Topic Name Description
Course Introduction Page Course Syllabus
Page Course Textbook
Page Course Terms of Use
Unit 1: Introduction to Business Communication Page Unit 1 Learning Outcomes
1.1: Why Is It Important to Communicate Well? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 1, Section 1: Why Is It Important to Communicate Well?"

Please read the introduction to "Chapter 1: Effective Business Communication” and "Section 1: Why Is It Important to Communicate Well?” in their entirety. These readings emphasize how communication forms a part of your self-concept, helping you to understand yourself and others, solve problems, learn new things, and build your career. At the end of the Section 1 reading, make sure to attempt the exercises.

Page Robert Chandler's "Effective Communication for Business Success"

As you begin watching the videos in this course, please recognize that although they have been produced by many sources, the subject of business communication is not a characterized by a lot of disagreement. This is why you will find many commonalities among the videos. If you pay attention to those common threads about business communication, you will understand and retain more information from this course than if you treat the resources as isolated elements. For example, you should watch this first video to gain broad insights into the relationship between effective communication and business success. However, you should also note that in this video Robert Chandler, Director of the Nicholson School of Communication, introduces an approach to business communication which is reflected in every resource in this unit and which you should also keep in mind throughout this course: “Seek first to understand, then seek to be understood.”

Page US India Business: "Introduction to Communication and How it Matters"

As you watch this video, think back to the emphasis on communication in business presented by the Robert Chandler video. Remembering his approach will help you appreciate the “how it matters” not only in business, but also in many other aspects of your life, as this video discusses.

Page Dr. Ron Thomas, Jr.: "Intro to Communication Theory"

Once you have finished watching this video, you may feel overwhelmed by the theoretical aspects of communication, but keep in mind that you will not be operating on theory in the business world. You will use your own observations and experiences to make decisions. However, as Robert Chandler emphasized in the first video you watched for this course, to be an effective communicator, you must “seek first to understand, then seek to be understood.” Communication theory is what will help you understand more about yourself as a communicator and also about the people whose understanding you seek.

1.2: What Is Communication? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 1, Section 2: What Is Communication?"

Please read this section, which describes communication process, including its eight essential elements: source, message, channel, receiver, feedback, environment, context, and interference. It also reviews communication models based on transactions and shared meaning. After you complete the reading, try to work on the exercises at the bottom of the webpage.

File Communication Model Label Assessment

This assessment refers to the figures in the reading above. The attached PDF reproduces Figure 1.3 "Transactional Model of Communication” and Figure 1.4 "Constructivist Model of Communication” without the labels. Challenge yourself to label the elements of each diagram correctly. Fill in the appropriate labels for each blank box. Once you have completed the assessment, compare your answers to the answer key.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science Course: "What is Communication?"

This video introduces different categories of communication as elements of a pyramid that represents the structure of communication science. Why is it important for you to appreciate communication science? As you learned in the previous video, theories produced by scientists and scholars provide explanations that can improve understanding. For example, the pyramid in this video illustrates graphically how “institutional communication,” which is another way of describing business communication, is near the top of the pyramid. After watching the video, you should be able to answer this very important question: Why is institutional communication at a higher level than group communication, but lower than societal communication?

Page Dr. Ann-Louise Davidson and Nadia Naffi's Digital Communication Technologies: "Shannon and Weaver Model"

The Shannon and Weaver model of communication is probably the best known of all communication models. This video demonstrates the two reasons behind its popularity: (1) it identifies the most important components of any communication process, and (2) it diagrams how those components interact. What does this mean for you and how you can become a more effective communicator? You can answer this question and appreciate Shannon and Weaver’s  model by considering any instance of communication between yourself and any other being capable of communication (including non-humans). Use the model to identify all of the elements you, as a communicator, need to respond to to communicate effectively in that instance. For example, think about how you would tell a dog or cat that you approved of its behavior. Think specifically about how you would have to adjust each of the components in Shannon and Weaver’s model to insure that the dog or cat understood you. Next, think about how you would respond differently to those components if you needed to communicate the same kind of approval to a human being, perhaps a co-worker or trainee. Finally, consider a scenario in which you had to communicate disapproval to an already hostile individual. Which elements in the model would you have to modify? These questions illustrate how Shannon and Weaver’s model increases your awareness of communication situations and thus yet again enables you “first seek to understand, then seek to be understood.”

Page US India Business: "Understanding Communication and How It Works"

This video reinforces the importance of understanding communication, covering the subject in greater depth than previous videos. Both the lecturer’s comments and the slideshow are dense with information, so you may want to watch this video a second time or take notes. Also pay particular attention to one slide on this video which diagrams a model of communication that is slightly different from the Shannon and Weaver model introduced in the preceding  video. Please recognize that many models exists to explain the communication process, although most are very similar and virtually all include at least some of the components in Shannon and Weaver’s model.

1.3: Communication in Context URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 1, Section 3: Communication in Context"

Please read this section, which introduces intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication, including their advantages and disadvantages as well as appropriate and inappropriate uses. After reading the text, make sure to try the exercises at the bottom of the page.

Page Pete Gerlach's "Five Reasons People (You) Communicate"

Pete Gerlach, the individual you will “meet” in this video will become increasingly familiar to you as you proceed in this course because the course features many of his videos. A psychosocial therapist, Gerlach’s expertise is interpersonal communication, a category of communication you encountered briefly (in the video with the pyramid) in subunit 1.2 and which you will examine thoroughly in unit 13. You will find Gerlach’s videos most useful for understanding yourself as a communicator, especially those factors that may be having a negative effect on your abilities. In this video, Gerlach discusses the needs people have and how it is usually through communication that those needs get fulfilled. 

Page Bernard Fruga's "Transactional Analyses in Business Communication"

Another individual you will “meet” several times in this course is business consultant Bernard Fruga, who is gifted with an ability to describe succinctly and emphatically some key points about the nature of business communication. Even though Fruga usually addresses very concrete business challenges, in this 1.5 minute video, he discusses an abstraction: transactional analysis, a theory which attempts to explain how people interact with each other through communication. In fact, you should recognize the relationship between Bernard Fruga’s observations and Pete Gerlach’s advice (Gerlach was introduced to you in a video in subunit 1.2). However, as you will find in this video, unlike Gerlach, Fruga connects his explanations and advice to the business world even when, such as in this video, he uses an adult-child analogy to explain the psychology and sociology of interpersonal communication.

1.4: Your Responsibilities as a Communicator URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 1, Section 4: Your Responsibilities as a Communicator"

Read this section, which addresses the reader as a communicator, emphasizing how good communicators are prepared and ethical. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page ClarkMorgan Insights: Pat McDonald's "It's Your Job to Make Others Understand"

When you watch this video, keep in mind Pat McDonald’s advice, the thread that ties this unit together: “Seek first to understand, then seek to be understood.” What this means to McDonald is that it is a communicator’s responsibility to make others understand the communication. In the video, she recommends a simple, three-step process. After you have listened to this brief video, think about a time when someone misunderstood your message and then try analyzing the situation by describing the communication purpose, details, and action as covered in the video. Next, ask yourself if McDonald’s process helped you identify where you erred or were weak in your responsibilities as a communicator.

Page ABCminds: "The NLP Communication Model"

Watch this video to continue learning about the theories behind communication in order to recognize the factors that influence your communication effectiveness and reactions to communication stimuli. The neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) model introduced in the video focuses on physical elements of communication to explain how the mind filters the information we receive externally and internally. Awareness of these factors can help a communicator overcome his or her negative impacts. After you view this video, try to write a paragraph that summarizes the NLP Communication Model.

Page Pete Gerlach's "7 Essential Communication Skills You Were Never Taught"

Pete Gerlach uses this video to describe one of the seven essential communication skills introduced in the preceding video. These skills have many direct applications in the business world. The topic of the video, “Metatalk,” refers to when people talk about how they are talking (communicating). Watch the video to understand why, instead of arguing about a problem, discussing the communication used to address the problem can help resolve the problem without arguing. Note, however, that although Gerlach approaches metatalk through interpersonal communication, the concept is also reflected in organizational culture and communications. When this course covers subjects such as conflict management and teamwork, you may find yourself reminded of this video.

