More on Nuclear Energy

Read this text to learn more about how countries around the world are using nuclear energy to solve their energy needs. Its use remains controversial. Nuclear accidents have been catastrophic, but proponents argue that the benefits of nuclear energy outweigh these troubling events. The number of fatalities has been low. Nuclear reactors do not produce carbon dioxide and other pollutants that contribute to global warming. Uranium also generates far more power per unit weight of volume than fossile fuels. However, the disposal of radioactive waste continues to be a serious issue.

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Generating electricity from fusion power remains at the focus of international research.

Civilian nuclear power supplied 2,563 terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity in 2018, equivalent to about 10% of global electricity generation, and was the second largest low-carbon power source after hydroelectricity. As of December 2019, there are 443 civilian fission reactors in the world, with a combined electrical capacity of 395 gigawatt (GW). There are also 56 nuclear power reactors under construction and 109 reactors planned, with a combined capacity of 60 GW and 120 GW, respectively. The United States has the largest fleet of nuclear reactors, generating over 800 TWh zero-emissions electricity per year with an average capacity factor of 92%. Most reactors under construction are generation III reactors in Asia.

Nuclear power has one of the lowest levels of fatalities per unit of energy generated compared to other energy sources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectricity each have caused more fatalities per unit of energy due to air pollution and accidents.[10] Since its commercialization in the 1970s, nuclear power has prevented about 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and the emission of about 64 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent that would have otherwise resulted from the burning of fossil fuels.

There is a debate about nuclear power. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is safe and it reduces carbon emissions. Nuclear power opponents, such as Greenpeace and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment.

More than 30 countries use nuclear power to generate electricity (see Table 15.9.1). There were about 450 nuclear power reactors worldwide, producing close to 400,000 MW (MegaWatts) of electrical capacity. Commercial nuclear reactors can be found in North and South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The United States has the most reactors of any other countries. There are around 98 reactors in the United States that provide around 20% of the electrical energy in the United States. Other countries, like France, employ around 60 nuclear reactors to produce 70% of their electrical power.

Country Number of Operated Reactors Total Net Electrical Capacity
Nuclear Electricity Supplied
Nuclear Share
United States 98 99648 809358.57 19.7
United Kingdom 15 8923 51032.09 15.6
Ukraine 15 13107 78144.26 53.9
Switzerland 5 3333 25369.65 23.9
Sweden 8 8592 64428.86 34.0
Spain 7 7121 55856.07 21.4
South Africa 2 1860 13602.57 6.7
Slovenia 1 688 5532.98 37.0
Slovakia 4 1814 14282.25 53.9
Russia 39 28448 195535.15 19.7
Romania 2 1300 10368.21 18.5
Pakistan 5 1318 9065.80 6.6
Netherlands 1 482 3700.71 3.2
Mexico 2 1552 10880.73 4.5
Korea, Republic of 25 23833 138809.35 26.2
Japan 38 36476 65681.92 7.5
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 915 5865.73 1.8
India 22 6255 40740.49 3.2
Hungary 4 1902 15414.83 49.2
France 58 63130 382402.75 70.6
Finland 4 2794 22914.88 34.7
Czech Republic 6 3932 28581.12 35.2
China 48 45518 330122.19 4.9
Canada 19 13554 94853.85 14.9
Bulgaria 2 2006 15868.88 37.5
Brazil 2 1884 15224.11 2.7
Belgium 7 5930 41421.66 47.6
Armenia 1 375 2028.96 27.8
Argentina 3 1641 7926.96 5.9
Total 449 392779 2586163.02 N

Table 15.9.1: Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation and Number of Operated Reactors in 2019. Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Nuclear Power Plants

After fabrication, fuel assemblies are transported to nuclear power plants where they are used as a source of energy for generating electricity. They are stored onsite until they are needed by the reactor operators. At this stage, the uranium is only mildly radioactive, and essentially all radiation is contained within the metal tubes. When needed, the fuel is loaded into a reactor core (Figure 15.9.2). Typically, about one third of the reactor core (40 to 90 fuel assemblies) is changed out every 12 to 24 months.

The most common type of reactors are the pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Figure 15.9.2) in which water is pumped through the reactor core and heated by the fission process. The water is kept under high pressure inside the reactor so it does not boil. The heated water from the reactor passes through tubes inside the steam generator where the heat is transferred to water flowing around the tubes in the steam generator. The water in the steam generator boils and turns to steam. The steam is piped to the turbines. The force of the expanding steam drives the turbines, which spin a magnet in coil of wire – the generator– to produce electricity.

After passing through the turbines, the steam is converted back to water by circulating it around tubes carrying cooling water in the condenser. The condensed steam – now water – is returned to the steam generators to repeat the cycle.

The three water systems (condenser, steam generator, and reactor) are separate from each other and are not permitted to mix. Water in the reactor is radioactive and is contained within the containment structure whereas water in the steam generator and condenser is nonradioactive.

