Introduction to Capital Budgeting
Read this section about making capital budgeting decisions. The discussion discusses the goals of capital budgeting, how to rank investment proposals, assumptions about reinvestment, long- and short-term financing, Payback Method (PM), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV), and cash flow analysis. When managers and executives make financial decisions to invest limited resources, they use this information to invest more wisely.
Defining Capital Budgeting
Differentiate between the different capital budget methods
- Capital budgeting, which is also called investment appraisal, is the planning process used to determine whether an organization's long term investments, major capital, or expenditures are worth pursuing.
- Major methods for capital budgeting include Net present value, Internal rate of return, Payback period, Profitability index, Equivalent annuity and Real options analysis.
- The IRR method will result in the same decision as
the NPV method for non-mutually exclusive projects in an unconstrained
environment; Nevertheless, for mutually exclusive projects, the decision
rule of taking the project with the highest
IRR may select a project with a lower NPV.
- Modified Internal Rate of Return
The modified internal rate of return (MIRR) is a financial measure of an investment's attractiveness. It is used in capital budgeting to rank alternative investments of equal size. As the name implies, MIRR is a modification of the internal rate of return (IRR) and, as such, aims to resolve some problems with the IRR.
In finance, arbitrage pricing theory (APT) is a general theory of asset pricing that holds, which holds that the expected return of a financial asset can be modeled as a linear function of various macro-economic factors or theoretical market indices, where sensitivity to changes in each factor is represented by a factor-specific beta coefficient.
- Payback period: For example, a $1000 investment which returned $500 per year would have a two year payback period. The time value of money is not taken into account.
Capital budgeting, which is also called "investment appraisal," is the planning process used to determine which of an organization's long term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. It is to budget for major capital investments or expenditures.
Windows of opportunity come into play when budgeting for capital because they can provide opportunities for firms to maximize returns on investment.
Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including the techniques as followed:
- Net present value
- Internal rate of return
- Payback period
- Profitability index
- Equivalent annuity
- Real options analysis
Net Present Value
Net present value (NPV) is used to estimate each potential project's value by using adiscounted cash flow (DCF) valuation. This valuation requires estimating the size and timing of all the incremental cash flows from the project. The NPV is greatly affected by the discount rate, so selecting the proper rate–sometimes called the hurdle rate–is critical to making the right decision.
This should reflect the riskiness of the investment, typically
measured by the volatilityof cash flows, and must take into account the
financing mix. Managers may use models, such as the CAPM or the APT, to
estimate a discount rate appropriate for
each particular project, and use the weighted average cost of
capital(WACC) to reflect the financing mix selected. A common practice
in choosing a discount rate for a project is to apply a WACC that
applies to the entire firm, but a higher discount
rate may be more appropriate when a project's risk is higher
than the risk of the firm as a whole.
Internal Rate of Return
The internal rate of return (IRR) is defined as the discount rate that gives a net present value (NPV) of zero. It is a commonly used measure of investment efficiency.
The IRR method will result in the same decision as the NPV method for non-mutually exclusive projects in an unconstrained environment, in the usual cases where a negative cash flow occurs at the start of the project, followed by all positive cash flows. Nevertheless, for mutually exclusive projects, the decision rule of taking the project with the highest IRR, which is often used, may select a project with a lower NPV.
One shortcoming of the IRR method is that it is commonly
misunderstood to convey the actual annual profitability of an
investment. Accordingly, a measure called "Modified Internal Rate of
Return (MIRR)" is often used.
Payback period in capital budgeting refers to the period of time required for the return on an investment to "repay" the sum of the original investment. Payback period intuitively measures how long something takes to "pay for itself". All else being equal, shorter payback periods are preferable to longer payback periods.
The payback period is considered a method of analysis with
serious limitations and qualifications for its use, because it does not
account for the time value of money, risk, financing, or other important
considerations, such as the opportunity cost.
Profitability index (PI), also known as profit investment ratio
(PIR) and value investment ratio (VIR), is the ratio of payoff to
investment of a proposed project. It is a useful tool for ranking
projects, because it allows you to quantify the amount
of value created per unit of investment.
The equivalent annuity method expresses the NPV as an annualized
cash flow by dividing it by the present value of the annuity factor. It
is often used when comparing investment projects of unequal lifespans.
For example, if project A has an expected
lifetime of seven years, and project B has an expected lifetime
of 11 years, it would be improper to simply compare the net present
values (NPVs) of the two projects, unless the projects could not be
Real Options Analysis
The discounted cash flow methods essentially value projects as if they were risky bonds, with the promised cash flows known. But managers will have many choices of how to increase future cash inflows or to decrease future cash outflows. In other words, managers get to manage the projects, not simply accept or reject them. Real options analysis try to value the choices–the option value–that the managers will have in the future and adds these values to the NPV.
These methods use the incremental cash flows from each potential investment or project. Techniques based on accounting earnings and accounting rules are sometimes used. Simplified and hybrid methods are used as well, such as payback period anddiscounted payback period.
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