Page Pete Gerlach's "Learn Effective Communication Skills"

This video summarizes psychosocial therapist Pete Gerlach’s observations about effective, interpersonal communication, an important first step in becoming a responsible communicator. If you appreciate Gerlach’s approaches, you can find additional videos on the topic by accessing his YouTube channel. In addition, now that you have completed the first unit of this course, you should remind yourself of the thread that connected all of the resources and justifies the efforts you will make throughout this course: “Seek first to understand, then seek to be understood.”

Unit 2: Delivering Your Message Page Unit 2 Learning Outcomes
2.1: What Is Language? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: Introduction"

Please read the webpages for the introduction to "Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message” and "Section 1: What Is Language?” in their entirety. These readings discuss the importance of words in delivering your message in words and how language is a system of words: idea-conveying symbols ruled by syntax, semantics, and context - all of which require interpretation.  After reading Section 1, complete the exercises at the bottom of the webpage.

Page Dr. John Whorter's "What is Language?"

Watch this video, which will lay the foundation for your understanding of and appreciation for language. The lecturer, John Whorter, Ph.D. and Senior Fellow at the Manhattan Institute, chooses an interesting technique to clarify what language is and what it isn’t: contrasting human language and animal “language.” Once you have finished listening to this lecture, see if you can summarize what makes our language distinct.

Page The Center for Access to Justice & Technology: Jessica Bolack Frank's "Plain Language"

This video is included in this course because plain language is the most effective way to communicate, internally and externally, in business contexts. Note that this is also an interactive video. You will benefit from responding to the questions the speaker asks and comparing your responses to hers. Another feature in this video you will benefit from using are the verbal exercises which begin at the 9-minute mark. Some of the software referred to in this video may be alien to you, but that should not have an impact on your understanding and appreciation of the valuable guidelines in this video.

2.2: Messages URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2, Section 2: Messages"

Read this section, which discusses categorizing messages based on their importance. It also introduces the five common elements in any message, some of which you will recognize from the discussion in Chapter 1 about communication models and all of which you will encounter later when you examine how a speech is organized. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page Dianna Booher's "Communication Skills: Are You Reasoning Right?"

Messages are at the heart of communication and knowing what your message is, refining it so it is clear, and tailoring it for specific audiences are all key skills in business communication. This video introduces an individual you will come to know well and appreciate greatly in this course, Dianna Booher, a business communication strategist and prolific author of books and instructional videos. You will find that Booher presents her advice the way she suggests most messages need to be presented: clearly and concisely. Most of her videos are less than 5 minutes in length, but they packed with useful information. This video focuses on reasoning, but you should recognize that it is directly connected to messages because your reasoning becomes the content of your messages. “Faulty reasoning,” as Booher puts it, results in weak or even erroneous messages.

Page Courtland Bovee and John Thill's "What's New in Teaching Business Communication? A New Organizing Model for Business Messages"

This video introduces the latest popular technique for developing business messages: storytelling. After you watch this video, try the following exercise to reinforce your understanding of the important points in this video. Here’s the scenario: Your business sells recliners (do a search for that word if you are unfamiliar with this type of chair) that can be opened up to become a bed, comfortable for one person. Add details to this product if you need to, but focus on creating a story that would get people interested in trying or buying the chair. Refer to the storytelling examples in the video and try to follow their structure in your own story. This may be an opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your story is effective by trying it out on your colleagues.

Page Engagency: Kristina Halvorson's "Message and Medium: Better Content by Design"

This presentation by Kristina Halvorson, author of Content Strategy for the Web, discusses effective messages for strategic internet applications; however, regardless of the medium—the Internet, in this case—point Halvorson makes is that that medium doesn’t really matter. It’s the message that matters. So, as you watch this video, don’t let yourself get distracted by references to social media platforms or web strategies. Focus on what Halvorson says about the message. Also note that you will appreciate Halvorson’s advice more if you have watched the preceding video in this subunit, “What's New in Teaching Business Communication? A New Organizing Model for Business Messages.” That video describes and gives many examples of storytelling, which is the messaging strategy recommended in this video, too.

2.3: Principles of Verbal Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2, Section 3: Principles of Verbal Communication"

Please read this section, which goes deeper into the rules that govern language and then introduces the concept of language paradigms (premises that are taken as fact). It also explains how language is arbitrary, symbolic, and abstract as well as how it serves imperfectly to organize and classify reality. At the end of this reading, try to complete the exercises.

Page Glass in the Class: "The Power of Verbal Communication"

Watch this video in which communication scholars discuss the nature of verbal communication. As this video points out, we often think of verbal and non-verbal communication together because most of our face-to-face communication naturally uses both. However, in a virtual environment (online), verbal communication is the dominant factor and as a result needs to be carefully crafted to take into account the nature of the virtual environment. Because of the scholars’ emphasis on this fact, this video introduces many important points about the nature of verbal communication when it is isolated from the nonverbal elements that usually accompany it in the “real” world. One thing you should keep in mind, however, is that some scholars would define the visual characteristics of messages, even when their content is presented solely with words, as nonverbal traits. So although the scholars in this video do not make this distinction, remember that the “look” of verbal message-- typefaces and size, use of color, length of paragraphs, graphics, etc.—must also be considered in virtual environments.

2.4: Language Can Be an Obstacle to Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2, Section 4: Language Can Be an Obstacle to Communication"

Read this section, which discusses why clichés, jargon, slang, sexism, racism, euphemisms, and doublespeak weaken the effectiveness of language by making it less efficient and/or less acceptable. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page Saylor Academy: "Language as an Obstacle to Communication"

This video discusses how imprecise or unclear language can lead to a communication gap and the effects such a gap may have on your work. Pay attention to how various examples of poor language habits - cliché, jargon, slang, racist or sexist language, euphemism, doublespeak, etc. - are defined and differentiated.

Page Pete Gerlach's "Is Vague Language Degrading Your Thinking and Communication?"

Pete Gerlach focuses in this video on skills that can improve the effectiveness of communication. He starts by emphasizing just being aware of how you communicate. You may recall the concept of “metatalk” that Gerlach discussed in a video in subunit 1.4. The term refers to talking about talking (communicating). In this video, Gerlach recommends that you talk to yourself about how you talk. He emphasizes how important it is to use specific and accurate references to avoid miscommunication that results from being vague. Pay particular attention to the examples Gerlach provides and then listen for similar examples the next time you have a conversation with someone who is trying to deliver an important message.

2.5: Emphasis Strategies URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2, Section 5: Emphasis Strategies"

Read this section, which describes communication tactics that can be used to emphasize a message or parts of a message: visuals, signposts, reviews, previews, and repetition. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page Diana Booher's "Four Ways to Cut the Clutter From Your Business Writing"

This Dianna Booher video and the one that follows focus on eliminating details that are unnecessary in delivering a message so that the key points in the message are not only clearer but also more emphatic. Watch this video and then cement Booher’s point in your mind by revising this paragraph so that unnecessary words are eliminated and as a result, its message has more impact. Work on this sequence first: “eliminating details that are unnecessary in delivering a message.” Hint: Using just three words would emphasize the point. Look for and improve similar “clutter” in the rest of the paragraph, too. This also may be a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is correct and effective by trying it out on your colleagues.

Page National Digital Learning Arena (Norway): "Descriptive Language"

As the introduction of this video states, “Descriptive language adds atmosphere, intensity and drama to a situation.” Watch this video to learn more about how choosing words for their impact is a valuable way to improve your messages’ effectiveness. However, as you appreciate the contents of this video, don’t forget Dianna Booher’s advice. Descriptive language does not mean more words, which will clutter up your message. It means well-chosen words, which will add emphasis to your message. You should also connect the contents of this video to the videos in subunit 2.1 because descriptive language is an important characteristic of good storytelling.

Page ProsWrite's "Tutorial on Style in Professional Writing: Active and Passive Voice"

A communicator’s choice of “voice” can shift what is emphasized in a statement. What does that mean? After watching this video, you should be able to answer that question. See if you can by writing a sentence that uses active voice and then shift its emphasis by revising it using passive voice. This may also be a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is correct and effective by comparing it to those of your colleagues.

