The value of a bond is obtained by discounting the bond's expected cash flows to the present using an appropriate discount rate. Yield to maturity is the discount rate at which the sum of all future cash flows from the bond is equal to the price of the bond. "Time to maturity" refers to the length of time before the par value of a bond must be returned to the bondholder. This section will show you how to calculate a bond's yield to maturity and calculate the price of a bond.
The yield to maturity is the discount rate that returns the bond's market price: YTM = [(Face value/Bond price)1/Time period]-1.
Calculate a bond's yield to maturity
The interest rate used to discount future cash flows of a financial instrument; the annual interest rate used to decrease the amounts of future cash flow to yield their pres
The yield to maturity is the discount rate which returns the market price of the bond. YTM is the internal rate of return of an investment in the bond made at the observed price.
USD Yield Curve 2005 USD yield curve: To achieve a return equal to YTM (i.e., where it is the required return on the bond), the bond owner must buy the bond at price P_{0}, hold the bond until maturity, and redeem the bond at par.
If the yield to maturity for a bond is less than the bond's coupon rate, then the (clean)market value of the bond is greater than the par value (and vice versa). If a bond's coupon rate is less than its YTM, then the bond is selling at a discount. If a bond's coupon rate is more than its YTM, then the bond is selling at a premium. If a bond's coupon rate is equal to its YTM, then the bond is selling at par.
Formula for yield to maturity: Yield to maturity(YTM) = [(Face value/Bond price)^{1/Time period}]-1
As can be seen from the formula, the yield to maturity and bond price are inversely correlated.
Consider a 30-year, zero-coupon bond with a face value of $100. If the bond is priced at an annual YTM of 10%, it will cost $5.73 today (the present value of this cash flow, 100/(1.1)30 = 5.73). Over the coming 30 years, the price will advance to $100, and the annualized return will be 10%.
What happens in the meantime? Suppose that over the first 10 years of the holding period, interest rates decline, and the yield-to-maturity on the bond falls to 7%. With 20 years remaining to maturity, the price of the bond will be 100/1.0720, or $25.84. Even though the yield-to-maturity for the remaining life of the bond is just 7%, and the yield-to-maturity bargained for when the bond was purchased was only 10%, the return earned over the first 10 years is 16.25%. This can be found by evaluating (1+i) from the equation (1+i)10 = (25.842/5.731), giving 1.1625.
Over the remaining 20 years of the bond, the annual rate earned is not 16.25%, but rather 7%. This can be found by evaluating (1+i) from the equation (1+i)20 = 100/25.84, giving 1.07. Over the entire 30 year holding period, the original $5.73 invested increased to $100, so 10% per annum was earned, irrespective of any interest rate changes in between.