Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
1.1: Why Is Public Speaking Important? URL Why Is Public Speaking Important?

Read the Chapter 1 introduction and Section 1.1 for an overview of the role of public speaking in society. While you read, consider how public speaking plays a part in your own life, not only as a speaker but also as an audience member. Consider the qualities that make public speaking different than conversation and the formal and informal situations that center on public speaking.

1.2: The Process of Public Speaking URL The Process of Public Speaking

Read Section 1.2, which will help you identify the three most important elements that influence the process of public speaking. The section also provides a brief introduction to several important public speaking models, including the Shannon and Weaver model of communication. Models attempt to diagram how the elements of a process interact and to explain outcomes. Like checklists, models are useful reminders of the elements you should consider, anticipate, adjust, and, if possible, adapt to if you are planning a speech. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading (think of question 2 hypothetically, keeping in mind what speech you may want to deliver).

URL Introduction to Public Speaking

Read this chapter, which reinforces the importance of public speaking skills and identifies core public speaking competencies.

URL The Science of Public Speaking

Listen carefully to how this podcast corresponds to the material presented in the materials we've read earlier. Here, the presenters explain describe the benefits of public speaking, and discuss ways to make your messages memorable and meaningful to your listeners.

1.3: Public Speaking and Ethics URL The Art of Public Speaking

Read this brief summary of public speaking.

URL Fundamentals of Public Speaking

Watch this video about ethics and public speaking. Listen carefully to how it corresponds to the materials you saw earlier. Being diligent about this process will enable you to succeed in this course.

URL Ethics in Public Speaking

Read this chapter, which gives an overview of ethics and explains the importance of being an ethical speaker. Our credibility and reputation are built on trust and honesty with our audience members. Think about the language we use and how it affects the audience's perception of our message.

1.3.1: The Ethics Pyramid URL The Ethics Pyramid

Read the Chapter 2 introduction and Section 2.1, which introduces the ethical challenges facing a speaker or audience. It also demonstrates another model that should be considered when planning a speech, the "ethics pyramid". This illustrates the ethical choices both speakers and listeners may face. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

1.3.2: Ethics in Public Speaking URL Ethics in Public Speaking

Read Section 2.2, which discusses the code of ethics established by the National Communication Association and how it guides professional speakers. This section also covers how you can use the code to plan your own speech. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

1.4: Unit 1 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you have completed this unit, do these exercises. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

2.1: What is Communication Apprehension? URL What Is Communication Apprehension?

Read the Chapter 3 introduction and Section 3.1. These sections point out that apprehension is the most frequently mentioned reason why people do not like to speak publicly. Focus on how to distinguish apprehension from anxiety. Review the takeaways and complete the exercises at the end of the section.

Page Bright Ideas in Public Speaking

Watch this collection of short videos, which focus on defining and coping with communication apprehension and speech anxiety (stage fright). These videos address students' common concerns with presenting speeches in classes and in making presentations in work situations. 

2.2: Sources of Communication Apprehension URL Sources of Communication Apprehension

Read section 3.2, which identifies several types of communication apprehension and what causes them. Attempt the exercise at the end of the section to get a sense of where your public speaking apprehension may come from.

2.3: Reducing Communication Apprehension URL Reducing Communication Apprehension

This section identifies several strategies for reducing communication apprehension. Once you have identified what makes you apprehensive about speaking in public, you can practice these strategies to reduce that apprehension and become more successful. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

Page Reducing Public Speaking Anxiety

Watch this lecture, which focuses on using natural, conversational techniques to reduce the impact of public speaking apprehension. You may find this lecture particularly helpful because the class' questions reflect many questions you might also have.

2.4: Coping with the Unexpected URL Coping with the Unexpected

Read section 3.4, which discusses some common difficulties speakers face. You should prepare for these to increase your chances for success. Knowing what things are likely to happen when you are speaking can also help alleviate your concerns. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

2.5: Unit 2 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

Do you think statements about communication apprehension are myths or facts? Check yourself by completing these exercises.

3.1: Listening vs. Hearing URL Listening vs. Hearing

Read section 4.1, which stresses the differences between listening and hearing, including the traits which produce effective listening and how speakers improve by listening to other speakers. Attempt the exercise at the end of the section and work with a friend or family member as your partner.

URL Hearing and Listening Effectively

Read this summary of the differences between listening and hearing.

