This is an authoritative English translation of Marx and Engels' "Communist Manifesto". It was originally published in German in London, in 1848, shortly before a wave of revolutions swept through Europe. Marxist theory was fundamentally important for Lenin and other Russian Revolutionaries and reading the Manifesto will give you insights into some of the key claims, problems, and contradictions that characterize Marxist theory. Read both the "Preamble" and "Chapter I: Bourgeois and Proletarians", focusing on the following questions: how do the authors characterize these social classes? What do they claim is the role of the bourgeoisie in world history? What role do the proletarians play? Does individual human will matter in history? Can one predict a sociopolitical system's future?