Introducing Supply and Demand

Read the sections on Demand, Supply, Market Equilibrium, and Government Intervention and Disequilibrium for a mathematical exposition of the demand and supply model, clicking through to the next when you have finished each page. The chapter also covers price ceilings and price floor analysis as well as quantity regulations.

Price Ceiling Impact on Market Outcome

Black Market

Prolonged shortages caused by price ceilings can create black markets for that good. A black market is an underground network of producers that will sell consumers as much of a controlled good as they want, but at a price higher than the price ceiling. Black markets are generally illegal. However these markets provide higher profits for producers and more of a good for a consumers, so many are willing to take the risk of fines or imprisonment.