Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page Course Terms of Use
1.1: Why Is Public Speaking Important? URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "1.1: Why Is Public Speaking Important?"

Read the Chapter 1 introduction and Section 1.1 for an overview of the role of public speaking in society. While you are reading, consider how public speaking plays a part in your own life, not only as a speaker, but also as an audience member. Consider the qualities that make public speaking different than conversation and the formal and informal situations that center on public speaking.

1.2: The Process of Public Speaking URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "1.2: The Process of Public Speaking"

Read Section 1.2, which will enable you to identify the three most important elements which influence the process of public speaking. The section also provides a brief introduction to several important models of public speaking, including the Shannon and Weaver model of communication. Models attempt to diagram how the elements of a process interact and to explain outcomes. Like checklists, models are useful reminders of the elements you should consider, anticipate, adjust, and, if possible, adapt to if you are planning a speech. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading (think of question 2 hypothetically, keeping in mind what speech you may want to deliver).

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 1: Introduction to Public Speaking"

Read this chapter by Lisa Schreiber and Morgan Hartranft, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor's lecture. This chapter reinforces the importance of public speaking skills and identifies core public speaking competencies.

URL The Science of Public Speaking

Listen carefully to how this podcast corresponds to the material presented in the materials we've read earlier. Here, the presenters explain describe the benefits of public speaking, and discuss ways to make your messages memorable and meaningful to your listeners.

1.3: Public Speaking and Ethics URL Steven E. Lucas' "The Art of Public Speaking, Chapter 2 Summary"

Read the summary of Chapter 2 of Lucas' textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor's lecture. This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter's details which Dr. Phillips' lecture also presents. As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively. Also, note that this course treats Dr. Phillips' lecture as an introduction to the broad topic of Ethics in Public Speaking.

URL Missouri State University: Gary Phillips' "Fundamentals of Public Speaking, Chapter 2"

Watch this video about ethics and public speaking. Listen carefully for how the content it covers corresponds to the material presented in the chapter summary. Being diligent about this process will enable you to perform successfully on the assignments that follow.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 3: Ethics in Public Speaking"

Read this chapter by Alyssa G. Millner and Rachel D. Price, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor's lecture. This chapter provides an overview of ethics and explains the importance of being an ethical speaker. Our credibility and reputation are built on trust and honesty with our audience members. Content in this chapter will also be helpful as we think about the language we use and how it affects the audience's perception of our message.

1.3.1: The Ethics Pyramid URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "2.1: The Ethics Pyramid"

Read both the Chapter 2 introduction and Section 2.1. The Chapter 2 reading provides a brief introduction to the ethical challenges that can face a speaker or audience. Section 2.1 presents another model that should be considered when planning a speech, an "ethics pyramid", which illustrates the ethical choices both speakers and listeners may face. The section ends with an important set of questions you should be prepared to answer, if faced with an ethical dilemma involving public speaking. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.

1.3.2: Ethics in Public Speaking URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "2.2: Ethics in Public Speaking"

Read Section 2.2, which discusses the code of ethics established by the National Communication Association and how it guides professional speakers. This section also covers how you can use the code to plan your own speech. You should anticipate that you will revisit how to apply this information to specific scenarios presented in the final exam. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.

1.4: Unit 1 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "2.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, do these exercises. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

2.1: What is Communication Apprehension? URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "3.1: What Is Communication Apprehension?"

Read both the Chapter 3 introduction and Section 3.1. These readings point out that apprehension is the most frequently mentioned reason why people do not like to speak publicly. One key point to focus on in these readings is how to distinguish apprehension from anxiety. At the end of Section 1, review the takeaways and complete the exercises.

Page Dr. Sunny's "Bright Ideas in Public Speaking"

Watch this collection of short videos, which focus on defining and coping with communication apprehension and speech anxiety (stage fright). These videos address the common concerns students have with presenting speeches in classes and in making presentations in work situations. 

2.2: Sources of Communication Apprehension URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "3.2: All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of Communication Apprehension"

Read Section 3.2, which identifies several types of communication apprehension and what causes them. Thus, this is another area from which you may be asked to apply information to a given scenario in an assignment or on the final exam. Make sure to attempt the exercise at the end of the reading to gain a better sense of where your source of apprehension may come from when public speaking.

2.3: Reducing Communication Apprehension URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "3.3: Reducing Communication Apprehension"

This section identifies several strategies for reducing communication apprehension. Once you have identified what makes you apprehensive about speaking in public, you can practice these strategies for reducing that apprehension and becoming more successful. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. This is another area that may apply to the final exam.

Page University of California, Davis: Michael Motley's "Reducing Public Speaking Anxiety: The Communication Orientation"

Watch this lecture, which focuses on using natural, conversational techniques to reduce the impact of apprehension in public speaking situations. You may find this lecture particularly helpful, because the questions asked by the class attending this lecture reflect many of the questions you may also have about this subject.

2.4: Coping with the Unexpected URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "3.4: Coping with the Unexpected"

This section discusses some common difficulties speakers face. You should anticipate and prepare for these difficulties to increase your chances for success. Knowing that such things are likely to occur at some point when you are speaking can also help to alleviate some of your apprehension. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

Page Tracy Goodwin's "Public Speaking Tips: Visualizing Success"

Watch this video, which discusses and demonstrates an important point covered in the reading or the lecture.

2.5: Unit 2 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "3.5: Chapter Exercises"

Identify whether you think statements about communication apprehension are myths or facts, and then check your answers with the correct ones provided at the bottom of the page.

