## Categorical Logic and The Venn Test of Validity for Immediate Categorical Inferences

Read sections 2.14 and 2.15 (p. 114-126) to learn and apply a visual method for determining the validity of categorical inferences: Venn diagrams. Note the four categorical forms and what they mean: universal affirmative, universal negative, particular affirmative, and particular negative. Get comfortable drawing Venn diagrams for categorical statements and shading in the area or drawing a star for the statements you are given.

Complete exercises 18 and 19, checking your answers against the answer keys on pages 224-225, translating the diagrams into statements and using the Venn test of validity to determine the validity of the given categorical inferences.