Read the sections on Demand, Supply, Market Equilibrium, and Government Intervention and Disequilibrium for a mathematical exposition of the demand and supply model, clicking through to the next when you have finished each page. The chapter also covers price ceilings and price floor analysis as well as quantity regulations.
Taxation Impact on Economic Output
Inelastic supply, elastic demand
Because supply is inelastic, the firm will produce the same quantity no matter what the price. Because demand is elastic, the consumer is very sensitive to price. A small increase in price leads to a large drop in the quantity demanded. The imposition
of the tax causes the market price to increase and the quantity demanded to decrease. Because consumption is elastic, the price consumers pay doesn't change very much. Because production is inelastic, the amount sold changes significantly. The
producer is unable to pass the tax onto the consumer and the tax incidence falls on the producer.
Tax Incidence of Producer: When supply is inelastic but demand is elastic, the majority of the tax is paid for by the consumer. Since quantity demanded drops significantly in this scenario, the producer is forced to sell less.