3.1: Listening vs. Hearing URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.1: Listening vs. Hearing"

This section stresses the differences between listening and hearing, including the traits which produce effective listening and points out how speakers improve by listening to other speakers, an exercise which you may practice in some of the assignments in this course. Attempt the exercise at the end of the section, and work with a friend or family member as your partner.

URL Public Speaking: "Listening Effectively: Hearing Versus Listening"

Read this summary of the differences between listening and hearing.

URL Public Speaking: "Listening Effectively: Strategies to Enhance Listening"

Read these strategies that you can use to enhance your listening skills. Practice these strategies the next time you are listening to a public presentation or a newscast.

3.2: Listening Styles URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.2: Listening Styles"

This section identifies four types of listening styles. Recognizing which type of listener you are can enable you to broaden your listening skills by adopting other styles. Moreover, recognizing the listening styles in an audience can also help a speaker plan a speech to be more effective by using techniques that appeal to a particular style. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. It may help to work with a group of friends or family members to address question 1.

Page Julian Treasure's "How to Speak So People Want to Listen"

Watch this video, paying particular attention to what Julian Treasure describes as the seven deadly sins of speaking and how these influence our audience's willingness to listen.This content supports the listening model and the orientation styles discussed in the previous readings.

3.3: Why Listening is Difficult URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult"

This section focuses on factors that can interfere with effective listening, which the textbook defines as "noise". One way to remember what noise refers to is also a memorable definition: noise is anything which interferes with the transmission, reception, comprehension, or retention of a message. As with all of the material in this fourth chapter of the textbook, the point of this section is to provide information for a speaker to use in preparing for a speech. Understanding listening behaviors enables a speaker to modify the content or the environment of a speech to minimize the negative effects of poor listening habits or circumstances. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; it may help to work with a group of friends or family members to address question 1.

URL Public Speaking: "Listening Effectively: Barriers to Effective Listening"

Read this summary of the internal and external barriers to effective listening. Consider how these barriers affect the way we listen to educational lectures, news broadcasts, as well as our coworkers and family members. There are ways that we can reduce these barriers to improve the environment for our listeners.

3.4: Listening as a Process: Stages of Listening URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.4: Stages of Listening"

This section points out how listening, like speaking, is a process. A good speaker can develop content that uses the stages of listening to enhance how a message is perceived, understood, and retained. You can also trace miscommunication to listening stages and use those stages, as well as the audience feedback this section covers, to enhance the impact of your speech. Attempt the exercises after you have completed the section.

URL Public Speaking: "Listening Effectively: Three 'A's of Active Listening"

Read this summary of strategies for becoming a better listener. This article gives descriptions of the stages of the listening process and types of feedback we receive from listeners.

3.5: Listening Critically URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.5: Listening Critically"

When you read this section, be aware that the term "critical listening" is more commonly referred to as "active listening". What every speaker wants is an audience which is engaged, actively taking in information, analyzing, and judging it as it pertains to each individual's situation. You can appreciate this even more by being an active listener yourself. This section describes a number of actions you can take to improve your listening habits. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

3.6: Unit 3 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "4.6: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, complete these exercises. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

4.1: Why Conduct an Audience Analysis? URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "5.1: Why Conduct an Audience Analysis?"

Read the introduction to Chapter 5 and Section 5.1, which explains why audience analysis is often considered the most important step in preparing to speak. In fact, the success of a speech depends on how well a speaker anticipates the nature and needs of his or her audience. As a result, audience analysis is often what distinguishes the planned effectiveness of professional speakers from the uncertainty that students and other amateurs experience when they do not put enough effort into analyzing their audiences. Attempt to answer the questions in the Exercises section at the end of the reading.

URL Public Speaking "Chapter 5: Audience Analysis"

This chapter by Peter DeCaro, Tyrone Adams, and Bonnie Jefferis provides a process for collecting information about your audience and using that information for improving your connection with your audience. Information collected in an audience analysis can help use select topics that better suit the needs and interests of our audience members. 

Page COMMpadres Media: "Audience Analysis"

Watch this video, which emphasizes important points covered in the readings in this unit. This presenters conduct a sample audience analysis to help you understand the process.

4.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "5.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis"

Read this section and realize that special importance that the textbook's topic breakdown has with respect to this particular topic. Although it may seem like a repetitious technique, it is also a way to examine all angles of a topic. Audience analysis illustrates this well, because failing to account for one factor can result in erroneous conclusions about others. Psychographic and situational factors, for example, are more difficult to measure; yet they can render readily available demographics useless for planning purposes. Attempt the questions in the Exercises section at the end of the reading; it may help to work with a friend or family member to address question 4.

4.3: Conducting Audience Analysis URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "5.3: Conducting Audience Analysis"

This section introduces some tools for conducting audience analyses. As you read, keep in mind the difference between tools and techniques. Techniques are proven, systematic procedures or actions that are used to complete a task or accomplish an objective; tools are used to perform those procedures or actions. Audience analysis is one of several techniques that are required to prepare an effective speech. The tools used to perform an audience analysis include observations, interviews, surveys, focus groups, and existing data. Attempt the questions at the end of the section.

URL Boundless Communications: "The Importance of Audience Analysis"

Read this three-part series on audience analysis, which reinforces the means by which we get to know our audience before creating a speech. This resource also provides a unique way of using your audience analysis to better connect with the audience.