Schematic of a pressurized water reactor (PWR): a containment structure, reactor, steam line, generator, and cooling towers.

Figure 15.9.1: A schematic diagram of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the most common type of nuclear reactor. (Public Domain; Tennessee Valley Authority)

The Nuclear Advantage: Minimal Air Pollution

By using fission, nuclear power plants generate electricity without emitting air pollutants like those emitted by fossil fuel-fired power plants. This means that financial costs related to chronic health problems caused by air pollutants such as particulate material, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone among others are significantly reduced. In addition nuclear reactors do not produce carbon dioxide while operating which means that nuclear energy does not contribute to the global warming problem.

Another benefit of nuclear energy over fossil fuels especially coal is that uranium generates far more power per unit weight or volume. This means that less of it needs to be mined and consequently the damage to the landscapes is less especially when compared to the damage that results from coal mining such as mountaintop removal.

Problems with Nuclear Power

The main environmental concern related to nuclear power is the creation of radioactive wastes such as uranium mill tailings, spent (used) reactor fuel, and other radioactive wastes. These materials can remain radioactive and dangerous to human health for thousands of years. Radioactive wastes are classified as low-level and high-level. By volume, most of the waste related to the nuclear power industry has a relatively low-level of radioactivity. Uranium mill tailings contain the radioactive element radium, which decays to produce radon, a radioactive gas. Most uranium mill tailings are placed near the processing facility or mill where they come from. Uranium mill tailings are covered with a barrier of material such as clay to prevent radon from escaping into the atmosphere, and they are then covered by a layer of soil, rocks, or other materials to prevent erosion of the sealing barrier.

The other types of low-level radioactive waste are the tools, protective clothing, wiping cloths, and other disposable items that get contaminated with small amounts of radioactive dust or particles at nuclear fuel processing facilities and power plants. These materials are subject to special regulations that govern their handling, storage, and disposal so they will not come in contact with the outside environment.

High-level radioactive waste consists of spent nuclear reactor fuel (i.e., fuel that is no longer useful for producing electricity). The spent reactor fuel is in a solid form consisting of small fuel pellets in long metal tubes called rods. Spent reactor fuel assemblies are initially stored in specially designed pools of water, where the water cools the fuel and acts as a radiation shield. Spent reactor fuel assemblies can also be stored in specially designed dry storage containers. An increasing number of reactor operators now store their older spent fuel in dry storage facilities using special outdoor concrete or steel containers with air cooling. There is currently no permanent disposal facility in the United States for high-level nuclear waste.

When a nuclear reactor stops operating, it must be decommissioned. This involves safely removing the reactor and all equipment that has become radioactive from service and reducing radioactivity to a level that permits other uses of the property. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has strict rules governing nuclear power plant decommissioning that involve cleanup of radioactively contaminated plant systems and structures, and removal of the radioactive fuel.

The processes for mining and refining uranium ore and making reactor fuel require large amounts of energy. Nuclear power plants have large amounts of metal and concrete, which also require large amounts of energy to manufacture. If fossil fuels are used for mining and refining uranium ore or in constructing the nuclear plant, then the emissions from burning those fuels could be associated with the electricity that nuclear power plants generate.

Nuclear Accidents

A nuclear meltdown, or uncontrolled nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor, can potentially result in widespread contamination of air and water. Some serious nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred worldwide. The most severe accident was the Chernobyl accident of 1986 in the then Soviet Union (now Ukraine) which killed 31 people directly and sickened or caused cancer in thousands more.

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011) in Japan was caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake that shut down power supply and a tsunami that flooded the plant’s emergency power supply. This resulted in the release of radioactivity although it did not directly result in any deaths at the time of the disaster.

Another nuclear accident was the Three Mile Island accident (1979) in Pennsylvania, USA. This accident resulted in a near disastrous core meltdown that was due to a combination of human error and mechanical failure but did not result in any deaths and no cancers or otherwise have been found in follow up studies of this accident. While there are potentially devastating consequences to a nuclear meltdown, the likelihood of one occurring is extremely small. After every meltdown, including the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi disaster, new international regulations were put in place to prevent such an event from occurring again.

Breeder Reactors: Making More Fuel Than They Burn

Because _{92}^{235}\textrm{U} is only 0.7 percent of naturally occurring uranium, its supply is fairly limited and could well only last for about 50 years of full-scale use. The other 99 percent of the uranium can also be utilized if it is first converted into plutonium by neutron bombardment:

_{92}^{235}\textrm{U}\; + \; _{0}^{1}\textrm{n}\; \rightarrow \;_{94}^{239}\textrm{Pu}\;+\;2_{-1}^{0}\textrm{e} 

_{94}^{239}\textrm{Pu} is also fissionable, and so it could be used in a nuclear reactor as well as _{92}^{235}\textrm{U}.

The production of plutonium can be carried out in a breeder reactor which not only produces energy like other reactors but is designed to allow some of the fast neutrons to bombard the _{92}^{235}\textrm{U}, producing plutonium at the same time. More fuel is then produced than is consumed.

