## Input and Output

Read this article and complete the exercises at the end to test your skills in inputting from and outputting to files.

### 4. Files and Streams

#### 4.1. Why Use Files?

All the programs we have looked at so far use input only from the keyboard, and output only to the screen. If we were restricted to use only the keyboard and screen as input and output devices, it would be difficult to handle large amounts of input data, and output data would always be lost as soon as we turned the computer off. To avoid these problems, we can store data in some secondary storage device, usually magnetic tapes or discs. Data can be created by one program, stored on these devices, and then accessed or modified by other programs when necessary. To achieve this, the data is packaged up on the storage devices as data structures called files.

The easiest way to think about a file is as a linear sequence of characters. In a simplified picture (which ignores special characters for text formatting) these lecture notes might be stored in a file called "Lecture_4" as:

Figure 4.1.1

#### 4.2. Streams

Before we can work with files in C++, we need to become acquainted with the notion of a stream. We can think of a stream as a channel or conduit on which data is passed from senders to receivers. As far as the programs we will use are concerned, streams allow travel in only one direction. Data can be sent out from the program on an output stream, or received into the program on an input stream. For example, at the start of a program, the standard input stream cin is connected to the keyboard and the standard output stream cout is connected to the screen.

In fact, input and output streams such as cin and cout are examples of (stream) objects. So learning about streams is a good way to introduce some of the syntax and ideas behind the object-oriented part of C++. The header file which lists the operations on streams both to and from files is called "fstream". We will therefore assume that the program fragments discussed below are embedded in programs containing the "include" statement

#include<fstream>

As we shall see, the essential characteristic of stream processing is that data elements must be sent to or received from a stream one at a time, i.e. in serial fashion.

##### Creating Streams

Before we can use an input or output stream in a program, we must "create" it. Statements to create streams look like variable declarations, and are usually placed at the top of programs or function implementations along with the variable declarations. So for example the statements

ifstream in_stream;
ofstream out_stream;


respectively create a stream called in_stream belonging to the class (like type) ifstream (input-file-stream), and a stream called out_stream belonging to the class ofstream (output-file-stream). However, the analogy between streams and ordinary variables (of type int, char, etc.) can't be taken too far. We cannot, for example, use simple assignment statements with streams (e.g. we can't just write in_stream1 = in_stream2).

##### Connecting and Disconnecting Streams to Files

Having created a stream, we can connect it to a file using the member function open(...). (We have already come across some member functions for output streams, such as precision(...) and width(...), in Lecture 2.) The function open(...) has a different effect for ifstreams than for ofstreams (i.e. the function is polymorphic).

To connect the ifstream in_stream to the file "Lecture_4", we use the following statement:

in_stream.open("Lecture_4");


This connects in_stream to the beginning of "Lecture_4". Diagrammatically, we end up in the following situation:

Figure 4.2.1

To connect the ofstream out_stream to the file "Lecture_4", we use an analogous statement:

out_stream.open("Lecture_4");


Although this connects out_stream to "Lecture_4", it also deletes the previous contents of the file, ready for new input. Diagrammatically, we end up as follows:

Figure 4.2.2

To disconnect connect the ifstream in_stream to whatever file it is connected to, we write:

in_stream.close();


Diagrammatically, the situation changes from that of Figure 4.2.1 to:

Figure 4.2.3

The statement:

out_stream.close();


has a similar effect, but in addition the system will "clean up" by adding an "end-of-file" marker at the end of the file. Thus, if no data has been output to "Lecture_4" since out_stream was connected to it, we change from the situation in Figure 4.2.2 to:

Figure 4.2.4

In this case, the file "Lecture_4" still exists, but is empty.

#### 4.3. Checking for Failure with File Commands

File operations, such as opening and closing files, are a notorious source of errors. Robust commercial programs should always include some check to make sure that file operations have completed successfully, and error handling routines in case they haven't. A simple checking mechanism is provided by the member function fail(). The function call

in_stream.fail();


returns True if the previous stream operation on in_stream was not successful (perhaps we tried to open a file which didn't exist). If a failure has occurred, in_stream may be in a corrupted state, and it is best not to attempt any more operations with it. The following example program fragment plays very safe by quitting the program entirely, using the exit(1) command from the library "cstdlib":

#include <iostream>	#include <fstream>	#include <cstdlib>	using namespace std;		int main()	{		ifstream in_stream;			in_stream.open("Lecture_4");		if (in_stream.fail())		{			cout << "Sorry, the file couldn't be opened!\n";			exit(1);		}		...

#### 4.4. Character Input and Output

##### Input using get(...)

Having opened an input file, we can extract or read single characters from it using the member function get(...). This function takes a single argument of type char. If the program is in the state represented in Figure 4.2.1, the statement

in_stream.get(ch);


has two effects: (i) the variable ch is assigned the value '4', and (ii) the ifstream in_stream is re- positioned so as to be ready to input the next character in the file. Diagrammatically, the new situation is:

Figure 4.4.1

##### Output using put(...)

We can input or write single characters to a file opened via an ofstream using the member function put(...). Again, this function takes a single argument of type char. If the program is in the state represented in Figure 4.2.2, the statement

out_stream.put('4');


changes the state to:

Figure 4.4.2

##### The putback(...) Function

C++ also includes a putback(...) function for ifstreams. This doesn't really "put the character back" (it doesn't alter the actual input file), but behaves as if it had. Diagrammatically, if we started from the state in Figure 4.4.1, and executed the statement

in_stream.putback(ch);


we would end up in the state:

Figure 4.4.3

Indeed, we can "putback" any character we want to. The alternative statement

in_stream.putback('7');


would result in:

Figure 4.4.4

#### 4.5. Checking for the End of an Input File

##### End-of-file Checking For Systems Which Implement eof()

Special care has to be taken with input when the end of a file is reached. Most versions of C++ (including GNU g++ and Microsoft Visual C++) incorporate an end-of-file (EOF) flag, and a member function called eof() for ifstreams to test if this flag is set to True or False. It's worth discussing such systems briefly, since many text books (including Savitch) assume this useful facility.