4.4: Using Your Audience Analysis URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "5.4: Using Your Audience Analysis"

This section includes a rarely covered aspect of public speaking: making adjustments to a speech while delivering it. Most of this section discusses how audience analysis is used to prepare a speech, but you should not neglect opportunities to improve your speech by noticing the feedback audiences can provide while you are speaking. This is another area which you are encouraged to consider carefully and apply to the scenarios you may encounter in assignments. Attempt to answer the questions at the end of the section.

4.5: Unit 4 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "5.5: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to these exercises. If you get any questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

5.1: General Purposes of Speaking: To Inform, To Persuade, To Entertain URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "6.1: General Purposes of Speaking"

Read both the Chapter 6 introduction and Section 6.1, paying particular attention to the sample speeches presented for each type of purpose. At the end of the reading, attempt to answer the questions in the Exercises section. The challenge for many first-time speakers is putting the parts of a speech together. Learning what the parts are is easy, but understanding how one part influences another is not an intuitive matter for most. This is why the best way to proceed is to read speech transcripts and to watch videos of speeches.

URL Principles of Public Speaking: "Types of Speeches and Speaking Occasions"

This article gives an overview of the three general purposes of public speaking (informative, persuasive, and entertainment) the most common speaking occasions.

5.2: Selecting a Topic URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "6.2: Selecting a Topic"

This section ends with a set of questions about how appropriately you have chosen your topic. The questions are very important, because topics which are poorly chosen are difficult to develop and to deliver. This is why, before you put a lot of time into a topic, you should be disciplined in answering the four questions posed in this section. Neglecting this step can result in a lot of wasted time and effort. After you read, it may help to reinforce what you've learned by attempting the exercises in section 2.

URL Principles of Public Speaking: "The Topic, Purpose, and Thesis"

This article provides additional information about selecting a speech topic. It also establishes the importance of topic selection as part of the speech creation process. Topic selection goes hand in hand with developing a specific purpose, which is another important tool for organizing your thoughts about your topic.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Topic Selection"

Watch this video, which emphasizes important points covered in the readings. This video provides helpful suggestions for making a topic selections and for generating ideas when you draw a blank, which include considering your audience's interests and your traits as a speaker.

5.3: What If You Draw a Blank? URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?"

This section includes a rarely covered aspect of public speaking: making adjustments to a speech while delivering it. Most of this section discusses how audience analysis is used to prepare a speech, but you should not neglect opportunities to improve your speech by noticing the feedback audiences can provide while you are speaking. This is another area which you are encouraged to consider carefully and apply to the scenarios you may encounter in assignments. It may help reinforce your understanding to attempt the questions in the Exercise section at the end of the reading; for questions like number 4 that asks to get feedback from your class, consider getting feedback from another known audience (like family members or friends) before presenting a speech. 

5.4: Specific Purposes URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "6.4: Specific Purposes"

This section brings up realistic suggestions for identifying a topic which will lead you to develop a speech efficiently. As with advice in the previous sections of this chapter in the textbook, this information can save you time and effort, and also produce a speech that has a much greater impact on its audience. After completing the reading, attempt the questions in the Exercises section in order to reinforce your understanding of how speeches may be adjusted to fit a certain purpose. 

URL COMMpadres Media: "Speech Purpose and Central Idea"

Watch this video to learn more about developing a general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea statement for a speech.

5.5: Unit 5 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "6.6: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment questions. If you get any of them incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

6.1: What is Research? URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "7.1: What Is Research?"

Read the Chapter 7 introduction and Section 7.1, paying particular attention to the first subsection on research functions, which provides an important explanation of why research is pursued and what is done with its results. After completing the reading, attempt to answer the questions in the Exercises section (note that for questions like number 2 that ask you to work with classmates or a group, you may try to do this independently or work with friends or family members).

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 7: Supporting Your Ideas"

This chapter by Sarah Stone Watt provides an overview for determining the value of academic and nonacademic sources and guidelines for making these determinations. 

URL COMMpadres Media: "Research and Support"

Watch this video for an overview and summary of the types of research used in making public presentations. Each type of research has its assets and liabilities when used in a presentation. This video focuses on identifying types of research resources, securing these resources, and evaluating the effective use of these resources in a presentation.

URL Dr. Sunny's "Supporting Evidence"

This video applies the process of finding and using supporting resources in public presentations. As you watch, reflect on the other materials in this unit to find the parallels and importance of support materials.

6.2: Developing a Research Strategy URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "7.2: Developing a Research Strategy"

This section gives a practical approach to finding useful, credible information in an efficiently planned manner. This process is called your research strategy.

URL C.O.D. Library: "Speech Research: Source Evaluation"

Watch this video to further investigate supporting research. This video focuses on evaluating sources that you might use in your presentation assignments. The following questions are answered in this video: what makes a good source? What makes information useful? What makes information good?

6.3: Citing Sources URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "7.3: Citing Sources"

This section considers using and referring to sources from a speaker's point of view rather than a writer's. This material contains very important guidelines on plagiarism as well as how to cite sources orally in such a way that listeners can recognize and respect them, an approach not considered sufficiently by inexperienced public speakers. Attempt to answer the questions at the end of the reading in the Exercise section in order to reinforce what you have learned.

Page COMMpadres Media: "Oral Citations" and Dr. Sunny's "Verbally Citing Sources"

Watch these videos to learn more about the importance of properly citing sources in your presentations. By properly citing sources you will avoid plagiarism and appear to be a more credible speaker. These presentations provide examples of what to include in your oral citations and ways to make this information sound natural in your speech presentation.