Breeder reactors present additional safety hazards to those already outlined. They operate at higher temperatures and use very reactive liquid metals such as sodium in their cooling systems, and so the possibility of a serious accident is higher. In addition the large quantities of plutonium which would be produced in a breeder economy would have to be carefully safeguarded. Plutonium is an α emitter and is very dangerous if taken internally. Its half-life is 24,000 years, and so it will remain in the environment for a long time if dispersed. Moreover, _{94}^{239}\textrm{Pu} can be separated chemically (not by the much more expensive gaseous diffusion used to concentrate _{92}^{235}\textrm{U} from fission products and used to make bombs. Such a material will obviously be attractive to terrorist groups, as well as to countries which are not currently capable of producing their own atomic weapons.

Today many nations are considering an expanded role for nuclear power in their energy portfolios. This expansion is driven by concerns about global warming, growth in energy demand, and relative costs of alternative energy sources. In 2008, 435 nuclear reactors in 30 countries provided 16% of the world’s electricity. In January 2009, 43 reactors were under construction in 11 countries, with several hundred more projected to come on line globally by 2030.

Nuclear Fusion

The most important fusion process in nature is the one that powers stars. The fusion of hydrogen and helium, which is the primary energy producer in the sun has been discussed in Chapter 11. This section briefly discusses harnessing energy from nuclear fusion to generate electricity.

The fusion reaction of great interest is known as deuterium–tritium fusion (D–T fusion) wherein a deuterium atom and a tritium atom fuse to produce helium-4 (Figure 15.9.3).

_{1}^{2}\textrm{H}\; + \; _{1}^{3}\textrm{H}\; \rightarrow \; _{2}^{4}\textrm{He} \; + \; _{0}^{1}\textrm{n}

Diagram of nuclear fusion. A deuterium and tritium atom fuse to produce helium-4 and energy.

Figure 15.9.2: Nuclear fusion. The fusion of ^{3}\textrm{H} and ^{2}\textrm{H} produces ^{4}\textrm{He} and a neutron and releases an enormous amount of energy.

Fusion power has the potential to provide sufficient energy to satisfy mounting demand, and to do so sustainably, with a relatively small impact on the environment. Nuclear fusion has many potential attractions. Firstly, its hydrogen isotope fuels are relatively abundant – one of the necessary isotopes, deuterium, can be extracted from seawater, while the other fuel, tritium, would be bred from a lithium blanket using neutrons produced in the fusion reaction itself. Furthermore, a fusion reactor would produce virtually no CO2 or atmospheric pollutants, and its radioactive waste products would mostly be very short-lived compared to those produced by conventional nuclear reactors (fission reactors).

Useful fusion reactions require very high temperatures for their initiation—about 15,000,000 K or more. At these temperatures, all molecules dissociate into atoms, and the atoms ionize, forming plasma. These conditions occur in an extremely large number of locations throughout the universe—stars are powered by fusion. Humans have already figured out how to create temperatures high enough to achieve fusion on a large scale in thermonuclear weapons. A thermonuclear weapon such as a hydrogen bomb contains a nuclear fission bomb that, when exploded, gives off enough energy to produce the extremely high temperatures necessary for fusion to occur.

Two photos are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Photo a shows a model of the ITER reactor made up of colorful components. Photo b shows a close-up view of the end of a long, mechanical arm made up of many metal components.

Figure 15.9.3: (a) This model is of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) reactor. Currently under construction in the south of France with an expected completion date of 2027, the ITER will be the world’s largest experimental Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor with a goal of achieving large-scale sustained energy production. (b) In 2012, the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory briefly produced over 500,000,000,000 watts (500 terawatts, or 500 TW) of peak power and delivered 1,850,000 joules (1.85 MJ) of energy, the largest laser energy ever produced and 1000 times the power usage of the entire United States in any given moment. Although lasting only a few billionths of a second, the 192 lasers attained the conditions needed for nuclear fusion ignition. This image shows the target prior to the laser shot. (credit a: modification of work by Stephan Mosel)

Another much more beneficial way to create fusion reactions is in a fusion reactor, a nuclear reactor in which fusion reactions of light nuclei are controlled. Because no solid materials are stable at such high temperatures, mechanical devices cannot contain the plasma in which fusion reactions occur. Two techniques to contain plasma at the density and temperature necessary for a fusion reaction are currently the focus of intensive research efforts: containment by a magnetic field and by the use of focused laser beams (Figure 15.9.3). A number of large projects are working to attain one of the biggest goals in science: getting hydrogen fuel to ignite and produce more energy than the amount supplied to achieve the extremely high temperatures and pressures that are required for fusion. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding several sites conducting fusion research.


  • There is still ongoing debate about nuclear power.
  • Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is a safe, energy source that reduces carbon emissions.
  • Nuclear power opponents, such as Greenpeace and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment.
  • There are over thirty countries that use nuclear power to generate electricity.

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