Pro Forma Statements

Read this section and pay close attention to the summary of pro- forma financial statements as follows: (1) the Pro-forma income statement, (2) the Pro-forma balance sheet, (3) assessment of Pro-forma statements, (4) the bigger picture, and (5) end of chapter problems. Attempt the practical exercises at the end of this section to check your understanding of the uses of Pro-forma financial statements. Note that the images in this resource are broken.


  1. Discuss the role pro forma statements play in financial management.
  2. Identify the ethical considerations involved when creating pro forma statements.

Pro forma statements are used to make many business decisions. Should we launch a new product line or open a new factory? Should we add another sales person or a worker in the plant? Pro formas use our best judgements to construct likely scenarios about the future. Accurately and appropriately used and constructed they can be helpful tools to improve our business.

When analyzing pro forma statements, it is important to understand how they were constructed, what the assumptions were and how to read them. Cash flows can be manipulated as well as assumptions. Economic and political conditions can change quickly which can strongly influence business outcomes. As with most predictions – take them with a grain of salt. No one can predict the future with 100% accuracy.

Ethical Considerations

Managers within a company may have different objectives. Someone in sales may want to have a low sales projection so they are guaranteed to ‘hit their number' and earn their bonus. A retiring manager may want to maximize their current year compensation or the company's share price to maximize their retirement benefit. When constructing pro forma statements managers may also have different opinions on the likelihood of the outcome of each scenario. While pro forma statements are projections, many business decisions are based upon them. Correct calculation and analysis is important.


  • Pro forma statements assist managers in making many business decisions.
  • Ethics play an important role in the correct creation of pro forma statements.