6.4: Unit 6 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "7.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

7.1: Using Research as Support URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "8.1: Using Research as Support"

Read both the Chapter 8 Introduction and Section 8.1. These readings connect information literacy, research, and speech development by pointing out the qualities researched information must possess to be respected, understood, and remembered by audiences. Attempt to answer the questions in the exercises at end of the section to reinforce your knowledge of reliable sources and when sources are used effectively as supporting evidence.

7.2: Types of Support URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "8.2: Exploring Types of Support"

This section provides an extensive list of the options you have for finding and presenting a variety of types of supporting details. Keep in mind that the textbook refers to both informative details and persuasive evidence as "support". Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Boundless Communications: "Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical"

Read this article about how we use sources to support our message. It provides models and tips for selecting and using sources to support your points. 

URL MyOpenMath: "How and When to Use Narrative"

Listen to the following collection of resources regarding how we use sources to support our message. The podcast provides a professional's point of view for incorporating sources in a compelling way to move your audience. 

URL Jerry Brown's "Storytelling Tip: Use Anecdotes, Analogies, and Examples"

Watch the video regarding how we use sources to support our message. The video from Dr. Sunny provides examples of ways to better use the sources we choose.

7.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments"

This section contains a great deal of practical information about how to integrate research into your own original content. The seamless integration of original and sourced material is the core of truly effective and professional communication, so pay particular attention to the forms in which sourced material can be presented – summary, paraphrase, and quotation – and most importantly, the reasoning and rules you should follow when deciding which form to use. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section to reinforce your understanding of supporting and developing arguments.

URL Principles of Public Speaking: "Critical Thinking"

This article gives more information about the roles of critical thinking when presenting a message. Critical thinking is the process of evaluating and analyzing information in order to determine the best course of action. 

URL Principles of Public Speaking: "Logic and the Role of Arguments"

This section gives more information about the role of reasoning when presenting a message. We use reasoning and logic to connect facts and evaluate arguments.

7.4: Unit 7 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "8.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

8.1: Determining Your Main Ideas URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "10.1: Determining Your Main Ideas"

Read both the Chapter 10 introduction and Section 10.1 readings, keeping in mind that your main points are a combination of your topic, your purpose, and your strategy, which is represented by the organizational pattern you use. For example, if your topic is cats and your purpose is to inform your audience, then your specific purpose might be to inform your audience of the differences in cat breeds. "Differences" is a keyword associated with the strategy and pattern of using contrast. Keep this simple relationship in mind, not only as you read this section, but also when you move on to the next. Attempt the questions at the end of the section; for any questions that require partner or group work, consider working with family members or friends.

8.2: Using Common Organizing Patterns URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "10.2: Using Common Organizing Patterns"

This section describes the 7 most frequently used organizational patterns in speeches. Some of these patterns will be revisited in Unit 15 when persuasive speaking is examined more closely; however, recognize that most of these patterns are associated with informative and entertaining speech purposes. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section to reinforce your understanding of speech organization.

URL Boundless Communications: "Ordering the Main Points"

This article describes nine organizational patterns that may be used in informative, entertaining or persuasive speaking. As you read, take note of the different patterns and the types of material each pattern is best suited to present. Sometimes your topic selection naturally leads you to an organizational pattern.

Page Kevin Carroll and COMMpadres Media: "Organizing Patterns"

Watch these videos for examples of the organizational patterns discussed in the previous readings. The first three videos provide creative devices for remembering the organizational patterns. The final video gives a professional's interpretation for crafting a simple and successful presentation. 

8.3: Keeping Your Speech Moving URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "10.3: Keeping Your Speech Moving"

This section covers what some refer to as the "oil" and the "glue", elements which create the flow and coherence of an effective speech. Pay particular attention to Table 10.1, which provides a comprehensive list of transitional phrases that work within specific organizational patterns. Inexperienced speakers often struggle to come up with effective phrases. Used like a thesaurus for finding alternative words, a list like that in Table 10.1 can save a great deal of time if you have followed one of the standard organizational patterns covered in subsection 10.2. Four types of transitional elements are covered here: transitions between main points, internal previews, internal summaries, and signpost. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

Page Dr. Sunny and COMMpadres Media: "Transitions"

These two videos provide additional information and examples for transitions discussed in the textbook readings.

8.4: Analyzing a Speech Body URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "10.4: Analyzing a Speech Body"

This section presents the body of a sample speech and analyzes it for you. Pay particular attention to its use of transitional devices that make the speech flow. Consider using this speech as a model to better understand effective and ineffective methods of presenting the body of a speech.

8.5: Unit 8 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "10.5: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to these assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

9.1: Functions of the Introduction URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "9.1: The Importance of an Introduction"

Read the Chapter 9 introduction and Section 9.1. These sections describe five functions your introduction must accomplish in order to prepare your audience for the important information you present in the body of your speech. Understanding the logic behind these tasks will enable you to realize why they are essential, not optional. For example, you must start your speech with an attention-getter, because if your audience is not paying attention to your words, much of what you subsequently state may not be heard or understood. Similarly, your audience must understand why you are addressing them, what you hope to accomplish by doing so, and why you are someone worthy of your audience's attention. Lastly, because you have an audience of listeners, you will work throughout your speech, starting with your introduction, to make sure they are anticipating the information you present. Listeners' comprehension increases when they know what information to expect. The textbook goes into more details about these points in section 3 of Chapter 9. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 9: Introductions and Conclusions"

Read this chapter by Warren Sandmann, which gives an overview of the functions of introductions and conclusion, strategies for preparing these key elements of a speech, and samples. Importantly, this chapter reinforces the reasons why we construct the introduction and conclusion of our speech AFTER we have written the body of the speech.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Introductions"

Watch this video to learn more about the functions of introductions, components of introductions, and tips for effective introductions.