URL Strategies to Enhance Listening

Read these strategies that you can use to enhance your listening skills. Practice these strategies the next time you listen to a presentation or newscast.

3.2: Listening Styles URL Listening Styles

This section identifies four listening styles. Recognizing which type of listener you are can help you broaden your listening skills and adopt other styles. Recognizing the listening styles in an audience can help a speaker be more effective by using techniques that appeal to their audience. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

Page How to Speak So People Want to Listen

Watch this video, paying particular attention to the "seven deadly sins of speaking" and how these influence an audience's willingness to listen. This supports the listening model and orientation styles we discussed previously.

3.3: Why Listening is Difficult URL Why Listening Is Difficult

This section focuses on factors that can interfere with effective listening, also known as noise. Noise is anything that interferes with the transmission, reception, comprehension, or retention of a message. Understanding listening behaviors lets a speaker modify the content or the environment of their speech to minimize the negative effects of poor listening habits or circumstances. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Barriers to Effective Listening

Read this summary of the internal and external barriers to effective listening. Consider how these barriers affect how we listen to lectures, news broadcasts, or our coworkers and family members. There are ways we can reduce these barriers to improve the environment for our listeners.

3.4: Listening as a Process: Stages of Listening URL Stages of Listening

This section points out how listening, like speaking, is a process. A good speaker can develop content that uses the stages of listening to enhance how their message is perceived, understood, and retained. You can trace miscommunication to these listening stages and use audience feedback to enhance your speech's impact. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL The Three "A"s of Active Listening

Read this summary of strategies for becoming a better listener. This article describes the stages of the listening process and the types of feedback we receive from listeners.

3.5: Listening Critically URL Listening Critically

"Critical listening" is more commonly referred to as "active listening". Every speaker wants an audience that is engaged, actively takes in information, and analyzes it as it pertains to their situation. You can appreciate this by being an active listener yourself. This section describes what you can do to improve your listening habits. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

3.6: Unit 3 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, complete these exercises. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

4.1: Why Conduct an Audience Analysis? URL Why Conduct an Audience Analysis?

Read the introduction to Chapter 5 and Section 5.1, which explains why audience analysis is the most important step in preparing to speak. The success of a speech depends on how well a speaker anticipates his or her audience. Audience analysis is what distinguishes professional speakers from amateurs. Answer the questions at the end of the section.

URL Audience Analysis

This chapter explains a process for collecting information about your audience and using it to improve your connection with them. Audience analysis can help you select topics that better suit your audience's needs and interests. 

Page More on Audience Analysis

Watch this video, which emphasizes important points covered in the readings in this unit. It gives an example of audience analysis to help you understand the process.

4.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis URL Three Types of Audience Analysis

Read section 5.2. Failing to account for one factor of your audience can lead you to make wrong conclusions. Psychographic and situational factors are more difficult to measure, but they can make or break your preparations. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

4.3: Conducting Audience Analysis URL Conducting Audience Analysis

This section introduces some tools for conducting audience analyses. Keep the difference between tools and techniques in mind. Techniques are proven, systematic procedures for completing a task or accomplishing an objective. Tools are used to perform those procedures. Audience analysis is one of several techniques required for an effective speech. The tools used to perform an audience analysis include observations, interviews, surveys, focus groups, and existing data. Attempt the questions at the end of the section.

URL The Importance of Audience Analysis

Read this three-part series on audience analysis, which reinforces how we get to know our audience before creating a speech and discusses a unique way of using your audience analysis to connect with your audience.

4.4: Using Your Audience Analysis URL Using Your Audience Analysis

This section includes a rarely-covered aspect of public speaking: making adjustments to a speech while you're giving it. You should try to notice the feedback your audience provides while you are speaking. Attempt to answer the questions at the end of the section.

4.5: Unit 4 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you have completed this unit, respond to these exercises. If you get any questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

5.1: General Purposes of Speaking: To Inform, To Persuade, To Entertain URL General Purposes of Speaking

Read the Chapter 6 introduction and Section 6.1, paying attention to the sample speeches. The challenge for many first-time speakers is putting the parts of a speech together. Learning what the parts are is easy, but understanding how one part influences another is not an intuitive matter for most. This is why the best way to proceed is to read transcripts and watch videos of speeches. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Types of Speeches and Speaking Occasions

This article gives an overview of the three general purposes of public speaking (informative, persuasive, and entertainment) the most common speaking occasions.

