Read this section and pay attention to the approaches to job design and the importance of the key elements to good design. This is important because efficiency and effectiveness is directly related to the way in which a job is designed. Good job design takes attention to detail and alignment with process.
Job design is the systematic and purposeful allocation of tasks to individuals and groups within an organization.
Compare and contrast the multitude of job-design approaches and perspectives available in the organizational field
Job design is the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups. Allocating jobs and tasks means specifying the contents, method, and relationships of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements, as well as the personal needs of jobholders.
Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model (Instructional Design): The figure shows how an instructional system is designed. It represents a model of a job design with a specific application (instruction).
To understand job design, it is helpful to identify some key elements and their relationship with job design processes.
Organizations may employ various theoretical approaches for job design. These include Taylorism, Socio-Technical Systems Approach, Core Characteristics Model, and Psychological Empowerment Theory. Each approach emphasizes different aspects to be considered in effective job design.
Taylorism, also known as scientific management, is a foundation for systematic job design. Frederick Taylor developed this theory in an effort to develop a “science” for every job within an organization according to the following principles:
The Socio-Technical Systems Approach is based on the evolution from individual work to work groups. This approach has the following guiding principles:
Another modern job design theory is the Core Characteristics Model, which maintains five important job elements that motivate workers and performance:
The individual elements are then proposed to lead to positive outcomes through three psychological states:
Psychological Empowerment Theory posits that there is a distinction between empowering practices and cognitive motivational states. When individuals are aware of the impact they have, they benefit more than if they cannot attribute positive impact to any of their actions.
Many more iterations of job design theory have evolved, but general trends can be identified among them: job design is moving towards autonomous work teams and placing added emphasis on the importance of meaning derived from the individual.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.