NIST SP 800-61

Even though information security professionals plan to effectively manage risk, incidents still occur. NIST SP 800-61 is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) special publication that gives guidelines for organizations on how to handle security incidents. Read section 2.2 on page 6 to learn more about the need for, and the benefits of, an incident response capability. Also read section 3 on pages 21-44 to learn how to appropriately handle information security incidents. Before you move on, make sure you can explain the four stages of the incident response process: preparation; detection and analysis; containment, eradication, and recovery; and post-incident activity.

Handling an Incident

The incident response process has several phases. The initial phase involves establishing and training an incident response team, and acquiring the necessary tools and resources. During preparation, the organization also attempts to limit the number of incidents that will occur by selecting and implementing a set of controls based on the results of risk assessments. However, residual risk will inevitably persist after controls are implemented. Detection of security breaches is thus necessary to alert the organization whenever incidents occur. In keeping with the severity of the incident, the organization can mitigate the impact of the incident by containing it and ultimately recovering from it. During this phase, activity often cycles back to detection and analysis – for example, to see if additional hosts are infected by malware while eradicating a malware incident. After the incident is adequately handled, the organization issues a report that details the cause and cost of the incident and the steps the organization should take to prevent future incidents. This section describes the major phases of the incident response process preparation, detection and analysis, containment, eradication and recovery, and post–incident activity – in detail. Figure 3–1 illustrates the incident response life cycle.

Figure 3–1. Incident Response Life Cycle