URL Rose Marie Matriscola's "Introducing Your Speech"

This interactive presentation summarizes the purposes of an introduction, provides examples of common introduction tactics and explains why we write the introduction after constructing the body of the speech. Complete the evaluation exercise at the end of the presentation to test your understanding of the material.

9.2: The Attention-Getter: The First Step of an Introduction URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "9.2: The Attention-Getter: The First Step of a Introduction"

This section presents more lists. Lists appear frequently in this textbook, but you should appreciate rather than be annoyed by them. Public speaking is a function that has existed for a very long time. As a result, many experienced and knowledgeable individuals have contributed to a very comprehensive knowledge bank on the subject, a bank which is an efficient source of ready-made ideas and techniques. The lists in the textbook should be treated as resources for you to draw from rather than struggling to produce ideas or techniques that have already been identified. Try to answer the questions at the end of the section to consider and identify attention-grabbing techniques.

9.3: Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "9.3: Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction"

This section goes into greater depth on how to fulfill the functions of an introduction that are the prerequisites for presenting your main points. This reading explores ways to get your audience's attention, using the introduction to build speaker credibility, and the development of a thesis statement as a forecasting device. Attempt the questions at the end of the section.

URL Ryan Guy's "How to Give an Impromptu Speech"

Watch this video, which provides an example of how to use the introduction model in an impromptu speech.

9.4: Analyzing an Introduction URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "9.4: Analyzing an Introduction"

This section gives an introduction to a sample speech for you to analyze. You will encounter it again in several assignments involving mapping the elements of a speech. If you'd like, check out some of the links to other sample speeches.

URL John Zimmer's "Gold Medal Speech"

Watch this video and practice your speech evaluation skills.

9.5: Functions of a Conclusion URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "11.1: Why Conclusions Matter"

Read the Chapter 11 introduction and Section 11.1, which include a very important reminder of how inexperienced speakers frequently leave their audiences unimpressed, because the speaker has put little effort into developing his or her conclusion. Pay attention to the three primary functions of a conclusion: to restate the thesis, review the main points, and use a memorable closing device. Also note, however, that your textbook fails to mention two other important functions that should be fulfilled in a conclusion: signal to your audience that the speech is about to end, and remind your audience of the significance of the topic or their relationship to it. Try to answer the questions at the end of the section.

URL Rose Marie Mastricola's "Concluding Your Speech"

This interactive presentation summarizes the the purposes of a conclusion and provides examples of common conclusion tactics. Complete the evaluation exercise at the end of the presentation to test your understanding of the material.

9.6: Steps In Developing a Conclusion URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "11.2: Steps of a Conclusion"

This section discusses functions similar to those found in the introduction, except in almost-reverse order. Now that you have read about the functions and content of the three parts of a speech – introduction, body, and conclusion – note how each part repeats information from previous parts. Effective communicators use repetition to ensure that their message is absorbed accurately by their audiences. Repetition as an effective technique is sometimes referred to as following the Tell'em3 Principle (pronounced "Tell 'em cubed") in which you tell your audience what you are going to tell them (by inserting near the end of your introduction a preview of the main points your speech will cover), then you tell them (by presenting your main points in the body of your speech), and then you tell them what you told them (by reviewing at the beginning of your conclusion the main points the body). The Tell'em3 Principle is particularly important to use with listeners, because they cannot go back and re-read to enable them to remember what you stated.

Page Dr. Sunny's "How to Write a Speech Conclusion"

Watch this series of videos, in which Dr. Sunny walks you through the process of preparing a successful conclusion to your presentation in four simple steps.

9.7: Analyzing a Conclusion URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "11.3: Analyzing a Conclusion"

Section 11.3 presents the conclusion of a sample speech for you to analyze. Complete the "Your Turn" exercise using what you have learned from the speech analysis as a model.

URL Hong Kong Polytechnic University: "Intelligent Buildings Presentation Conclusion"

Watch this video of a speech conclusion and evaluate it based on your knowledge of speech conclusions. Does the speaker use all three parts in the conclusion? How could the conclusion be improved?

9.8: Unit 9 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "11.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities in Sections 9.5 and 11.4 . If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

10.1: The Benefits of Outlining URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "12.1: Why Outline?"

Read the Chapter 12 introduction and Section 12.1. These sections introduce aspects of outlining that are rarely discussed in depth, but which can be particularly helpful in enabling a speaker to evaluate his or her plans before finalizing the contents of a speech. Specifically, pay particular attention to the material on how outlines can be used to test the scope, logic, relevance and balance of the content you have planned. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 8: Organizing and Outlining"

As you read, recognize that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor's lecture. This chapter provides a model for pulling together what we have learned thus far in the course. It includes selecting a topic, formulating a specific purpose, crafting a thesis statement, arranging the main points in a meaningful order, developing transitions, and constructing a speaking outline.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Outlining"

Watch this video, which reviews the benefits and process of outlining. In this presentation you will learn about developing preparation outlines and delivery outlines or notecards.