5.2: Selecting a Topic URL Selecting a Topic

This section ends with a set of questions about how appropriately you have chosen your topic. The questions are very important because poorly-chosen topics are difficult to develop and deliver. Before you put a lot of time into a topic, you should answer the questions in this section. Neglecting this step can result in a lot of wasted time and effort. After you read, attempt the exercises in section 2.

URL The Topic, Purpose, and Thesis

This article provides additional information about selecting a speech topic and establishes the importance of topic selection. Topic selection goes hand in hand with developing a specific purpose, which is another important tool for organizing your thoughts.

URL Topic Selection

Watch this video, which provides helpful suggestions for making topic selections and generating ideas when you draw a blank, such as considering your audience's interests and your traits as a speaker.

5.3: What If You Draw a Blank? URL What If You Draw a Blank?

Review this section about making adjustments to a speech while delivering it. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

5.4: Specific Purposes URL Specific Purposes

This section suggests how to identify a topic that will help you to develop a speech efficiently. This can save you time and effort and lead to a speech with a much greater impact on your audience. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Speech Purpose and Central Idea

Watch this video to learn more about developing a general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea statement for a speech.

5.5: Unit 5 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to the assessment questions. If you get any of them incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

6.1: What is Research? URL What Is Research?

Read the introduction to chapter 7 and section 7.1. This section explains why research happens and what we do with its results. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Supporting Your Ideas

This chapter discusses how to determine the value of academic and nonacademic sources and guidelines for making these determinations. 

URL Research and Support

Watch this video for an overview of presentation research. Each type of research has assets and liabilities. Think about how to identify resources, secure them, and evaluate their effectiveness.

URL Supporting Evidence

This video applies the process of finding and using supporting resources in public presentations. As you watch, reflect on how it relates to what you've studied thus far.

6.2: Developing a Research Strategy URL Developing a Research Strategy

This section gives a practical approach to finding useful, credible information efficiently. This process is called your research strategy.

URL Source Evaluation

Watch this video about supporting research and evaluating sources. What makes a good source? What makes information useful? What makes information good?

6.3: Citing Sources URL Citing Sources

This section considers using a speaker's point of view rather than a writer's. Review these guidelines on plagiarism and how to cite sources in a way that helps listeners recognize and respect them. Answer the questions at the end of the section.

Page Oral Citations and Verbally Citing Sources

Watch these videos to learn more about the importance of properly citing sources in your presentations. By properly citing sources, you avoid plagiarism and appear more credible. These presentations give examples of what to include in your oral citations and how to sound natural.

6.4: Unit 6 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, answer these questions. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

7.1: Using Research as Support URL Using Research as Support

Read the chapter 8 Introduction and section 8.1. These connect information literacy, research, and speech development by pointing out the qualities information must have to be respected, understood, and remembered. Answer the questions at the end of the section.

7.2: Types of Support URL Exploring Types of Support

This section lists options for finding and presenting supporting details. Informative details and persuasive evidence can both be considered "support". Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical

Read this article about how to use sources to support a message. It gives tips for selecting and using sources to support your points.

URL How and When to Use Narrative

Think about how we use sources to support messages. This podcast gives a professional's point of view on how to incorporate sources in a compelling way. 

URL Use Anecdotes, Analogies, and Examples

Watch this video on how we use sources to support messages.

7.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments URL Using Support and Creating Arguments

This section gives practical information about how to integrate research into your content. The seamless integration of original and sourced material is the core of effective professional communication. Pay attention to the ways sourced material can be presented – summary, paraphrase, and quotation – and the rules you should follow when deciding which form to use. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Critical Thinking

This article discusses the role of critical thinking. Critical thinking is the process of evaluating and analyzing information to determine the best course of action.

URL Logic and the Role of Arguments

This section gives more information about the role of reasoning. We use reasoning and logic to connect facts and evaluate arguments.

7.4: Unit 7 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these questions. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

8.1: Determining Your Main Ideas URL Determining Your Main Ideas

Read the chapter 10 introduction and section 10.1. Your main points are a combination of your topic, purpose, and strategy. For example, if your topic is cats and your purpose is to inform your audience, then your specific purpose might be to inform your audience of the differences in cat breeds. "Differences" is a keyword associated with the strategy and pattern of using contrast. Keep this relationship in mind. Attempt the questions at the end of the section.

