## Contingency Tables

Read this section, which discusses contingency tables, and answer the questions at the end of the section. While this section is optional, studying it may help you if you wish to take the Saylor Direct Credit exam for this course.

### Answers

- The expected value of women in social sciences is the product of the total number of women and the total number of social science majors divided by the total number of participants.
(22 * 34) / 57=13.12 - First calculate the expected value for each cell. Then take the sum of each (expected - observed)
^{2} /expected. Chi Square=2.2 (All numbers used in this calculation were rounded to 2 decimal places. Your answer might not be exactly the same if you rounded differently). - Some authors think that the correction for continuity should be used whenever an expected cell frequency is below 5, but research in statistics has shown that this practice is not advisable.
- No, it would not be appropriate to use a Chi Square test in this example because each subject contributed data to more than one cell.