10.2: Types of Outlines URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "12.2: Types of Outlines"

This section continues the emphasis on sentence outlines while shifting focus onto the three functional types (working outline, full sentence outline, and speaking outline) rather than format types. Pay particular attention to the examples of each type of outline, presenting in shaded boxes in the text. In addition, remember the advice given previously and base your decisions on which format of outlining you require (regardless of function) on how independent you can be from statements you have written out fully in previous incarnations of the speech. If you cannot liberate yourself from those drafts, you may want to avoid writing complete sentences at any point in your preparations, except when presenting the contents of direct quotes from your sources. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

10.3: Using Outlining for Success URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "12.3: Using Outlining for Success"

This section covers five finer points to develop in your outlines: singularity, consistency, adequacy, uniformity, and parallelism. Keep in mind that putting such finishing touches on an outline represents an effort to refine and revisit your plans, the result of which is an even greater familiarity with what you have planned as well as an increasing confidence in the decisions you have made. Such familiarity and confidence will in turn influence the ease and confidence with which you deliver your speech. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

10.4: Unit 10 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "12.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed all this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

11.1: Oral vs. Written Language URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "13.1: Oral vs. Written Language"

Read the Chapter 13 introduction and Section 13.1 carefully, because these readings cover the most distinguishing traits of speaking in contrast to writing. Such traits can be difficult for speakers to adopt, especially if they are anxious about public speaking; however, the same traits are some of the most influential cues noticed by audiences. As you absorb these issues, keep in mind two aspects of communication, precision, and effectiveness, and also consider that logic behind the use of oral verses written communication is often one of precision over effectiveness. Be prepared to discuss why this is the case and to recognize where in a speech effectiveness over precision is evident. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section to reinforce the importance of choosing appropriate language and diction (word choice).

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 10: Using Language Well"

In this chapter, note the discussion of the power of language to inform and influence your audience, the use of clear and vivid language, as well as the use of language to affect speaker credibility.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Language"

Watch this video, which discusses and demonstrates how to use vivid language in your speech, how to avoid language which ignores or targets certain groups, and how you should consider your audience's traits to choose words that are familiar to them.

11.2: Using Language Effectively URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "13.2: Using Language Effectively"

Read this overview of those elements of speaking which engage listeners, regardless of whether the context is public speaking or personal speaking. As you consider the points made in this reading, contrast the communication experiences you have had which you found that by the time the experience ended you had lost track of how much time had passed, because you found so intolerable that you stopped listening entirely. Whether you are conversing one-on-one, listening to a radio talk show, watching a movie, or sitting in on a speech, the qualities of communication which engage or fail to engage you are the same. Try to answer the questions at the end of section.

Page Dr. Sunny's "Using Language"

The first video explains appropriate use of language and language strategies to improve audience retention of information. Dr. Sunny provides many colorful examples of language strategies for public speaking.

The second video explains the importance of properly pronouncing the words that you choose. This will have an impact on your credibility and your audience's attention to your message.

11.3: Six Elements of Language URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "13.3: Six Elements of Language"

This section focuses on qualities in language use and presentation which can result strengthen or weaken a speech in sometimes rather subtle ways. Attempt to answer the questions at the end of the section to practice using clear language.

URL Matt Barton's "Choosing Good Words"

Watch this lecture, which expands on the four elements of word choice: meaning, familiarity, strength, and sound.

11.4: Unit 11 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "13.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed all this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

12.1: Four Methods of Delivery URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "14.1: Four Methods of Delivery"

Read the Chapter 14 introduction and Section 14.1. These sections cover the four ways you can deliver a speech. Pay attention to why each delivery mode is chosen. As with so much of what you learn and do, you should choose which techniques you use based on the needs of your audience and the context; there should be a logical reason for your choices. Never choose a delivery mode based on convenience. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Communication in the Real World: "10.2: Delivery Methods and Practice Sessions"
Read this short section for a discussion of the merits of each of the delivery methods: impromptu, manuscript delivery, memorization, and extemporaneous delivery. This discussion includes the advantages and disadvantages of each method. After reading, you should be able to determine strategies for making speech practice sessions more effective.
URL Dr. Sunny's "Giving an Extemporaneous Speech"

This video compares the four methods of presentation: extemporaneous, manuscript reading, memorization and impromptu. In the end, extemporaneous speaking is the most natural and credible form of speaking for public speaking assignments.

12.2: Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery"

This section describes factors you need to survey and make adjustments in to prevent technical and environmental problems before they reduce the effectiveness of your speech. Try answering questions 2 and 3 at the end of the section. If you want, you may adapt question 1 to present a local event to family members or friends.

URL Dr. Sunny's "Lose the Podium"

In this brief video, Dr. Sunny explains the merits of speaking to your audience without the obstruction of a podium.

URL Benjamin Ball Associates: "Talking to a Large Audience: Presentation and Speech Tips"

Watch this brief video to learn more about the adjustments we make when addressing large audiences.

12.3: Using Notes Effectively URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "14.3: Using Notes Effectively"

The key point of this section stems from the two most significant standards of using cue cards: they do not distract the audience, and they are used for recall, not reading. Each of the tips provided in this section are designed to help satisfy one of those two expectations. Answer the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Rose Marie Mastricola's "Creating and Using Presentation Note Cards"

This interactive presentation summarizes the process of creating and using note cards while presenting a speech. Complete the evaluation exercise at the end of the presentation to test your understanding of the material.