8.2: Using Common Organizing Patterns URL Using Common Organizing Patterns

This section describes the seven most frequently-used organizational patterns in speeches. Most of these patterns are associated with informative and entertaining speeches. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Ordering the Main Points

This article describes nine organizational patterns used in informative, entertaining, or persuasive speaking. Note the different patterns and the types of material each pattern is best suited for. Sometimes your topic naturally leads you to a certain organizational pattern.

Page Organizing Patterns

Watch these examples of organizational patterns. These videos give creative ways to remember these organizational patterns and one professional's thoughts on crafting a simple and successful presentation. 

8.3: Keeping Your Speech Moving URL Keeping Your Speech Moving

This section covers the elements that create the flow of an effective speech. Pay attention to Table 10.1, which lists transitional phrases that work in specific organizational patterns. Inexperienced speakers often struggle to come up with effective phrases. This section also covers four transitional elements: transitions between main points, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

Page Transitions

These videos give additional examples of transitions.

8.4: Analyzing a Speech Body URL Analyzing a Speech Body

This section presents the body of a sample speech and analyzes it for you. Pay attention to the transitional devices that make the speech flow. Use this speech as a model for an effective body of a speech.

8.5: Unit 8 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, answer these questions. If you get any questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

9.1: Functions of the Introduction URL The Importance of an Introduction

Read the Chapter 9 introduction and Section 9.1. These sections describe five functions your introduction must accomplish. Introductions are essential, not optional. You must start your speech with an attention-getter because if your audience is not paying attention to your words, they won't hear or understand you. Your audience must understand why you are addressing them, what you hope to accomplish, and why you are worthy of their attention. Starting with your introduction, you want to make sure your audience anticipates the information you present. Their comprehension will increase when they know what to expect. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Introductions and Conclusions

Read this overview of the functions of introductions and conclusions, strategies for preparing them, and samples. This chapter reinforces why we write the introduction and conclusion AFTER the body of the speech.

URL Introductions

Watch this video about the functions of introductions, their components, and tips for creating an effective introduction.

URL Introducing Your Speech

This interactive presentation summarizes the purposes of an introduction, gives examples of introduction tactics, and explains why we write the introduction after the body of the speech. Complete the exercise at the end of the presentation.

9.2: The Attention-Getter: The First Step of an Introduction URL The Attention-Getter: The First Step of a Introduction

Public speaking has existed for a very long time. As a result, many experienced and knowledgeable individuals have contributed ready-made ideas and techniques. Use these suggestions rather than struggling to produce brand new ideas or techniques. Try to answer the questions at the end of the section.

9.3: Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction URL Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction

This section goes into greater depth on how to fulfill the functions of an introduction. It explores how to get your audience's attention, using the introduction to build credibility, and developing a thesis statement as a forecasting device. Attempt the questions at the end of the section.

URL How to Give an Impromptu Speech

Watch this example of how to use the introduction model in an impromptu speech.

9.4: Analyzing an Introduction URL Analyzing an Introduction

This section gives an introduction to a sample speech. You will encounter it again later. If you want, check out some of the other sample speeches.

URL Gold-Medal Speech

Watch this video and practice your speech evaluation skills.

9.5: Functions of a Conclusion URL Why Conclusions Matter

Read the introduction to chapter 11 and section 11.1. Inexperienced speakers frequently leave their audiences unimpressed because the speaker has put little effort into developing their conclusion. The three primary functions of a conclusion are to restate the thesis, review the main points, and use a memorable closing device. However, this resource doesn't mention two other important functions of a conclusion: signal to your audience that the speech is about to end and remind them of the topic's significance or their relationship to it. Answer the questions at the end of the section.

URL Concluding Your Speech

This interactive presentation summarizes the purposes of a conclusion and gives examples of common tactics. Complete the exercise at the end of the presentation.

9.6: Steps In Developing a Conclusion URL Steps of a Conclusion

Each part of a speech – introduction, body, and conclusion – repeats information from previous parts. Effective communicators use repetition to ensure the audience absorbs their message accurately. Repetition is sometimes referred to as the Tell'em3 Principle (pronounced "Tell 'em cubed"): tell your audience what you are going to tell them, then tell them, and then tell them what you told them. The Tell'em3 Principle is particularly important to use with listeners because they can't go back and review what you said earlier.

