this definition of fascism and keep it in mind as you read more about
Mussolini's fascist state and the Nazi state.
Fascism (n.): A political regime, having totalitarian aspirations, ideologically based on a relationship between business and the centralized government, business-and-government control of the market place, repression of criticism or opposition, a leader cult, and the exaltation of the state and/or religion above individual rights.
Fascism in Japan: Japanese Rise and Expansion
- In the aftermath of World War I, Japan's ambitions to become a global power led to establishing a unique totalitarian political system that combined ancient Japanese traditions with elements of European fascism and resulted in aggressive territorial expansion.
- The creation of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association in 1940 is also seen as a Japanese response to the rise of fascism in Europe, which was to prevent the influences of German and Italian fascist movements.
- Historians refer to it as statism in Shōwa Japan, Shōwa nationalism, or Japanese fascism.
- Pre-WWII Japan was characterized by political totalitarianism, ultra-nationalism, expansionism, and fascism culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937.
- During the pre-1945 period, Japan moved into political totalitarianism, ultranationalism, and fascism, as well as a series of expansionist wars, culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937.
- Left-wing groups had been subject to violent suppression by the end of the Taishō period, and radical right-wing groups, inspired by fascism and Japanese nationalism, rapidly grew in popularity.
Political Critiques of the New Deal
- Some labeled the New Deal as fascism, although it is important to remember that at the time, fascism did not connote the tragedy of World War II but rather an ideology of authoritarian nationalism and planned economy, associated most often with Benito Mussolini's Italy.
- While some labeled Long a socialist, Roosevelt called him "one of the two most dangerous men in America" and accused him of spreading fascism.
- His activism attracted widespread accusations of promoting fascism and criticism of both American bishops and the Vatican.
- Sometimes they will call it 'Fascism', sometimes 'Communism', sometimes 'Regimentation', sometimes 'Socialism'.
Issues with the Traditional Political Spectrum
- Most long-standing spectra include a right and left, and according to the simplest left-right axis, communism and socialism are usually regarded internationally as being on the left, opposite fascism and conservatism on the right.
- One alternative spectrum offered by the conservative American Federalist Journal accounts for only the "degree of government control " without consideration for any other social or political variable and, thus, places "fascism" (totalitarianism) at one extreme and "anarchy" (no government at all) at the other extreme.
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