2.6: Improving Verbal Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 2, Section 6: Improving Verbal Communication"

Read this section, which describes how to improve communication by defining your terms, choosing precise words, considering your audience, controlling your tone, checking for understanding, and adopting results-oriented approaches. At the end of the reading, complete the exercises.

Page Saint Cloud State University: English 191: Rhetorical and Analytical Writing: "Choosing Good Words"

Watch this video, which focuses on word choice and vocabulary. It provides an in-depth look at not only the meaning of you word choices, but also the sounds of those words and how those sounds have an impact of the words’ effectiveness. You should recognize that this video continues the themes from the previous subunit, which also focused on word choice. However, be aware that the objective of this lecture is improving the clarity or your language, not necessarily adding emphasis.

Page Diana Booher's "Four Tips to Make Your Message Memorable"

This subunit concludes with a Dianna Booher video which ties together the concepts presented in other videos in this subunit and applies them to real-world messaging. You might absorb Booher’s advice in a more lasting way if you choose a realistic business message and try to apply her tips to how you would present it. For example, perhaps your business needs to communicate that it is opening a new store or perhaps you need to remind employees of certain safety measures they must to follow. If you try this exercise, post your thoughts in the Saylor forum to give your colleagues something to consider and compare with their own.

Unit 3: Understanding Your Audience Page Unit 3 Learning Outcomes
3.1: Self-Understanding Is Fundamental to Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 3, Section 1: Self-Understanding Is Fundamental to Communication"

Please read the introduction to "Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience” and "Section 1: Self-Understanding Is Fundamental to Communication.” These readings focus on how you can become a more effective communicator by understanding yourself and how others view you. They also discuss the centrality of attitudes, beliefs, and values with respect to an individual's self-concept and how self-fulfilling prophecies can influence decision making. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "An Introduction to the Reception and Signification Perspective"

Watch this video, which provides a thorough overview of self-concept, a term that is central to discussing “the self.” After you have watched the video, think about your own self-awareness and characteristics of your self-concept. Did anything about the video surprise or trouble you with respect to your own traits? Did the information help you understand yourself better?

Page ClarkMorgan Insights: Jamie Dixon's "Perception Makes You a Better Leader"

This is the second of many videos you will watch in this course that have been produced by ClarkMorgan, an international company focused on training business professionals. In this video, Jamie Dixon, a corporate trainer for ClarkMorgan, introduces the concept of perceptual positioning, which he divides into three perceptual positions. After you watch this video, check your understanding of its major points by relating them to the previous video and your understanding of “the self.” You should be able to quickly pick which of Dixon’s three positions reflect “the self’s” perspective. This may be a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is correct by comparing your answer with those of your colleagues.

Page Audiopedia's "Pygmalion Effect"

As this video explains, the Pygmalion effect is an example of self-fulfilling prophecy, an important term you need to understand to because of the severe impact it can have on the way you communicate and also on the way you present yourself to others. Make sure you are paying attention at 8:37 when the lecture discusses the impact of the Pygmalion effect in the workplace.

3.2: Perception URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 3, Section 2: Perception"
Read this section, which explains in depth how we select, organize, and interpret words and ideas based on a perceptual framework shaped by our expectations and assumptions. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.
Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "Selective Processing"

This video how people process stimuli from the world around them, which is also known as the act of perception. Note that this is the first of five, consecutive videos which example the subject of perception. Each are similarly structured. For example, there is one key point in this video and it has important implications for business communication. Each video in this sequence presents a similar key point. After you watch each video, see if you can summarize that point in a single sentence and provide an example of how you might encounter it and cope with it in a business communication. This exercise may present a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is correct and effective by trying it out on your colleagues.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "Cognitive Shortcuts"

With the immediately preceding video, you were challenged to summarize its key point in a single sentence and describe a situation involving business communication which illustrates that point. This video is the next in the series that the preceding video is part of. A statement made early in this video is that “we process information subjectively.” Was Did the statement you produced for the preceding video as accurate as this statement? After watching this video, reverse the comprehension review technique used in with the previous video: Instead of summarizing it in a single sentence, see if you can explain it and its importance to someone else. This may be a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is correct and effective by trying it out on your colleagues.

3.3: Differences in Perception URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 3, Section 3: Differences in Perception"

Read this brief section, which focuses on the individual differences and preconceived notions that can limit how well we work with others. The main point of this section is to emphasize how understanding about each other can positively impact our communication and improve the degree to which we can share and understand meaning across languages, cultures, and divergent perspectives. At the end of this reading, try to complete the exercises.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "Central and Peripheral Route"

You should proceed with this video the same way you have with the preceding three videos: find the key point, summarize it in a single statement, and then apply it to a business communication scenario. Compare your response to those of your colleagues in the Saylor discussion forum.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "Getting through the Filter"

You should proceed with this video the same way you have with the preceding three videos: find the key point, summarize it in a single statement, and then apply it to a business communication situation. Compare your response to those of your colleagues in the Saylor discussion forum.

3.4: Getting to Know Your Audience URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 3, Section 4: Getting to Know Your Audience"

Read this section, which presents an important table of perceptual strategies you can use to overcome some of the perceptual issues that can handicap a communicator's ability to understand audiences - a necessary ingredient in customizing messages to be effective with specific audiences. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page University of Amsterdam: Introduction to Communication Science: "Active Audiences"

Find the key point, summarize it in a single statement, and then apply it to a business communication situation. Compare your response to those of your colleagues in the Saylor discussion forum.

Page ClarkMorgan Insights: Morry Morgan's "Know Your Audience, or Kill Them"

As with many of the ClarkMorgan videos you’ve been watching, this one includes a fascinating story that makes the speaker’s point for him. Can you do the same? Can you come up with a story that illustrates the same point? (Remember the value of storytelling techniques from the previous videos? Here is another opportunity for you to practice that.) This may also be a good opportunity for you to use the Saylor forums to interact with other students who are taking this course. See if your response is  effective by comparing it to those of your colleagues.

3.5: Listening and Reading for Understanding URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 3, Section 5: Listening and Reading for Understanding"

Read this section, which explains active listening and active reading and why they are important behaviors associated with effective communication. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises. For the first exercise, instead of working with a classmate, try to find a friend or family member to be your partner.

URL Stand Up, Speak Out: "Chapter 4, Section 1: Listening vs. Hearing"

This brief section explains the difference between listening and hearing and the benefits of listening in effective communication. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercise; in choosing a partner, you may want to work with a family member or friend.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "The Importance of Listening"

This video is part of the Keele University Skills Portfolio. Most of the videos have been developed to assist traditional students in face-to-face classes; however, the information they contain is also relevant in the business world. You will encounter many videos from this source and can find additional ones in areas like leadership, networking and management by searching for the portfolio or “KeeleStudentLearning,” the username associated with the videos.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "Concentration"

This second video from Keele University introduces the very important concept of active listening as a characteristic of concentration. After watching this video, you should understand the elements that comprise active listening and be able to contrast it with passive listening. You should also be able to explain why passive listening is not as effective as active listening and why people nevertheless tend to listen passively. It would also be a good idea for you to watch this video and then immediately watch the next video in this sequence since the topics are closely related.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "How to Listen to Others Effectively"

This third video from Keele University continues the discussion of active listening introduced in the preceding video. You should watch it while thinking back to the previous video so that you connect concentration to the techniques for effective listening which this video presents. You should also be assessing your own listening habits and considering ways you can improve them based on the advice in this video. Consider summarizing what you think are some of the issues which prevent you from listening as effectively as you could and post your summary in the Saylor discussion forum and invite others to compare theirs with yours.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "Reading Techniques"

This video presents useful techniques for developing more efficient reading skills. This is a topic which few college students think much about because you do so much reading. However, doing a lot of reading doesn’t necessarily mean you are doing as efficiently as you could, so don’t pass up this video and the one that follows just because you think you already read well. In fact, if you encounter advice in these two videos which you think is good enough to use to improve your reading habits, consider posting that decision in the Saylor forum. By doing so, not only will you give your colleagues something to think about and compare with their own conclusions, you will also spend more time with this topic. That extra time will increase the likelihood that you will not only retain this information but also use it.

