Read the sections "Escherichia coli," "Shigella," "Salmonella," and "Yersinia." Some of these names might be familiar to you. For example, you might have heard of Escherichia before; it is the "E" in E. coli, one of the most commonly studied organisms in microbiology. Meanwhile, Salmonella is most commonly found on uncooked meats and raw vegetables and is one of the most common agents of food poisoning. Salmonella has nothing to do with the fish, salmon; it was named after Daniel Salmon, the first individual to hold a doctorate in veterinary medicine in America. Lastly, Yersinia is the cause of the bubonic plague, one of the deadliest diseases in human history. Also known as the "Black Death," it wiped out entire cities and killed hundreds of millions of people. It was so devastating that the total population of Europe was not able to recoup its numbers until more than a century later, permanently altering the course of European history.