Page How to Write a Conclusion

Watch this series of videos, which walks through preparing a successful conclusion in four simple steps.

9.7: Analyzing a Conclusion URL Analyzing a Conclusion

Section 11.3 presents the conclusion of a sample speech for you to analyze. Complete the "Your Turn" exercise using what you have learned from the speech analysis as a model.

URL Intelligent Buildings Presentation Conclusion

Watch this speech conclusion and evaluate it based on the criteria we've discussed. Does the speaker use all three parts in the conclusion? How could the conclusion be improved?

9.8: Unit 9 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to the activities in sections 9.5 and 11.4 . If you get any questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

10.1: The Benefits of Outlining URL Why Outline?

Read the chapter 12 introduction and section 12.1. These sections introduce outlining, which enables a speaker to evaluate their plans before finalizing their speech. Pay attention to how outlines can be used to test the scope, logic, relevance, and balance of your content. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Organizing and Outlining

Read chapter 8, which discusses selecting a topic, formulating a specific purpose, crafting a thesis statement, arranging the main points in a meaningful order, developing transitions, and constructing a speaking outline.

URL The Benefits of Outlining

Watch this video, which reviews the benefits and process of outlining and why notecards can be useful.

10.2: Types of Outlines URL Types of Outlines

This section focuses on the three functional types of outlines: working, full-sentence, and speaking. Decide what kind of outline is best for you based on how well you can speak independently of your drafts. You may want to avoid writing complete sentences in your preparations except when presenting direct quotes from your sources. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

10.3: Using Outlining for Success URL Using Outlining for Success

This section covers singularity, consistency, adequacy, uniformity, and parallelism. Putting these finishing touches on an outline will help you become more familiar with your plan and increase your confidence. This familiarity and confidence will make delivering your speech that much easier. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

10.4: Unit 10 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these activities. If you get any of the questions incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

11.1: Oral vs. Written Language URL Oral vs. Written Language

Read the introduction to chapter 13 and Section 13.1, which cover the traits of speaking versus writing. These traits can be difficult for speakers to adopt, but audiences quickly notice them. You want to be precise and effective, but it can be hard to do both during a speech. Recognize where effectiveness is more important than precision, and vice versa. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Using Language Well

Read chapter 10. Language has the power to inform and influence your audience, so using clear and vivid language can affect your credibility.

URL Using Vivid Language

Watch this video, which demonstrates how to use vivid language in your speech, how to avoid language that ignores or targets certain groups, and how you can consider your audience's traits to choose words that are familiar to them.

11.2: Using Language Effectively URL Using Language Effectively

This section reviews the elements of speaking that engage listeners. Contrast these with the communication experiences you've had. Have you sometimes felt that time dragged on and on because you lost interest in a speaker and stopped listening? Or perhaps you were so interested that time seemed to fly by? Try to answer the questions at the end of the section.

Page Using Language

The first video explains using language strategies to improve how your audience retains information. The second video explains the importance of pronunciation, which affects your credibility and your audience's attention.

11.3: Six Elements of Language URL Six Elements of Language

This section focuses on how language can strengthen or weaken a speech. Answer the questions at the end of the section to practice using clear language.

URL Choosing Good Words

Watch this lecture, which expands on the four elements of word choice: meaning, familiarity, strength, and sound.

11.4: Unit 11 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these questions. If you get any of them incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

12.1: Four Methods of Delivery URL Four Methods of Delivery

Read the introduction to chapter 14 and section 14.1, which cover the four ways you can deliver a speech. When would you choose each one? How can you tell which is best, based on your audience's needs? You should have a logical reason; never choose a delivery mode based on convenience. Attempt the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Delivery Methods and Practice Sessions
Read this section, which discusses the merits of each delivery method: impromptu, manuscript delivery, memorization, and extemporaneous delivery. After you read, you should be able to make your speech practice sessions more effective.
URL Giving an Extemporaneous Speech

This video compares the four methods of presentation: extemporaneous, manuscript reading, memorization, and impromptu. Extemporaneous speaking is the most natural and credible form of speaking.

12.2: Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery URL Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery

This section describes the technical and environmental problems that can reduce the effectiveness of your speech. Answer questions 2 and 3 at the end of the section.

