Multifactor Authentication

Authentication can be accomplished with one factor, two factors, or multiple factors. Which one is the weakest level of authentication and which is the most secure and why? When would a more secure system be required? Be able to explain these multifactor authentication methods: password protection, token presence, voice biometrics, facial recognition, ocular-based methodology, hand geometry, vein recognition, fingerprint scanner, thermal image recognition, and geographical location. What are some challenges of multiple factor authentication when using biometrics? There is a lot of interesting information covered in this article that you do not need to memorize, but that you should be aware of.

4.3. Proposed MFA Solution for V2X Applications

4.4. Potential Evaluation Techniques

Conventionally, authentication systems utilizing only the knowledge of ownership factors operate in pass/fail mode, i.e., the input data is either correct or incorrect. When it comes to using biometrics, the system faces potential errors during the biometric sample capturing, which was discussed previously in Section 3.4. We further elaborate on our proposed methodology from the crucial FAR/FRR perspective.

Typically, the FAR/FRR parameters of a sensor are provided by vendors based on the statistically collected data. For the MFA framework, we assume two possible decisions made during the user authentication phase, as it is displayed in Figure 8: H_{0} ­– the user is not legitimate; or H_{1} ­– the user is legitimate. These form the entire sample space of P\left(H_{0}\right)+P\left(H_{1}\right)=1. The risk policy is assumed to be handled by the authentication system owner who also sets up the distributions of P\left(H_{0}\right) and P\left(H_{1}\right).


Figure 8. MFA system mode. P_{TH} is the selected threshold.

Generalizing, there might be n biometric sensors collecting the user input data. Each individual sensor measurement from the set Z=\left\{z_{1}, \ldots, z_{n}\right\} is distributed within [0,1], and this set is further analyzed under the conditions of two previously considered hypotheses. The measurements delivered from the sensors could be processed in two different ways as introduced in the sequel.