Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply

This chapter introduces the Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply model of macroeconomics. Read the introduction and Section 1 to learn about Aggregate Demand and the three effects (weath, interest rate, and international trade) that cause the downward slope. Recall the difference between quantity demanded and demand - the same logic applies to Aggregate Demand. Identify the variables that change (shift) the Aggregate Demand curve. Read this chapter and attempt the "Try It" exercises. You will revisit certain sections of the chapter later in this unit.

Aggregate Demand


  1. A decline in consumer optimism would cause the aggregate demand curve to shift to the left. If consumers are more pessimistic about the future, they are likely to cut purchases, especially of major items.
  2. An increase in the real GDP of other countries would increase the demand for U.S. exports and cause the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right. Higher incomes in other countries will make consumers in those countries more willing and able to buy U.S. goods.
  3. An increase in the price level corresponds to a movement up along the unchanged aggregate demand curve. At the higher price level, the consumption, investment, and net export components of aggregate demand will all fall; that is, there will be a reduction in the total quantity of goods and services demanded, but not a shift of the aggregate demand curve itself.
  4. An increase in government spending on highways means an increase in government purchases. The aggregate demand curve would shift to the right.