URL Lose the Podium

This video explains the merits of speaking to your audience without the obstruction of a podium.

URL Talking to a Large Audience

Watch this video to learn more about the adjustments we make when addressing large audiences.

12.3: Using Notes Effectively URL Using Notes Effectively

Cue cards should not distract the audience and should be used for recall, not reading. Read these tips, each of which satisfies one of those two expectations. Answer the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Creating and Using Presentation Note Cards

This interactive presentation summarizes the process of creating and using note cards while presenting a speech. Complete the exercise at the end of the presentation to test your understanding.

12.4: Practicing For Successful Speech Delivery URL Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery

Read this section and attempt the questions at the end. While most speakers recognize the need to practice, many fail to realize that even if you have a nearly flawless practice session, one session is not enough. Practicing is not only for remembering the content; it also involves developing "muscle memory", so you can act without actually thinking. The more you practice, the more it becomes a habit that you can reproduce subconsciously.

Page Practicing Your Delivery

Your delivery affects the way your audience interprets your message and perceives your credibility. Watch these videos to learn about practicing your delivery and the vocal qualities you can control: volume, rate, pitch, pauses, and variety.

Page Nonverbal Communication

These videos concentrate on nonverbal tactics you should use when speaking, including gestures, movement, facial expressions, and eye contact. These tactics should support your message and engage your audience. Practicing these will help you deliver a more convincing and credible presentation.

12.5: Unit 12 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these questions. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

13.1: Presentation Aids: Design and Usage URL Functions of Presentation Aids

Read the introduction to chapter 15 and Section 15.1. Why are presentation aids useful? Should you create them for every speech? Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Visual Aids

Read chapter 13 for some tips for creating effective visual aids. Visual aids are only effective if they complement your message. If your presentation aids overwhelm your message, your audience will be distracted. Consider the positive and negative outcomes of using these materials in a speech.

URL Types of Presentation Aids

Pay attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each type of presentation aids: charts, graphs, representations, objects, models, and people. Choosing the aid that best complements your speech will help your audience retain your message. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Presentational Aids

This video gives examples of the types of presentation aids, their advantages, and their disadvantages.

13.2: Selecting Presentation Aids URL Types of Presentation Aids

Pay attention to Table 15.1, which includes several free online presentation software. Several of these are comparable to PowerPoint. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

13.3: Traits of Well-Designed Presentation Aids URL Tips for Preparing Presentation Aids

This section gives advice on designing your aids to be accessible, easily manipulated, and aesthetically pleasing. Since aids are visual, seeing examples of good and bad aids is more valuable than just reading about them. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL PowerPoint: What NOT to Do

This video gives tips for creating effective PowerPoint slides to accompany your presentation. These tips apply to presentation aids in general.

13.4: Unit 13 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these questions. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

14.1: Informative Speaking URL Informative Speaking

Read the introduction to Chapter 16 to learn about when we use informative speaking in everyday interactions. Being balanced, honest, and fair are all qualities of informative speaking. This is an opportunity to share information and educate our audience.

URL The Purpose of Informative Speaking

Read chapter 15, which covers the functions of informative speech, the speaker's responsibilities, types of informative speeches, and their organizational patterns. It also gives tips for improving your language and creating presentation aids.

URL Informative Speaking Basics

This video gives examples of informative speaking and discusses suitable topics and common organizational patterns. 

URL Informative Speaking Techniques and Tips

This video discusses how to develop content for an informative speech. It also gives examples of famous speeches and typical speech assignments.

14.2: Informative Speaking Goals URL Informative Speaking Goals

Your speech should do more than just provide information. The advice in this section will increase the likelihood that your audience will absorb your information, retain it, and act on it. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Informative Speech About Depression in College Students

Watch this example of an informative speech. Pay attention to the speech's structure, how it forecasts main points, and how the speaker cites their sources. Using what you have learned, evaluate the successes and flaws of this presentation.

14.3: Types of Informative Speeches URL Types of Informative Speeches

This section discusses the categories of topics in informative speaking and several approaches to developing topics for a speech. The most common informative speeches are descriptive and demonstration speeches. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Informative Speaking

Watch this overview of the types of informative speeches. It discusses descriptive and demonstration speeches and common organizational patterns.

