a leadership role, and make their jobs more interesting. By making these programs available, the company demonstrates it values employee contributions and cares about the people who work there as individuals.

Companies benefit when they can retain good, knowledgeable, and skilled employees. They will reduce hiring and retraining costs by maintaining a pipeline of loyal and motivated employees to fill future job openings due to resignations and retirements, even during a poor labor market. HRM can formulate future staffing plans, take an active role in minimizing costly turnover, and ensure a motivated and well-trained workforce.

Review Strategic Planning and Designing a Training Program.


Unit 4 Vocabulary

  • Career development program
  • Employee orientation
  • External training
  • Employee training and development
  • In-house training
  • Job shadowing
  • Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation
  • Learning style
  • Mentoring
  • Quality training
  • Soft skills training
  • Succession planning
  • Vestibule training