In such systems, when an ifstream is initially connected to a file, the EOF flag is set to False (even if the file is empty). However, if the ifstream in_stream is positioned at the end of a file, and the EOF flag is False, the statement

in_stream.get(ch);


will leave the variable ch in an unpredictable state, and set the EOF flag to True. Once the EOF flag is set to True, no attempt should be made to read from the file, since the results will be unpredictable. To illustrate with a diagrammatic example, if we start from

Figure 4.5.1

and then execute the statement

in_stream.get(ch);


this results in the state

Figure 4.5.2

If we again execute the statement

in_stream.get(ch);


this now results in the state

Figure 4.5.3

The boolean expression

in_stream.eof()


will now evaluate to True.

Below is a simple program which uses these techniques to copy the file "Lecture_4" simultaneously to the screen and to the file "Copy_of_4". Note the use of a while loop in this program. "While" loops are simplified versions of "for" loops, without the initialisation and update statements in the () parentheses (we will look at such statements again in the next lecture).

#include <iostream>	#include <fstream>	using namespace std;		int main()	{		char character;		ifstream in_stream;		ofstream out_stream;			in_stream.open("Lecture_4");		out_stream.open("Copy_of_4");			in_stream.get(character);		while (!in_stream.eof())		{			cout << character;			out_stream.put(character);			in_stream.get(character);		}		out_stream.close();		in_stream.close();			return 0;	}

Program 4.5.1

#### 4.6. Streams as Arguments in Functions

Streams can be arguments to functions, but must be reference parameters (not value parameters). Below is another version of Program 4.5.1 which uses the function copy_to(...).

	#include <iostream>	#include <fstream>		using namespace std;	void copy_to(ifstream& in, ofstream& out);		/* MAIN PROGRAM: */	int main()	{		ifstream in_stream;		ofstream out_stream;			in_stream.open("Lecture_4");		out_stream.open("Copy_of_4");		copy_to(in_stream, out_stream);		out_stream.close();		in_stream.close();			return 0;	}	/* END OF MAIN PROGRAM */		/* FUNCTION TO COPY A FILE TO ANOTHER FILE AND TO THE SCREEN: */	void copy_to(ifstream& in, ofstream& out)	{		char character;			in.get(character);		while (!in.eof())		{			cout << character;			out.put(character);			in.get(character);		}	}	/* END OF FUNCTION */


Program 4.6.1

#### 4.7. Input and Output Using >> and <<

So far we have only talked about writing and reading individual characters to and from files. At the lowest level, ofstreams and ifstreams only deal with files which are sequences of characters. So data of other types (int, double, etc.) has to be converted into character sequences before it can be written to a file, and these character sequences have to be converted back again when they are input.

However, the operators >> and <<, which we have already met in the context of keyboard input and screen output, do some of this conversion automatically. For example, from the state

Figure 4.7.1

execution of the statement

out_stream <<437<<' ';


will result in the new state

Figure 4.7.2

When using these higher level facilities, it is important to include at least one ' ' (blank) character (or a new-line character) after each item of data written. This ensures that the data items are correctly separated in the file, ready for input using >>. For example, from the state

Figure 4.7.3

where n has been declared as of data type int, execution of the statement

in_stream >> n;


will result in the new state

Figure 4.7.4

Notice that the operation >> has skipped over the blank space ' ' before the number 437. It always does this, no matter what data type it has been reading or expects to read (even characters).

The following program, which first creates a file called "Integers" containing the integers 51, 52, 53, 54 and 55, further illustrates these techniques.

	#include <iostream>	#include <fstream>		using namespace std;	int main()	{		char character;		int number = 51;		int count = 0;		ofstream out_stream;		ifstream in_stream1;   /* Stream for counting integers. */		ifstream in_stream2;   /* Stream for counting characters. */			/* Create the file */		out_stream.open("Integers");		for (count = 1 ; count <= 5 ; count++)			out_stream << number++ << ' ';		out_stream.close();			/* Count the integers in the file */		in_stream1.open("Integers");		count = 0;		in_stream1 >> number;		while (!in_stream1.eof())		{			count++;			in_stream1 >> number;		}		in_stream1.close();		cout << "There are " << count << " integers in the file,\n";			/* Count the non-blank characters */		in_stream2.open("Integers");		count = 0;		in_stream2 >> character;		while (!in_stream2.eof())		{			count++;			in_stream2 >> character;		}		in_stream2.close();		cout << "represented using " << count << " characters.\n";			return 0;	}

Program 4.7.1

This program produces the following output:

There are 5 integers in the file,
represented using10 characters.


Once again, notice that, unlike the function get(...), the operator >> has jumped over the blank (i.e. space) characters in the file (which separate the five integers) when used in counting characters in the last part of the program.

#### 4.8. Summary

In this lecture we have seen how programs may be connected to external files for input and output using streams. We have seen how "low-level" character input and output can be achieved using the functions get(...) and put(...), and how "high-level" input and output of other kinds of data types can be achieved using the stream operators >> and <<. The material here is also covered in more detail in Savitch, Chapter 6.

Source: Rob Miller, https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~wjk/c++Intro/RobMillerL4.html
More information may be found at https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~wjk/c++Intro/CourseStructure.html.

Last modified: Monday, August 2, 2021, 11:21 AM