Information Systems Development

This chapter focuses on the concepts surrounding the development of information systems. It begins with a discussion of software development methodologies, then covers programming languages and tools, and finishes with a review of implementation methodologies. As you read, reflect upon all the different pieces that must come together in order for a system to be developed.

Sidebar: Mismanaging Change

Target Corporation, which operates more than 1,500 discount stores throughout the United States, opened 133 similar stores in Canada between 2013 and 2015. The company decided to implement a new Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) system that would integrate data from vendors, customers, and do currency calculations (US Dollars and Canadian Dollars). This implementation was coincident with Target Canada's aggressive expansion plan and stiff competition from Wal-Mart. A two-year timeline – aggressive by any standard for an implementation of this size – did not account for data errors from multiple sources that resulted in erroneous inventory counts and financial calculations. Their supply chain became chaotic and stores were plagued by not having sufficient stock of common items, which prevented the key advantage of "one-stop shopping" for customers. In early 2015, Target Canada announced it was closing all 133 stores. In sum, "This implementation broke nearly all of the cardinal sins of ERP projects. Target set unrealistic goals, didn't leave time for testing, and neglected to train employees properly".