Numerical Measures of Central Tendency and Variability

Read these sections and complete the questions at the end of each section. First, we will define central tendency and introduce mean, median, and mode. We will then elaborate on median and mean and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in measuring central tendency. Finally, we'll address variability, range, interquartile range, variance, and the standard deviation. 


Variability refers to how much the numbers in a distribution differ from each other. The most common measures are presented in "Measures of Variability". The "variability demo" allows you to change the standard deviation of a distribution and view a graph of the changed distribution.

One of the more counter-intuitive facts in introductory statistics is that the formula for variance when computed in a population is biased when applied in a sample. The "Estimating Variance Simulation" shows concretely why this is the case.