## Results

First, this section discusses whether rejection of the null hypothesis should be an all-or-none proposition. Then, it discusses how to interpret non-significant results; for example, it explains why the null hypothesis should not be accepted or should be accepted with caution. It also describes how a non-significant result can increase confidence that the null hypothesis is false.

### Interpreting Non-Significant Results

#### Questions

Question 1 out of 2.

You have just analyzed the results from your experiment, and you calculated $p=.13$. What conclusions can you make? Select all that apply.

• You reject the null hypothesis.
• You accept the null hypothesis.
• You fail to reject the null hypothesis.
• You accept the alternative hypothesis.

Question 2 out of 2.

You have just given a group of 2nd graders and 1st graders a reading test. You found that the 2nd graders performed better than the 1st graders, but you calculated a $p$ value of.08, which was not significant at the.05 level. After getting these results, what should your thoughts be about the difference between 1st and 2nd graders on this reading test?

• You are more confident that there is a difference.
• You are less confident that there is a difference.
• You now know that the difference is actually zero.