12.4: Practicing For Successful Speech Delivery URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery"

Read this section and attempt the questions at the end. The most important guidance comes in the final subsection, which involves practicing. While most speakers recognize the need to practice, many fail to realize that even if you have a nearly flawless practice session, that one session is insufficient. Practicing a speech many times is not only a matter of remembering the content and other actions you have planned; it also involves developing what is known as "muscle memory", which is the ability to reproduce an act correctly but without actually thinking about it. The more you practice your speech, the more its intricacies become a habit which you can reproduce almost subconsciously.

Page Dr. Sunny and COMMpadres Media: "Practicing Delivery"

Along with the words you choose, your vocal delivery affects the way your audience interprets your message and perceives your credibility. Watch these videos to learn more about the importance of practicing your vocal delivery and the qualities of your voice that you can control. These include volume, rate, pitch, pauses, and vocal variety.

Page Dr. Sunny and COMMpadres Media: "Nonverbal Communication"

These videos concentrate on nonverbal communication tactics that you should use when presenting a speech. These tactics include gesture, movement, facial expression, and eye contact. Nonverbal communication tactics should support your message and engage your audience's attention. Practicing these elements of nonverbal communication will help you deliver a more convincing and credible presentation.

12.5: Unit 12 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "14.5: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

13.1: Presentation Aids: Design and Usage URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "15.1: Functions of Presentation Aids"

Read the Chapter 15 introduction and Section 15.1, paying particular attention to the functions of presentation aids. As with so much about public speaking, it is important to understand why you are developing elements like presentation aids since, if you develop them simply because you think you have to, inevitably their effectiveness will be reduced. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 13: Visual Aids"

Read this chapter for some tips and rules for creating effective visual aids that support your message and engage your audience's attention. Visual aids are only effective if they complement your message. If your presentation aids overwhelm your message, your audience will become distracted from your message. Consider the positive and negative outcomes of using these materials in a speech.

URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "15.2: Types of Presentation Aids"

Pay attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each of the types of presentation aids: charts, graphs, representations, objects, models, and people. Choosing the best presentation aid to complement your message will help your audience retain your message. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Presentational Aids"

This video complements the readings by providing examples of each of the types of presentation aids along with their advantages and disadvantages.

13.2: Selecting Presentation Aids URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "15.2: Types of Presentation Aids"

Pay attention to the resources described in Table 15.1, which includes several free online presentation software. Several of these resources are comparable to PowerPoint. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

13.3: Traits of Well-Designed Presentation Aids URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "15.4: Tips for Preparing Presentation Aids"

This section gives advice on how to design your aids to be accessible to your audience, easily manipulated, and aesthetically pleasing. Pay particular attention to the tips about creating the aids, covered in Section 3. Note, however, that since this is a visual subject, seeing examples of good and bad presentation aids is even more valuable than just reading about them. Because of this, this reading material has been supplemented by a detailed lecture on the subject, which provides an in-depth discussion about and more extensive examples of well-designed and poorly designed aids. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Powerpoint: What NOT to Do"

In this video, the presenter provides rules and tips for creating effective Powerpoint slides to accompany your presentation. These tips apply to presentation aides in general.

13.4: Unit 13 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "15.5: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

14.1: Informative Speaking URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "Chapter 16: Informative Speaking"

Read the introduction to Chapter 16 to learn about the common situations in which we use informative speaking in everyday interactions. Being balanced, honest and fair are all qualities of informative speaking. It is an opportunity to share information and educate our audiences about a variety of topics.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 15: Informative Speaking"

Read this chapter for a comprehensive overview of informative speaking, its purposes and models. This includes the functions of informative speech, responsibilities of the speaker, the types of informative speeches, and application of organizational patterns. The chapter also provides helpful tips for improving your use of language and presentation aids during an informative presentation.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Informative Speaking Basics"

This video provides details and examples of qualities of informative speaking, suitable topics, and common organizational patterns. 

URL COMMpadres Media: "Informative Speaking Techniques and Tips"

This video provides tips and techniques for developing content for your informative speech assignment. The presenter provides examples from famous speeches and from typical speech assignments.

14.2: Informative Speaking Goals URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "16.1: Informative Speaking Goals"

This section will help your speech succeed in doing more than providing information. The advice in this section is what will increase the likelihood that your audience will absorb the information you provide, retain it into the future, and act on it. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Dea Leu's "Informative Speech About Depression in College Students"

Watch this example of an informative speech presented by a student. As you watch the speaker, pay particular attention to the structure of the speech, the use of forecasting main points, and verbal citations of sources. Using what you have learned in the previous thirteen units, evaluate the success and flaws in the presentation.

14.3: Types of Informative Speeches URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "16.2: Types of Informative Speeches"

This section discusses several categories of topics that may be used in informative speaking and several approaches to developing topics for informative speeches. The most common types of informative speeches include descriptive and demonstration speeches. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Dr. Sunny's "Informative Speaking"

Watch this video for an overview of the types of informative speeches and approaches. Dr. Sunny discusses descriptive and demonstration speeches as well as common organizational patterns for these types of speeches.

URL Jeff Kirschner's "This App Makes it Fun to Pick Up Litter"

Watch this example of an informative speech presented by a professional. As you watch, pay particular attention to the structure of the speech, the use of language and presentation aids. Using what you have learned so far, evaluate the success and flaws in the presentation.

14.4: Speaking to Entertain URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "Chapter 18: Speaking to Entertain"

Read the Chapter 18 introduction and Section 18.1, which discuss giving a speech for entertainment purposes. These sections also explore the four ingredients of a good entertaining speech.

