Read the sections on Demand, Supply, Market Equilibrium, and Government Intervention and Disequilibrium for a mathematical exposition of the demand and supply model, clicking through to the next when you have finished each page. The chapter also covers price ceilings and price floor analysis as well as quantity regulations.
Ad Valorem vs Excise Tax
Ad Valorem (or Value Added)
and Excise Taxes are types of indirect taxes. Both are generally
assessed on the sale of goods. These two taxes differ in three ways:
- An excise tax typically applies to a narrower range of products, such as gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol.
- An excise tax is typically heavier than an ad valorem, accounting for a higher fraction of a product's retail price.
- Excise taxes are
typically a fixed fee per unit, meaning that the government earns its
revenue based on volume sold. Ad valorem taxes are proportional to the
price of the good, so the government earns revenue based on the value of
the good or
service being sold.