Preventing Workplace Violence

This article discusses how many employers have created workplace violence policies to help employees recognize and prepare for instances where conflict resolution procedures have failed. The author identifies warning signs, recommends policy language, and advises employers to consider providing training to help employees detect behaviors that could indicate the potential for violence. Employers should include a formal reporting mechanism, an employee assistance program, a crisis management/trauma team, and a roadmap for law enforcement.

Workplace Violence – Preventing and Minimizing Tragedy

This past Wednesday, the family-owned Hartford Distributors Inc. in Manchester, Connecticut, reopened its doors. Eight days before this reopening, police reported that a truck driver facing possible dismissal charges fatally shot eight coworkers before killing himself.

Tragically, this incident is not isolated: The Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) reported 11,613 workplace homicide victims between 1992 and 2006. Averaging just under 800 homicides per year, the largest number of homicides in one year (1080) occurred in 1994. In 2004, violent workplace incidents accounted for as much as 18% of all violent crime in the United States.

Against this dark backdrop, it is apparent that for any business workplace violence must be a top concern. This is especially true for smaller business organizations who are often hit by violent incidents much harder. Based on experience and personal observations, smaller companies typically do not have the resources to employ security, invest in workplace violence prevention training, or employee counseling services. Nonetheless, there are measures that any business – regardless of available resources – should take so it does not become another grim workplace homicide statistic.

Identifying Warning Signs of Workplace Violence

Employers cannot guarantee workplace safety. But there are red flags and behaviors employers should recognize to minimize the chance that an employee's actions do not boil over into a violent altercation. For example, the National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence identifies 13 signs to look for:

  1. Employees making threats;
  2. Acting unreasonably;
  3. Intimidating or controlling other employees;
  4. Exhibiting paranoid behavior;
  5. Acting irresponsibly;
  6. Exhibiting angry or aggressive behavior;
  7. Showing a fascination with or acceptance of violence;
  8. Holding grudges;
  9. Exhibiting generally bizarre behavior;
  10. Exhibiting signs of depression;
  11. Demonstrating obsessions;
  12. Demonstrating signs of substance abuse; and
  13. Demonstrating signs of desperation.

But recognizing violent tendencies is only the first step. Employers must also enforce workplace violence policies. These policies should be applied uniformly and should be based upon an objective analysis of the employee's present tendencies to commit a violent act.

Implementing an Anti-Work Place Violence Policy

Effective anti-violence policies should generally include the following:

  • The policy should clearly establish that violence will not be tolerated in any manner from any employee. The policy should also provide a non-exhaustive list of violent acts, including verbal threats or harassment;
  • The policy should explain that prohibition on violence also extends to customers, clients, patients, or guests;
  • The policy should plainly state that employees who engage in workplace violence are subject to discipline, up to and including termination. Further, employees should be advised that appropriate law enforcement agencies may be contacted; and
  • The policy must also establish a convenient method of reporting any examples of violence. The policy should also promise that all reports will be taken seriously and promptly investigated. Because employees may be reluctant to turn in a fellow employee, the policy should also provide a confidential means of making good-faith complaints.

A Workplace Violence Policy is intended for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for a one-on-one discussion with a competent attorney. Aside from an obvious self-interest in job security, there are many subtle pitfalls when it comes to the interplay with various employment statutes and implementing workplace violence policies.

For example, the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination on the basis of a disability (whether actual or perceived) or a record of disability. This prohibition could complicate the enforcement of a workplace violence policy if misconduct was the result of an employee's disability.

Both the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and courts generally take the position that employers are almost always entitled to enforce workplace violence policies pursuant contains a "direct threat" exception, and if the policies are enforced uniformly. But at least one court has found that taking an adverse action against a current employee for past conduct related to a disability may violate the ADA. See Josephs v. Pacific Bell, 443 F. 3d 1050 (9th Cir. 2006) (Employer violated the ADA by refusing to rehire a former employee based upon the former employee's history of violence). Cases like this make it critical for employers to fully understand what are often subtle pitfalls when it comes to how various employment laws may interact.

Additional Best Practices for Implementing an Anti-Work Place Violence Policy

The following topics for consideration are not "legal" requirements. In fact, there are no current federal laws expressly prohibiting or even regulating workplace violence. Instead, based on experience, the following are measures that should be considered to prevent workplace violence or to minimize the damage caused by such violence if it occurs:

  • Senior Management Briefings. Senior management should be briefed on threats and violence at company sites. Such briefings should either provided routinely or when serious incidents occurred.
  • Training to Detect Red Flags. Employers should consider providing mandatory training to detect behaviors that indicate the potential for violence. This training may be provided to all employees or only to management. An additional component of this training could include conflict resolution.
  • Employee Assistance Program. Experts recommend that an employee assistance program should be made available at all times. The reality is, however, companies have already been forced to make deep cuts and are unlikely to have the resources to make such a program available. Nonetheless, employers can identify state and county mental health or social service programs and make such programs known to employees. Identification of domestic violence programs should be a top priority.
  • Crisis Management/Trauma Team. Employers should create some form of crisis management or trauma team. Typically such a team draws members from the following departments: senior management, human resources, security (if applicable), employee assistance, legal, medical, labor relations, labor law, communications, employee support/benefits, operations, and psychological services. If your company is unionized, then a union representative should also be considered;
  • Critical Incident Review. Employers should have a review or debriefing process for critical incidents. The main purpose of this review is to analyze, learn from, and improve procedures. Additionally, this review can assess whether proper procedures were followed in the first place and, if not, why. 
  • Establishing emergency road map for Law Enforcement. It is also important to be able to provide a road map for law enforcement if a violent situation erupts.

This road map should be a package that includes:
  1. A checklist for management to follow that includes contact information for appropriate law enforcement and emergency responders;
  2. Express directions to not speak to anyone other than law enforcement (information that could compromise law enforcement's ability to resolve the situation could be inadvertently disclosed);
  3. A detailed schematic of the facility that identifies entrances and exits;
  4. A list of all employees on duty at the time of the incident, including emergency contact information for all such employees; and
  5. A list of any potentially hazardous substances that are stored on-site that could pose additional risks if compromised or used by the perpetrator. From a practical perspective, this road map should be duplicated so that it is available on-site and off-site.


The Connecticut shooting is a grim reminder of how quickly workplace violence can erupt. But it should also be a reminder of what can be done to prevent or, at least, minimize the tragedy that follows such violence. Accordingly, employers should review and update their anti-workplace violence policies and procedures. 

Source: Jason Shinn,
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Last modified: Wednesday, December 9, 2020, 5:12 PM