URL Steven Orr's "Growing Up Oakey"

Starting at 4:09, watch contestant Steven Orr perform his humorous speech "Growing Up Oakey". Humorous speeches are a form of speaking to entertain. Using what you have learned so far, evaluate the success and flaws in the presentation.

URL Joe Kowan's "How I Beat Stage Fright"

This is an example of a speech to entertain and inspire. Using what you have learned so far, evaluate the success and flaws in the presentation.

14.5: Special Occasion Speeches URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "18.2: Special-Occasion Speeches"

This section discusses several types of special occasion speeches. Special occasion speeches are divided into two categories: ceremonial and inspiration speeches. Entertaining speeches are the most common types of speeches that we encounter in our lives, such as wedding toast and eulogies.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 17: Special Occasion Speaking"

Read this chapter for a comprehensive overview of special occasion speaking, its purposes and models. The chapter also provides types of special occasion speeches and general guidelines for success. Four tips to consider include keeping the speech short, acknowledging the obvious, staying positive, and using humor.

URL Kimberly Monteiro's "Awards Speech"

Watch this video, which presents an example of a a speech to accept an award. This is a very short speech in which the award recipient uses a genuine approach, a little humor, and a structure you should find familiar from your readings and other materials. Take note of her use of language, repetition, and awareness of her audience.

14.6: Keynote Speaking URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "18.3: Keynote Speaking"

This section reviews two broad types of keynote speeches: after-dinner speaking and motivational speaking. Pay particular attention to the list and examples of types of humor in Table 18.1 for ideas about what kind of humor you can choose from for your own speeches. Not all keynote speeches are humorous, as is illustrated here.

URL Jeni Tennison's "Keynote Speech"

Watch this video, an example of a keynote speech at a technology conference. Using what you have learned so far, evaluate the merits of this presentation considering the purpose of this special occasion speech.

14.7: Unit 14 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "16.3: Chapter Exercises" and "18.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities in sections 16.3 and 18.4. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

15.1: Persuasive Speaking URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "17.1: Persuasion: An Overview"

Read the Chapter 17 introduction and Section 17.1 to learn about persuasive speaking and pay particular attention to the spectrum of choices list and how it illustrates the relationship between discrepancy and attitude change diagrammed in Figure 17.1. In persuasive speeches we are attempting to mold people's opinions and encouraging them to take an action. Persuasive speaking also poses ethical dilemmas. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Public Speaking: "Chapter 16: Persuasive Speaking"

This chapter reviews persuasive speaking, its purposes, and its models. The chapter defines three types of persuasive speeches: propositions of fact, propositions of value, and propositions of policy. The reading also provides general guidelines for success with receptive, neutral, and hostile audiences. Four organizational patterns for persuasive speeches are reviewed: Monroe's Motivated Sequence, Direct Method, Causal, and Refutation.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Persuasive Speaking Basics"

This video provides an overview of the functions and types of persuasive speeches as well as suitable topics. The presenter provides examples of topic development.

URL Dr. Sunny's "How to Give a Persuasive Speech"

This video provides additional tips for developing a persuasive speech and addressing different types of audiences – those who agree with you and those who do not.

URL Paul Taylor's "Persuasive Speech"

This video gives an example of a persuasive speech. Using what you have learned so far, evaluate the success and flaws in the presentation.

15.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "17.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches"

This section discusses claims. Most people use the term "argument" instead of "claim", but there are subtle distinctions between those two terms. The textbook emphasizes that a claim is a declaration about attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors. Another way to view a claim, however, is in relation to an argument, which some define as "a series of statements used to persuade someone of something", which is how the supplemental reading provided next in this unit approaches the term. From this perspective, a claim is the conclusion you want your audience to arrive at after you have presented your arguments and the evidence that supports them. Thus, returning to the parlance of the course textbook, in persuasive speaking, you establish your claim in your thesis statement, while you establish that claim via the main points of your speech: the arguments. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Brett Lamb's "Analyzing Persuasive Language"

This reading provides valuable insights into the impact that our use of language has on moving our audience to our point of view or to take an action. These are important qualities for persuasive speaking.

15.3: Persuasive Organizational Patterns URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches"

This section covers the three most commonly used organizational patterns in argumentation. There are also two other patterns that should be aware of, although there is no consistent terminology to refer to them. These alternative patterns focus on dealing with opposing arguments and are less audience-oriented than the ones presented in your textbook. The "trial lawyer" model uses a point-counterpoint pattern to refute each opposing claim and is used when the number of arguments for and against is balanced. The "refute and overwhelm" model is used when one side has more arguments for it than against it. This model starts with a balanced refutation of opposing claims and then moves on to "overwhelm" the opposition by presenting additional, irrefutable arguments. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL COMMpadres Media: "Persuasive Speaking Strategies"

This video discusses qualities of persuasive speaking, strategies, and common organizational patterns. This presentation provides examples for the use of ethos (the speaker), logos (the message), and pathos (the audience) as the key strategies for developing a persuasive appeal for any audience.

URL Dr. Sunny's "Monroe's Motivated Sequence for Persuasive Speaking"

This video provides details about Monroe's Motivated Sequence, a popular organizational approach to persuasive arguments, which includes the following steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action, and action/approval.

15.4: Unit 15 Exercises URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "17.4: Chapter Exercises"

After you have completed this unit, respond to the assessment activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

Course Feedback Survey URL Course Feedback Survey