Completing the Accounting Cycle
This chapter will explain the steps required to complete the accounting
cycle. This includes understanding the full accounting information
cycle, and what is used to create the financial statements that will be
provided to required and interested stakeholders. The accounting cycle
happens every month for most companies, and requires distinct steps and
cutoffs in order to create useful, consistent financial reports that
managers can use to make decisions that improve the performance of the
company. On a quartery and annual basis, financial statements are
created for outside stakeholders as well.
Journalizing adjusting entries
After completing MicroTrain's financial statements from the work sheet, you should enter the adjusting entries in the general journal and post them to the appropriate ledger accounts. You would prepare these adjusting entries as you learned in Chapter 3, except that the work sheet is now your source for making the entries. The preparation of a work sheet does not eliminate the need to prepare and post adjusting entries because the work sheet is only an informal accounting tool and is not part of the formal accounting records.
The numerical notations in the Adjustments columns and the adjustments explanations at the bottom of the work sheet identify each adjusting entry. The Adjustments columns show each entry with its appropriate debit and credit. MicroTrain's adjusting entries as they would appear in the general journal after posting are:
|Date||Account Titles and Explanation||Post.
||Insurance Expense (-SE)||512||200|
|Prepaid Insurance (-A)||108||200|
|To record insurance expense for December.|
||Rent Expense (-SE)||515||400|
|Prepaid Rent (-A)||112||400|
|To record rent expense for December.|
||Supplies Expense (-SE)||518||500|
|Supplies on Hand (-A)||107||500|
|To record supplies used during December.|
||Depreciation Expense – Trucks (-SE)||521||750|
|Accumulated Depredation – Trucks (-A)||151||750|
|To record depreciation expense for December.|
||Unearned Service Fees (-L)||216||1500|
|Service Revenue (+SE)||400||1500|
|To transfer a potion of training fees from the liability account
to the revenue account.
||Interest Receivable (+A)||121||600|
|Interest Revenue (+SE)||418||600|
|To record one month's interest revenue.|
||Accounts Receivable (+A)
|Service Revenue (+SE)
|To record unbilled training services performed in December.
||Salaries Expense (-SE)
|Salaries Payable (+L)
|To accrue one day's salaries that were earned by are unpaid.