Page Mike Lions' "Selling Through Questioning Techniques & Effective Listening Skills"

This lengthy video applies many of the techniques and observations you will have encountered in other videos in this subunit. As a result, you should find it easier to appreciate the advice it provides. The video’s focus is on the relationship between listening and effective sales techniques, some which every business person should want to understand. There is just one problem with this video, however: It is much longer than most in this course. What will you do to make sure you listen to it in such a way that you can learn from it—all of it? Here is a good opportunity for you to apply what you learned in the preceding videos to the challenges of listening to a lengthy one like this, especially since it is loaded with a lot of information and examples.

Unit 4: Effective Business Writing Page Unit 4 Learning Outcomes
4.1: Oral vs. Written Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 1: Oral versus Written Communication"

Please read the webpages for the introduction to "Chapter 4" and "Section 1: Oral versus Written Communication." These readings start with a review of the elements discussed in the communication models introduced in subunit 1.2, defining and exemplifying each element again to illustrate how writing for the eye differs from writing for the ear. The key concept here is that the biggest difference between those writing styles is that writing for the eye is usually asynchronous. At the end of Section 1, try to complete the exercises.

Page Saylor Academy: "Oral vs. Written Communication"

By the end of this video, you will be able to explain the eight essential elements of communication and explain how oral and written communication differ.

4.2: How Is Writing Learned? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 2: How Is Writing Learned?”

Read this section, which demonstrates that the more you read and write, the better you read and write. The section adds to the discussion of the benefits of constructive criticism, critical thinking, and targeted practice as good habits most excellent writers possess. At the end of this reading, attempt the exercises.

Page David Tebbutt and Alison O'Leary's "Business Writing Skills"

In this video, two professionals discuss how good writing develops. Their examination covers writing for the media as well as writing both media writing and business writing skills. After you listen to these videos, assess your own writing. Do you think you have sufficient business writing skills? What are your business writing strengths and weaknesses? Responding to these questions can help you absorb and retain this information. Also consider posting your answers in the Saylor discussion forum and discussing the responses of other classmates there.

4.3: Good Writing URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 3: Good Writing"

Read this section, which gives you an overview of the characteristics of good writing, including an important discussion of why and how the traits of good writing promote understanding as well as a table that provides examples of how rhetorical elements and cognate strategies relate to business communication practices. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; instead of sharing your responses with your classmates, try to share your work with a family member or friend.

Page ProsWrite's "Purposes for Writing at Work"

Subunits 4.3 through 4.5 are all supplemented by writing tutorial videos from ProsWrite.com, a blogging website which has produced many resources to improve your business writing, including videos, articles, sample documents and even writing assignments. If you feel you need more help to improve your business writing, you may find it at ProsWrite.com. As for the videos used in this course, be aware that they are relatively independent of each other, so you can watch them in any order. However, the order in which they appear in this subunit follows the order of content in the textbook. Most of the videos also include an “Apply Your Knowledge” exercise which you should try to complete. Doing so will reinforce what the videos have shown you. In addition, if you would like to connect the topics of this series to real-world materials, there are additional sample documents on the ProsWrite.com website.

Page ProsWrite's "Context in Professional Writing: Purpose"

This video connects the situation or context of the writing situation to the purpose or reason why it is necessary to write. What are some common contexts for business writing? After you have listened to this video, you should be able to answer that question. Also, be aware that the lecturer in this video often asks questions that you can use to work through the information and as a result absorb it better. You might want to pause the video when a question is asked to give yourself time to try to answer it before continuing.

Page ProsWrite's "Development in Professional Writing: Informative Prose"

The preceding video in this series presented four contexts for writing in the workplace: valuing, consulting, informing and directing. Watch this video to find out which of those contexts require informative writing and the audience-determined options you have for presenting information. Pay particular attention to the list of rhetorical strategies the video covers and consider doing the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercise that begins at 9:37. To benefit the most from the exercise, make sure you pause the video when requested and then try to complete the exercise before restarting the video.

Page ProsWrite's "Development in Professional Writing: Persuasive Prose"

Persuasive writing is often more challenging than informative writing because persuading an audience is often more difficult that informing them. This video explains why and covers the elements and processes of persuasion that a good writer uses. Again, consider doing the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercise that begins at 8:44. To benefit the most from the exercise, make sure you pause the video when requested and then try to complete the exercise before restarting the video.

Page Dianna Booher's "Good Business Writing Habits"

“Your writing reflects the essence of your personal presence,” Dianna Booher states in this video. What does she mean and why is it important if you are not present when someone reads what you have written? Booher provides the answer to this question, briefly, in this video, and you will also learn more about that her reasoning in future videos.

4.4: Principles of Written Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 5: Principles of Written Communication"

Please read this section, which applies to words many of the same concepts that were applied to language in Chapter 2. Words are governed by rules, shape reality, and have ethical dimensions (e.g., plagiarism and libel). At the end of this reading, try to complete the exercises.

4.5: Style in Written Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 4: Style in Written Communication"

Read this section, which categorizes writing styles as colloquial, casual, informal, or formal and indicates when and where each style is appropriate.  At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises. For any exercises that require the involvement of classmates, instead try to partner with a friend or family member.

Page ProsWrite's "Style in Professional Writing: Tone"

By now, you should be familiar with the format and style of the ProsWrite videos. In this subunit, follow the same process that you used in the previous subunit when watching these videos. Look for the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercises near the end of the videos and remember to pause them to give yourself time to think through what you have heard and apply it to the exercise. Remember that following that process will be an effective way to not only learn the material, but also retain what you have learned.

Page ProsWrite's "Style in Professional Writing: Conciseness"

Look for the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercises near the end of the videos and remember to pause them to give yourself time to think through what you have heard and apply it to the exercise. Remember that following that process will be an effective way to not only learn the material, but also retain what you have learned.

4.6: Organization in Written Communication Page ProsWrite's "Organization in Professional Writing: Format"

Look for the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercises near the end of the videos and remember to pause them to give yourself time to think through what you have heard and apply it to the exercise. Remember that following that process will be an effective way to not only learn the material, but also retain what you have learned.

Page ProsWrite's "Organization in Professional Writing: Graphics"

In this subunit, follow the same process that you used in the previous subunit when watching these videos. Look for the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercises near the end of the videos and remember to pause them to give yourself time to think through what you have heard and apply it to the exercise. Remember that following that process will be an effective way to not only learn the material, but also retain what you have learned.

Page ProsWrite's "Organization in Professional Writing: Placement of the Bottom Line"

Look for the “Apply Your Knowledge” exercises near the end of the videos and remember to pause them to give yourself time to think through what you have heard and apply it to the exercise. Remember that following that process will be an effective way to not only learn the material, but also retain what you have learned.

4.7: Overcoming Barriers to Effective Written Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 4, Section 6: Overcoming Barriers to Effective Written Communication"

Pease read "Overcoming Barriers to Effective Written Communication.” This section argues that to overcome barriers to communication, good writers pay attention to details, strive to understand the target meaning, consider nonverbal expressions, and make it a habit to review, reflect, and revise. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises.

Page Skip Ward's "Barriers to Communication"

Watch this video, but be aware that it refers to situations that are unique to Dr. Ward's specific business course and textbook. That information will not confuse you, however, nor will it prevent you from recognizing the most common barriers to communication. After you have watched this brief video, ask yourself how the barriers described in the video relate to written communication. For example, what forms of “noise” exist in written communication? Here’s a hint: the Dianna Booher videos in subunit 4.3 discussed several examples.

Page Skip Ward's "The Gatekeeper: A Barrier to Communication?"

This video is another from the same course as the preceding video, and its purpose is to answer another student question. It is included here, however, because even though it is phrased in a way that students in that particular class could understand easily, it will challenge you to identify just who are some of the “gatekeepers” the video focuses on and how can they become barriers to communication. As you listen to this brief video, think about the business world and ask yourself how messages are disseminated in that world. For example, if a business wanted to inform the public of the grand opening of a new store, how would it do so? Advertising is one possibly, but the business would have to pay for that. What writing tool can a business use that can get a message distributed for free? The press release. If you don’t know what a press release is, find out through a search and then ask yourself who are the gatekeepers a press release may encounter? How do those individuals act as barriers to what the store opening message in the press release? What are other contexts in which a business message may encounter a barrier? Consider emails, memos, proposals, reports and other business writing formats. Can you identify potential gatekeepers that may intervene during the distribution or reception of those messages? Also consider posting your answers to these questions in the Saylor discussion forum and comparing your answers to what others have posted.

