In his book, The Republic, Plato (c. 428–348 BC) outlines the ideal state, relaying a discussion Socrates had with his companions about the individual and the individual's relationship to the state.
Plato believes an ideal society is based on the principle of specialization. When labor is divided among citizens "justly", and according to their natural inclinations, the city will reach its maximum potential.
A key question in Western political thought is: who should rule? According to Plato, the ideal political community is ruled by a philosopher-king.
Review Plato's thoughts on justice in Book I and Book II of The Republic. Review Plato's thoughts on justice in Philosophers and Kings: Plato's Republic, III-IV. Review Plato's writings on specialization in Book II and Book IV of The Republic, and the roles of the three classes in the Unit 1 Discussion. Review the "Form of the Good" in Book V of The Republic.
In The Apology, Plato outlines the speech Socrates (c. 470–399 BC), his teacher and mentor, made in self-defense when he was put on trial for impiety and for morally corrupting the youth of the city-state. In Crito, Plato recounts a debate between Crito and Socrates before Socrates's death sentence is carried out.
Review this material in Socratic Citizenship: Plato's Apology. Reread the passages in The Apology where Socrates compares himself to a gadfly or a gift of God. Review the characteristics of the Socratic Method in the Unit 1 Discussion and in the text of The Apology. Review Socrates' conceptualization of a poet and philosopher in Book X of The Republic, and Poetry and Philosophy, and Crito.
Some believe the views Socrates expressed in Crito conflict with those he expressed in The Republic and The Apology.
Review The Antagonism Between Personal and Public Virtue for a succinct comparison of Socrates' views expressed in The Republic, The Apology, and Crito. Pay close attention to the first paragraph, and the second full paragraph on the second page. Also review the last third of Socratic Citizenship: Plato's Crito.
According to Aristotle (384–322 BC), eudaimonia is the highest end of human beings. Read the first paragraph The Doctrine of the Mean and revisit Book I of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics to explore the concept of eudaimonia. It may help to think about what Aristotle means by a "highest end", as described on page two of The Good Life: Virtue and Well-Being. Then, return to Socrates' discussion on the Form of the Good, in Book VI of The Republic.
We often say that Aristotle's method of inquiry regarding virtue and justice begins from praxis. Review this material in page one and page four of The Good Life: Virtue and Well-Being.
Recognizing that Aristotle's approach begins from praxis, think about how Aristotle addresses the following questions in his book Nicomachean Ethics. Review Aristotle's thoughts about questions about virtue in Book I, Book II, Book III and Book IV of Nicomachean Ethics. Also review page four of The Doctrine of the Mean and the The Preconditions of Virtue.
Both Socrates and Aristotle explore the concept of justice, and believe it is supreme among the virtues. In fact, Aristotle even states that all virtue is summed up in the virtue of justice. Review this material in Book V of Nicomachean Ethics. Socrates approaches the concept of justice by exploring it at the city level in Books III and IV of The Republic. He argues that justice at the city level will parallel justice at the individual level. Review Aristotle's thoughts on distributive and general justice in Book V of Nicomachean Ethics, Book III of Politics, and in Distributive Justice as the Task of the Polis. Review pages three to four of The Good Life: Virtue and Well-Being for additional insight into the differences between Socrates and Aristotle's views of justice.
Virtue, justice, and eudaimonia are a few of the major points of exploration in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. However, Aristotle believes virtue is grounded in the real world and stems from praxis. Consequently, virtue is intertwined with the polis and cannot exist without it. In other words, there is no separate political and ethical sphere; instead, they are one. Review the connection between virtue and the polis in The Doctrine of the Mean. Review Book I of Nicomachean Ethics and the first paragraph of The Good Life: Virtue and Well-Being. Review the concept of theoretical wisdom in Book X of Nicomachean Ethics and in Practical Reason and Politics.
As you work through these topics, consider other specific ways that the main points from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics also appear in Politics and in his thoughts about government as a whole. Review The Primacy of Law as you think through these connections.
According to Aristotle, a virtuous aristocracy is the ideal form of government. Review The Mixed Regime and the Rule of Law: Aristotle's Politics IV and Aristotle's discussion on the various forms of government and their benefits in Book III of Politics. Distributive Justice and the Task of the Polis also addresses Aristotle's views on oligarchy, democracy, and virtuous aristocracy.