Writers must have a clear sense of to whom they are writing (the audience) and what the audience's values and/or opinions related to the topic are.
Imagine a history professor who opens her lecture on the Victorian era by asking her undergraduate students, "Did you see the Victorian-era furniture on Antiques Roadshow last night?" Can you imagine how many in the class would raise his/her hand? Can you hear the confused silence?
Most of the students in the audience are under the age of thirty, with the majority falling between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five. They do not own property and probably have little interest in antiques. The target audience of Antiques Roadshow, though, reflects middle-aged and older middle-class folks who, most likely, own property and, perhaps, antiques of their own. How effective of an opener was this professor's question, given her audience? Not very.
Writers must have a clear sense of who they are writing to (the audience) and what the audience's values and/or opinions related to the topic are. When in conversation, we often shift our tone and/or language to adapt to our audience.
Consider how you talk differently to young children than you do to your professors. When communicating with a child, you may use simple language and a playful or enthusiastic tone. With your professors, however, you may try out academic language, using bigger words and more complex sentences. Your tone may be more professional than casual and more critical than entertaining.
Imagine that you need money. When you craft an email to your parents asking for money, your approach might be different than if you were to ask your roommate for money. Your tone, language, and means of appeal will adapt to who your audience is.
Your professor asks you to write an academic argument paper on a topic of your choice. Academic writing is usually directed to an educated audience interested in critical, analytical thinking.
Let's imagine you choose to write about adoption rights within the LGBT community. More specifically, you'll argue that stable LGBT couples deserve the opportunity to adopt children just as stable heterosexual couples are allowed to do.
You'll adapt tone, language, and appeals to suit the writing project's
Source: Writing Commons, https://writingcommons.org/article/think-rhetorically/
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