Page Dianna Booher's "Communication Mistakes by Salespeople"

Each of the following videos points out a specific mistake made by salespeople—mistakes which can be relevant in other business contexts, too. The videos are very short but each makes an important point, so you might want to write those points down and think of them as a group of potential barriers. You should also think about why the mistakes are barriers to effective communication and how they can be applied to written contexts as well as spoken ones.

Unit 5: Business Writing in Action Page Unit 5 Learning Outcomes
5.1: Text, E-mail, and Netiquette URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 1: Text, E-mail, and Netiquette"

Please read the Chapter 9 introduction and "Section 1: Text, E-mail, and Netiquette." These readings emphasize how your written business communication represents you and your company and thus should be clear, concise, and professional. They also discuss the etiquette and context of text messaging and e-mail, emphasizing the social customs and netiquette rules that have been established with those forms of communication, even though they are relatively new in the workplace. At the end of the reading, complete the exercises. For any exercises that involve work with classmates, instead try to share your responses with friends or family members.

Page Saylor Academy: "Text, Email, and Netiquette"
Pay close attention to this video, as learning proper netiquette is an essential skill in today's workplace. Understanding the role of text messaging in business and writing effective internal and external emails are salient points of netiquette for professionals in business.
Page Project IDEA: "Business Websites: Intro to Business on the Web"

The videos in this subunit have been placed in a special order so that information flows logically from one video to the next. You will find that this course does not spend a lot of time on business communication on the Internet, which is why this subunit starts with an introduction to business websites. Realize that for most businesses, websites are the central hub of their digital existence. All other digital tools and platforms are either housed within or refer back to the website just as the website provides links to them. This video includes some information about creating a website that is not strictly relevant to this course; however, the video is brief and even the irrelevant points will help you put in context the web-related videos that follow.

Page TechSoup Video: Alison Carlman's "How to Write Earth Changing Emails"

This webinar discusses writing emails to solicit donations. Although donations are associated with non-profit organizations, the techniques this video covers, which are based on applied research, are useful whether the audience is supporting a non-profit or a for-profit enterprise. Because this video is lengthy, you may want to take notes. 

Page English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Peter Birch, Jim Lo, Phil Todd's "Email Etiquette"

Because writing an email is something people do every day—and often many times each day—people have a tendency to be very casual about the process. Watch this video to receive important reminders of why business emails need to be carefully considered so that the create the right impression and communicate clearly and effectively. This video starts by noting the impression a sender’s actual email address can make on the receiver and proceeds to discuss the subject line, greeting, content, word choices, writing style, close and references to attachments. The context of this video is student writing, but each of these areas must be considered in business, too. Once you have finished watching this video, try this exercise: Examine your “sent” email folder and find emails you’ve sent to individuals who were not friends or family. Critique your email etiquette and identify how you could improve your technique.

Page ClarkMorgan Insights: Rupert Munton's "Use a Holistic Approach to Writing Business Emails"

This is another video produced by one of the corporate trainers at ClarkMorgan. It focuses on projecting a professional image in the contents, style and presentation of emails. There is a term discussed in the beginning of this video which may confuse you: an “SMS,” which refers to short message service, otherwise known as text messaging. Early in this video, the speaker emphasizes the difference between text messaging and emails, which he argues is a matter of professionalism. The point you want to take away from this video is that an email is a letter and should be composed with the same care as you would compose a letter. The only major difference is how it gets distributed. Consistency, tone, sensitivity to audience needs and expectations—the same traits that were covered in Units 3 and 4 should be part of writing effective emails. To reinforce this point in your mind, perform the same exercise as you did with the previous video. Go to your “sent” mail folder and critique some of your own emails for the qualities this video emphasizes.

5.2: Memorandums and Letters URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 2: Memorandums and Letters"

Please read "Section 2: Memorandums and Letters." This section covers the content, format, and standard elements of letters and memos, providing a concise guide to producing professionalism in the design of each format. Try to attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any exercises that involve work with classmates, try to share your work with friends or family members instead.

Page Saylor Academy: "Memorandums and Business Letters"

This video explains the purpose and format of business letters and memos, as well as strategies for writing both.

Page The Hubert Project: "Writing Management Memos"

“Quick communication that gets to the point” is how the speaker in this video describes memos. That description points out something that each of the business writing formats this unit covers have in common: efficiency. Plain language, professionalism, creating the right impression—these are all traits previous videos encourage so that most important part of the communication, the point, is clear. In this video, the process of developing a memo is divided into three part: preparation, organization and presentation. If you are familiar with outlining, consider outlining the contents of this video so that you have a framework for recalling the details of each section. In addition, pay particular attention to the sample memo that illustrates the speakers points. Make sure you are connecting what the sample shows with the reasons why those elements are effective. Outlining what you hear will help you keep track of these important details, too. The sample memo is presented just past the two-minute mark.

Page U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: "Reader-Focused Writing Orientation: Plain Language Letter"

Watch this video, which refers to the plain language writing you encountered in unit 2.1. Recall that plain language focuses on the reader’s needs, not the writer’s. This video will take you through the process of writing an effective business letter that makes it easy for the reader to get the message. Please note that although the video was developed for employees in a government agency, its customer service orientation and the way it analyzes how readers process information is valuable in the business world as well. In fact, think about some of the correspondence you have received from agencies or businesses. Have you ever simply stopped reading because the language was too difficult or convoluted to follow? If you were highly motivated to get the information, you probably continued reading, but as this video points out, reading isn’t the equivalent of understanding. Your goal in writing is to communicate effectively, which means you must present information in ways that don’t make understanding or responding difficult.

5.3: Business Proposals URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 3: Business Proposal"

Please read this section, which provides instructions on how to produce a business proposal. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.

Page Saylor Academy: "Business Proposals"
Business proposals must contain certain essential elements in order to be effective. This video will introduce you to the process of writing winning business proposals. If you are interested in entrepreneurship, consider checking out Saylor Academy's BUS305: Small Business Management, which devotes an entire unit to crafting business plans.
Page Dianna Booher's "Writing a Winning Sales Proposal Is Like Building a Grand House"

Watch this video in which Dianna Booher discusses how to write an effective sales proposal. Booher is very frank about the way most people approach a proposal, which is by finding someone else’s proposal and using  it as a template that enables them to just “fill in the blanks” to produce a new proposal. By now, you should be aware of the need to tailor your messages so that they suit the specific audience they are created to reach. Given how important the purpose of any kind of proposal is, which is to persuade an audience to accept and adopt your recommendations, cutting corners by copying someone else’s presentation is not a good plan. Please note that this video uses a term very familiar to people who work in marketing, but possibly unfamiliar to you: “unique value proposition.” This is actually the key message in a sales proposal. It indicates how the product benefits the consumer, meets his or her needs, and is better than its competition. As the term implies and Booher emphasizes, the unique value proposition is unique, which is yet another reason why copying others’ proposals to produce your own is not a good idea.

Page Michael LaRocca's "5 Simple Steps to Winning Bids and Proposals"

Watch this video, which is a brief slideshow  that succinctly summarizes the Dianna Booher’s video that preceded it. All of the slides present important points, but slide 3 may be the most important. It states, “When you’re the buyer, you can spot a generic proposal from a mile away. So can your customer. Talk to his concerns.” Sound familiar? After watching this and Booher’s videos, take a moment to apply what they emphasize by completing the following exercise, which you should consider posting in the Saylor forum to receive feedback. Walk into your kitchen or bathroom and pick up the first object you see. Whatever it is, it will be or will represent a product sold by a business. Think about how you would propose to sell that product to yourself. What is its unique value proposition and how would you describe that in a sales proposal? Perhaps at this point you need a little “plain language” to get you started. Remember how the textbook phrased this challenge and apply the idea to your plans: “A business proposal makes the case for your product or service.” Now make your case.

5.4: Reports URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 4: Report"

Please read this section, which describes different types of reports and the writing elements they share and demonstrates how to develop your own report.  Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For exercises that ask you to share your work with classmates, instead try to share your responses with friends or family members.

