Stanford University: Keith Schwarz's "Runtime Environments"

Read this handout, which discusses data representations and their organization in memory for a program. After semantic analysis, intermediate representations are encoded. This is the last step of the "front-end" of the compilation process. The relationship of front ends to back ends can be many-to-one or one-to-many. In the former case, a single back end is used for several languages, each handled by its own front end. In the latter case, one front end handles the input, source language, and the back end is used for several target machines, each having its own back end.