URL This App Makes it Fun to Pick Up Litter

Watch this informative speech presented by a professional. As you watch, pay attention to the speech structure, how it uses language, and the presentation aids. Using what you have learned, evaluate the successes and flaws in the presentation.

14.4: Speaking to Entertain URL Speaking to Entertain

Read the introduction to chapter 18 and Section 18.1, which discuss giving a speech for entertainment and explore the four ingredients of a good entertaining speech.

URL Growing Up Oakey

Starting at 4:09, watch the humorous speech "Growing Up Oakey". Using what you have learned, evaluate the successes and flaws in the presentation.

URL How I Beat Stage Fright

This is an example of a speech to entertain and inspire. Using what you have learned, evaluate the successes and flaws in the presentation.

14.5: Special Occasion Speeches URL Special Occasion Speeches

This section discusses several types of special occasion speeches, which are divided into two categories: ceremonial and inspirational. Special occasion speeches, such as wedding toasts and eulogies, are the most common speeches in everyday life.

URL Special Occasion Speaking

Read this chapter. Four tips to consider when delivering a special occasion speech are to keep the speech short, acknowledge the obvious, stay positive, and use humor.

URL Awards Speech

Watch this example of an award acceptance speech. This short uses a genuine approach, a little humor, and a structure you should find familiar. Take note of her use of language, repetition, and awareness of her audience.

14.6: Keynote Speaking URL Keynote Speaking

This section reviews two broad types of keynote speeches: after-dinner and motivational. What kind of humor can you use in your speeches? Not all keynote speeches are humorous, as you will see here.

URL Example Keynote Speech

Watch this example of a keynote speech at a technology conference. Using what you have learned, evaluate this presentation in light of its purpose.

14.7: Unit 14 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to the questions in sections 16.3 and 18.4. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

15.1: Persuasive Speaking URL Persuasion: An Overview

Read the introduction to chapter 17 and Section 17.1 to learn about persuasive speaking. In persuasive speeches, we attempt to mold people's opinions and encourage them to take action. Persuasive speaking also poses ethical dilemmas. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Persuasive Speaking

This chapter reviews persuasive speaking, its purposes, and its models. It defines three types of persuasive speeches: propositions of fact, propositions of value, and propositions of policy. It also gives general guidelines for success with receptive, neutral, and hostile audiences and reviews four organizational patterns: Monroe's motivated sequence, direct method, causal, and refutation.

URL Persuasive Speaking Basics

This video gives an overview of persuasive speeches and suitable topics for them. The presenter also gives examples of topic development.

URL How to Give a Persuasive Speech

This video gives tips for developing a persuasive speech and addressing audiences who agree with you and those who do not.

URL Persuasive Speech

This is an example of a persuasive speech. Using what you have learned, evaluate the successes and flaws in the presentation.

15.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches URL Types of Persuasive Speeches

This section discusses claims. Most people use the term "argument" instead of "claim", but there are subtle distinctions. A claim is a declaration about attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors. An argument is a series of statements used to persuade someone of something. A claim is the conclusion you want your audience to arrive at after presenting your arguments and the evidence that supports them. In persuasive speaking, you establish your claim in your thesis statement, and you establish that claim via the arguments (the main points of your speech). Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Analyzing Persuasive Language

Read these insights into how language moves an audience to our point of view or to take action. These are important in persuasive speaking.

15.3: Persuasive Organizational Patterns URL Organizing Persuasive Speeches

This section covers the three most commonly used organizational patterns in argumentation. The "trial lawyer" model uses a point-counterpoint pattern to refute each opposing claim and is used when the number of arguments for and against is balanced. The "refute and overwhelm" model is used when one side has more arguments for it than against it and starts with a balanced refutation of opposing claims and then moves on to "overwhelm" the opposition by presenting additional irrefutable arguments. Complete the exercises at the end of the section.

URL Persuasive Speaking Strategies

This video discusses persuasive speaking strategies and organizational patterns. It gives examples of ethos (the speaker), logos (the message), and pathos (the audience) to develop a persuasive appeal.

URL Monroe's Motivated Sequence for Persuasive Speaking

This video provides details about Monroe's motivated sequence, a popular organizational approach to persuasive arguments. It includes the following steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action, and action/approval.

15.4: Unit 15 Exercises URL Practice Exercises

After you finish this unit, respond to these questions. If you get any incorrect, review that material from the chapter.

Course Feedback Survey URL Course Feedback Survey