Page Saylor Academy: "Reports"

Writing business reports is a common task in all manner of industries. You will need to know what a report is, what are its main parts, how different kinds of reports vary, and of course, you will need to know how to write a report.

Page The English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Adrienne Cheng's "Workplace Report: Overall Structure"

The three videos in this subunit are a series that describes the basic structure and contents of typical business reports. These videos present a much simpler view of business reports than your textbook does, but by doing so they may help you remember the most essential elements better. However, since there are many kinds of business reports, and since neither this resource nor the textbook provides you with an example of what one actually looks like, consider performing a Google image search for “example of a business report.” Choose a few of the examples your search will discover and see if you can identify the basic parts the videos in this series describe.

Page The English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Christopher Shepard's "Workplace Report: Findings"

This is the second of three videos in this subunit which comprise a series that describes the basic structure and contents of typical business reports. The instructions for the first of these videos recommended that you perform a Google image search to find real-world examples of a business reports. After you learn about the specific section of the report discussed in this video, take a moment to locate that section in at least three of the examples you found and compare the language, format and contents of each. What are the differences? The similarities? Can you explain why they differ in some ways? Consider writing out your answers to these questions and posting them in the Saylor forum so that you can discuss your “findings” with your colleagues. Also consider saving the examples you find in your search so that you can upload them into the forum, too. Seeing what you are describing will help your colleagues follow your analysis.

Page The English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Phil Todd and Keenan Manning's "Workplace Report: Conclusion and Recommendations"

This is the third of three videos in this subunit which comprise a series that describes the basic structure and contents of typical business reports. The instructions for the first of these videos recommended that you perform a Google image search to find real-world examples of a business reports. After you learn about the specific section of the report discussed in this video, take a moment to analyze it the same way you analyzed the second video: Locate the section in at least three of the examples you found and compare the language, format and contents of each. What are the differences? The similarities? Can you explain why they differ in some  ways? Consider writing out your answers to these questions and posting them in the Saylor forum so that you can discuss your “findings” with your colleagues. Also consider saving the examples you find in your search so that you can upload them into the forum, too. Seeing what you are describing will help your colleagues follow your analysis.

5.5: Résumés URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 5: Résumé"

Please read this section, which provides the reasoning, guidance, and examples for how to create an acceptable résumé. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any exercise that requires involvement from classmates, instead try to work with friends or family members.

Page Saylor Academy: "Résumés"

This video discusses the purpose of five different types of résumés: functional, reverse chronological, combination, targeted, and scannable. By the end of this video, you will be able to explain when each type of résumé is appropriate to use.

Page Cuyahoga Community College Career Center: "Résumés that Get Results"

Watch this series of nine videos that provide a thorough examination of what makes a résumé effective. By this point in the course, you should be able to anticipate how you are able to be asked to consider the information in this series: by finding and critiquing an example after you watch each video. This time, however, it would be more helpful if you critiqued  your own résumé. If you do not have one yet, consider developing one before you watch this series. (Note: Saylor Academy has an entire course on Résumé Writing available here.) One of the most effective learning techniques is revision. When you create a new writing format or style, you are applying knowledge, not learning it. The first draft you produce is more like a test of how well you absorbed the information the first time you encountered it. Revision, however, presents another learning experienced, especially if you are receiving additional guidance in the form of a fresh perspective, as you develop it. This series will give you that experience. Keep in mind, too, that you can also get fresh perspectives from your colleagues if you post your resume in the Saylor discussion forum.

File Résumé Assessment

Review Section 5 in Chapter 9 of Business Communication for Success, and then produce a résumé based on information about a hypothetical the job seeker.  Open the link above for detailed instructions and content.  When you have completed your version of the job seeker's résumé, compare your work to the answer key

Realize, however, that there can be many options for selecting and presenting information in a résumé, so the résumé you produce will not be the same as the example.  If you discover significant differences between the example and your work, use the following set of evaluation questions to critique your version:

  • Did you break the content into blocks and lists preceded by easy-to-understand, hierarchical headings with similar grammatical structures for each heading level?
  • Did your résumé include consistent content and formatting across all heading levels?
  • Are the details you included prioritized such that the most impressive are presented first and the least impressive last (or were omitted)?
  • Did you use bulleted lists, white space, and text treatments like boldface and italics to highlight information and ensure that the résumé can be reviewed and understood easily?

5.6: Sales Messages URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 9, Section 6: Sales Message"

Please read this section, which discusses how a sales message combines emotion and reason and reinforces credibility to create interest in a product or service that leads to a sale. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a friend or family member instead.

Page Cal Davis' "How to Write a Killer Hook"

A sales letter is based on a writing style called copywriting. To call copywriting a “style,” however, is a bit of a misnomer. Copywriting is, in the words of the web blog Copywrite 101, “strategically delivering words (whether written or spoken) that get people to take some form of action.” Does that definition sound familiar to you? Does it contain elements that you’ve encountered before in this class? The answer is yes to both questions. Copywriting is simply a highly refined form of persuasive writing. Even the “strategically” part of the definition is misleading because if you are tailoring your message to your audience; using persuasive message and presenting a clear; simple message, you are applying strategies to your writing. So a sales letter nothing more or less than persuasive writing. This video is still helpful because it phrases the persuasive techniques in the language of business. As you watch this video, be aware that the “USP” the speaker emphasized is the product’s or service’s “unique selling proposition.” Sound familiar? It is the same concept as the “unique value proposition” you encountered in subunit 5.3 with business proposals. 

Page Jim Ackerman's "Best Method for Overcoming Writer's Block in Ad Writing… The Inverted Pyramid from Journalism"

Watch this video, which also focuses on copywriting. Instructions: In this video, marketing speaker Jim Ackerman introduces a writing structure known as the inverted pyramid, which focuses on addressing the “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” “why”, and “how” elements in  your message. To become more familiar with this structure, read the first two paragraphs of news stories on the first or second page of a newspaper. You will discover that by the second paragraph of most stories, the reporter will have identified most of the “5Ws” and maybe the “H”. However, don’t lose track of this speaker’s point: The inverted pyramid is an effective way to write sales  messages, too, especially if you can’t come up with a more creative way. Once you’ve examined some examples of news stories that use the inverted pyramid, return to the exercise you did in subunit 5.3. In that exercise, you randomly chose an object in your kitchen or bathroom and tried to describe its unique value proposition. As an exercise to absorb the points in this video, describe the “5Ws” and “H” that would frame a sales letter about that product. Consider posting your solution the Saylor forum to get feedback from your colleagues.

Page Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University: P. J. Baruah's "Writing for Public Relations"

To appreciate this video, you need to understand the difference between public relations (PR) and marketing, two functions which every business needs to apply to its operations. A simple way to make the distinction is to recognize that the audience of PR is the public, while the audience of marketing is the consumer. Recognize that because you should tailor messages to suit specific audiences, this distinction means that PR cannot use the same techniques to communicate with the public as marketing uses with the consumer. Watch this video to understand more about that distinction. You will also discover that public relations writing also can use the inverted pyramid you encountered in the preceding video and if you listen carefully, you will hear discussion the refer to the same good writing elements that you learned about in the Dianna Booher and plain language videos.

File Sales Letter Assessment

Review Section 6 in Chapter 9 of Business Communication for Success, paying particular attention to Table 9.6: The Five Main Parts of a Persuasive Message. This assessment involves inserting words, phrases and statements into a sales letter to enhance the impact of each part of the pitch. Realize, however, that there can be many options for selecting and presenting information in a sales letter, so the letter you produce will not be the same as the example. However, if upon comparing your work with the example, you are not satisfied with what you produced, consider replacing the content in the example with alternatives that are equally effective. This additional exercise may help you recognize better the range of language that can be used.

When you have finished, check your work against the answer key.

Unit 6: Developing Business Presentations Page Unit 6 Learning Outcomes
6.1: Before You Choose a Topic URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 10, Section 1: Before You Choose a Topic"

Please read the webpages for the Chapter 10 introduction and "Section 1: Before You Choose a Topic." The key concept from these readings is that speech planning begins with knowing your general and specific purpose, your time allotment, your audience, and the amount of information you have available. Attempt the exercises at the end of Section 1. For questions like number 2 that ask you to share with a classmate, try to share with a friend or family member instead.

Page Tech Talk: Jessie Shternshus' "Workshop: Learn Presentation Skills"

Don’t just watch this video, plan to “participate” in it. This video is a workshop in which groups of participants work together to develop presentations. When the workshop leader gives the groups a task to complete, you should do it, too. Ideally, you should find two or three people to work with, but if you are alone, identify two or three people you know and respond to the tasks as thought they were present. For example, at around 4:10, the workshop leader asks the groups to make a list of all of the things the members of their group have in common. You should think about the two other people in your imaginary (or real) group and write list all of the things you can think of that you have in common with them. After you have finished watching this video, you should have a firm understanding of how to develop presentations that are effective in the business world.

Page English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: "Effective Presentations: Signposting"

This video will reinforce your understanding of how a speaker’s plans for speaking progress from choosing a topic to identify the general purpose and then deciding on a specific purpose. You might want to choose a business-related topic you want to speak about and use that topic in this and all of the exercises in this subunit. Doing so will help you absorb the material more readily. For example, perhaps you are offering a new service in town, something like house painting, hair weaving, pet sitting or landscape design. If you were invited to speak to members of the town’s Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce, use this and the following videos to work out how you would prepare for that presentation. So as this video recommends, at this point you need to choose and narrow down a topic involving your new service, then decide on the general purpose your speech will have and finally pin point the specific purpose that will determine how you develop the presentation.

6.2: Choosing a Topic URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 10, Section 2: Choosing a Topic"

Read this section, which describes how choosing a speech topic involves knowing yourself and your audience; using efficient strategies; and understanding appeal, appropriateness, and ability. These are also steps that will lead to the development of an effective thesis statement. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page TEDxKyoto: Garr Reynolds' "Story, Imagery, & the Art of 21st Century Presentation"

Garr Reynolds, professor of management at Kansai Gaidai University, presents an information-filled but very entertaining speech about choosing the approach your presentation can use. You should recognize the approach Reynolds recommend, storytelling, which you have encountered many times already in this course, starting with subunit 2.2. Don’t miss the fact that Gadai himself uses storytelling in his presentation. Also, consider taking the topic and specific purpose you chose in the previous subunit and think about stories you could tell that would interest members of the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce of your town while and also have some relevant to your business or the new services it is offering.

6.3: Finding Resources URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 10: Section 3: Finding Resources"

Read this section, which provides guidance on identifying the key points of a speech, which require supporting details from good sources. It also emphasizes the ethical way to find and use sources for a presentation, including how to avoiding plagiarism and how to evaluate sources for reliability and credibility. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page College of DuPage Library: "Speech Research: Soure Evaluation"

Although this video is targeted toward students rather than businesses, the issues it covers is still relevant in the business world because it is always necessary to find and present material that is “credible, unbiased, timely and correct,” the speaker in this video puts it. Pay particular attention to the information the speaker provides on using the four criteria, which begins at the 4:58 point. After the speaker summarizes each criteria, stop the video and perform an online search to find an expert whose advice or observations related to your business or new service you would use in your speech to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce. Once you find the person, start the video again, pay attention to series of questions the speaker asks about the sources, and try to answer them with respect to the expert you’ve chosen as a source. 

Page LIONTV: Library Information Literacy Online Network: William Badke's "A Tutorial on Plagiarism"

An effective speech uses information from or refers to sources of information that audiences recognize as, among other things, credible and trustworthy. Sometimes, however, speakers will use their sources’ information and also borrow their source’ credibility by letting the audience think they themselves developed the material. You can probably recall news stories about well-known figures--politicians, celebrities, academics—who were caught plagiarizing in this way. Some do it intentionally, but others don’t realize what they are doing is wrong. Watch this video to gain a better understanding of how plagiarism can occur and how to avoid it.

6.4: Myths and Realities of Public Speaking URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 10: Section 4: Myths and Realities of Public Speaking"

Please read this section. The key concept in this section is that public speaking can be as easy as holding half of a friendly conversation if you prepare for it thoroughly and produce an organized presentation sufficiently ahead of time that you can practice enough to feel comfortable and confident with the material. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Saylor Academy: "Myths and Realities of Public Speaking"

Watch this video to help you separate fact from fiction regarding public speaking. You will learn some techniques to avoid public speaking pitfalls.

Page Joseph Norman's "Public Speaking & Presentation Facts, Myths & Helpful Tips"

Watch this video to get practical information on what is true about what people say about the challenges of public speaking and also what isn’t true. In particular, you may appreciate the useful tips about planning, practicing and presenting your speech using tactics that make your job easier and your speech more successful.

6.5: Overcoming Obstacles in Your Presentation URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 10, Section 5: Overcoming Obstacles in Your Presentation"

Please read this section, which illustrates why it is necessary to avoid obstacles to understanding, such as language expressions (i.e., unknown to other listeners), cultural perceptions, and ethnocentrism. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Dianna Booher's "Presentation Skills: 10 Tips to Conquer Fear and Develop Confidence as a Speaker"

After you have watched these videos, respond to Booher’s advice with respect to the Club or Chamber of Commerce speech you are preparing: “What do you want the audience to do, think, know, buy, approve, or consider when you finish your talk? Write that action in a sentence.” Do that now so that you are prepared to continue with the exercises in this subunit.

Page TEDxYouth@Singapore: Benjamin Loh's "Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking"

Sometimes, they way you receive advice from someone doesn’t have an impact on you because that person’s techniques or wording or emphasis doesn’t match your perceptions or preferences. At times like those, getting a second opinion can be helpful. Watch this video to receive that second opinion on how to overcome any fear you have of public speaking. Perhaps Dianna Booher’s presentation did not convince you that her advice would work. In this video, life coach Benjamin Loh discusses the fear of public speaking and also provides advice on how to control it. Loh’s speech itself contains elements that you should also pay attention to. For example, he uses many stories to illustrate hjis points. He also uses humor, audience interaction and comments about himself as a speaker instead of about speakers in general. In other words, his style is markedly different from Booher’s. Meanwhile, to become more familiar with how storytelling can be woven into the structure of a speech, see if you can identify ALL of the stories Loh uses. Hint: There were four, although one long story was actually comprised of a number of shorter ones.

6.6: Cultural Differences and How They Impede Cross Cultural Communication Page Project IDEA: Brooke Wheeler, John Dean, and Madhu Yennawar's "Cross Cultural Communication"

Watch this video, which defines cross cultural communication, breaks it down into different types and gives some examples of communication challenges that can occur in cross cultural communication. After watching this video, imagine that you are aware that the audience of your Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce presentation will include the Japanese family who owns a shop next to the building where your new office is located. There will also be a number of women, members of the local women’s entrepreneurial club, who were also invited to your watch your presentation. Will this knowledge require you to change the story/stories you planned in subunit 6.4 to incorporate into your speech? Why or why not?

Page Project IDEA: "Effective Cross Cultural Communication"

This video addresses the challenges and misunderstandings that cultural differences can create between people. It explicitly describes the kind of problems that can occur and identifies appropriate ways to respond. Throughout this video, the speaker asks her audience to respond to the slides she presents. Take a moment to respond, too. It may be best to pause the video while you think about your response so that you don’t miss what the speaker says next.

Page Duane Elmer and Muriel Elmer's "Cultural Differences: Western vs. Majority World"

This video presents an interesting, although somewhat subjective view of two broad categories of culture as defined by the speaker. While you may take issue with some of the generalizations made in this presentation, its contents provide thought-provoking observations that will further sensitize you to differences in cultures around the world. One activity you can do while listening is to divide a sheet of paper into two columns and list the traits the speaker describes as associated with one culture category or the other. When you have finished watching the video, review your lists and ask yourself if you are comfortable with the speaker’s perspectives. Do not assume, however, that because these instructions have implied that some people may have issues with the speaker’s opinions about certain cultures that you will, too—or even that most people would. Consider, for example, whether the Japanese family or the group of women entrepreneurs would have objections. Also use the ideas in this video to examine your own knowledge, assumptions about cultural generalization. Finally, before you move on to other topics in this course, take a moment to put this subunit in perspective by recalling the advice of Robert Chandler that began this course: “Seek first to understand, then seek to be understood.”

Unit 7: Organization and Outlines Page Unit 7 Learning Outcomes
7.1: Rhetorical Situation URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines"

Please read the webpages for the Chapter 12 introduction and "Section 1: Rhetorical Situation.” These readings focus on the elements of the rhetorical situation, which are basically the "who,” "what,” "where,” "when,” "why,” and "how” of your speech from the audience's perspective. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; for any exercise that requires classmate involvement, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page David Wright's "Using the Rhetorical Triangle & Rhetorical Appeals"

This unit presents information that you will absorb more readily if you are watching the videos and then applying it to your own work. Consider continuing to use the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce presentation on your business’s new service to interact with the material you will encounter in this unit. So watch this video and try to apply as much of the information you hear to the presentation you are developing. For example, at 1:28, the speaker points out that is useful to “begin putting names and meanings to the field of rhetoric” while showing a slide depicting parts of the “Rhetorical Triangle.” Those parts are Audience, Text, and Author. When you encounter information like this, first recognize that it has relevance to your presentation and then replace the general identifications with specific ones based on your presentation. In this case, you are the Author, the members of the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce and their guests are the Audience, and your presentation will be the Text. Take every opportunity you can through this and the next two units to apply the information you encounter to specific aspects of projects you are developing.

Page Saylor Academy: "Critique a Speech Using the Nine Cognate Strategies"

In this activity, you will critique a speech, focusing your criticism on nine cognate strategies.

7.2: Strategies for Success URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12, Section 2: Strategies for Success"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the nine cognate strategies, which are widely acknowledged methods for framing, expressing, and representing a message to an audience. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For exercises that involve working with classmates, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Project IDEA: "Effective Presentations"

Watch this video, which reviews terminology associated with developing all forms of communication. You will recognize all of the terms; however, reviewing them through these slides should heighten your awareness of the elements that go into an effective presentation. It also serves as a preview of those elements which will be covered in upcoming units.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Three Types of Public Speeches"

In this and the next four videos, Dr. Benjamin Cline, assistant professor of communications at Western New Mexico University, leads students through the elements of presentations which can be considered important content-related factors that have an impact on a speech’s success. First, however, Dr. Cline begins this set of videos by identifying the three traditional types of speeches. Recognize that each type is related to the general purpose of a speech. As a result, after you have watched this speech, you should be able to decide—or if you have already decided, identify—what type of speech you are going to “give” to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Preview of the Five Canons"

Watch this video in which Dr. Cline presents the five canons of rhetoric, but don’t’ let those formal-sounding words concern you. The five canons are elements of public speaking that you have undoubtedly encountered many times in your education. They are invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery. Which of these cannons are you working on now to develop your presentation for this class? You are probably still dealing with invention. You have been given your topic and you know your audience, and hopefully you have also made a decision on what type of speech you will give. However, have you discovered what your thesis, the basic contention of your speech that is a reflection of your topic and purpose? Have you considered what subtopics you will need to introduce to support that contention?

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Research 1"

The first of what Dr. Cline refers to as the five cannons is invention—and it is probably time to point out that Dr. Cline’s lexicon is not the most common on this subject. Watch this video to recognize how it is possible to explore a subject to arrive at decisions about how you will address it in a presentation. After watching this video, consider the speech you are preparing, especially if you haven’t gotten beyond your specific purpose yet. You’ve been given your topic—you are offering a new service in town—and you know some things about who will be in your audience, and hopefully you have chosen an actual service to use for these exercises, which would represent an effective narrowing of your topic. You’ve also probably arrived at your specific purpose. Invention now means you need to do some research to discover what you can say about your topic that reflects you purpose. Now may also be a good time to get ideas from your colleagues in the Saylor forum. Someone there may have a good suggestion for a better topic or where to look for information on the topic you’ve already chosen.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Research 2"

In this video, Dr. Cline guides students through the process of categorizing the sources of information he found in the previous video when he demonstrated exploring a topic by searching for information about it online. This process of categorizing involves sorting your sources based on how their characteristics as individual people or entities will be received by your audience. After watching the video, try making a list of the kinds of sources which will impress the audience you anticipate for your speech. 

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Simple Speech"

Watch this video, at the beginning of which Dr. Cline provides his customary review/preview of past and upcoming topics. You will hear Dr. Cline mention having already covered the cannon of delivery; however, you will be viewing those videos in unit 10 instead of this one. Meanwhile, this video covers the canon of arrangement, which is organizing the contents of your speech. Having identified and categorized sources your audience will appreciate, you should find that you know a lot more about your topic that you did before working on invention. Your sources’ materials should have helped educate you. The knowledge you have on the topic should enable you to decide on your thesis and the main points you will use to support. Note, too, that you also have sources that will in turn support those main points. This means you are ready to organize all that information into an arrangement that presents in formation in a logical, easy-to-follow order. Are you ready? 

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Monroe's Motivated Sequence"

Watch this video, which covers a popular, straightforward arrangement of information that is usually  associated with persuasive speaking. Pay particular attention to how this arrangement emphasizes the audience’s needs. If you consider using this pattern for your speech, you will have to decide whose needs in your diverse audience you will focus on, unless you can determine that all or most share a need, perhaps one based on the nature of the new service you are offering.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "The Ancient Order"

Dr. Cline notes at the beginning of this video that this arrangement of information is known to have existed for over 2000 years. However, realize that you should choose the arrangement that first your situation best, not because it has been used a lot, but rather because it suits your topic and specific purpose. Also note that Dr. Cline mentions having mentioned three appeals: ethos, logos, pathos. You will encounter his review of those topics in unit 10. Meanwhile, after watching this video did you recognize a presentation tactic in the video that you’ve encountered frequently in this course? Dr. Cline describes it as an option for the “narration.” To absorb this material better, you may also want to translate into your own language the four parts of the arrangement Dr. Cline uses Latin words to describe in his lecture.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Style"

In this video, Dr. Cline discusses the canon of style, which refers to verbal communication. Now that you have reviewed some techniques for organizing your speech (you will encounter more options in Units 8 and 9), you can start to write your speech, which means addressing style. Think back to Unit 2 to appreciate the impact style can have on effective communication. To refresh your memory, try this exercise. Without going back to look at the earlier videos, what aspects of language that you can remember were associated with the good and bad style issues Dr. Cline discusses in this video? Which of those aspects of language will you definitely try to incorporate in your speech? 

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Memory"

In this last video in the series, Dr. Cline notes how interconnected the canons of rhetoric are and then lists the four ways you can deliver your speech. Which you choose will impact how hard you have to work to remember the contents of your presentation. Dr. Cline also notes that your audience’s needs should influence which delivery method you should use, too. Take a moment to consider the audience of your Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce presentation. Which delivery methods do you think would they find acceptable? Keep in mind as you consider this that you yourself are a factor in how they will judge your delivery method. So which one will impress your audience the most? Which one would you be the most comfortable with? Is there a method somewhere in between that will work? Consider posting your answers to these questions, as well as a description of your audience, topic and purpose, in the Saylor forum so that your colleagues can give you feedback on your ideas.

7.3: Building a Sample Speech URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12, Section 3: Building a Sample Speech”

Please read this section, which section gives you a brief overview of how speeches are built by identifying the main points to be communicated and by developing five structural elements: attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, and residual message. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For exercises that involve working with classmates, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Open Course Library: Phil Venditti's "Explanation and Demo: Diagram of How to Prepare the Speech"

Phil Venditti is an instructor at Clover Park Technical College. The videos are a little unusual, so you will need to be patient about their format, which presents an actual class of students and Phil Venditti, their instructor, working through a public speaking assignment. To appreciate the experience, imagine yourself sitting in the classroom with the other students. If you have questions about what you hear in the lecture, consider asking them in the Saylor forum. Also, even though it may be difficult because there will be gaps in your knowledge of how the class is managed, try to follow along with the assignment instructions and the grading rubrics. Many students think that those academic tools are only for evaluating students’ knowledge or skill; however, assignments and grading rubrics can function as learning tools, too, so pay attention to their details and how the students in the class respond to them. Finally, as you watch this first video, try to pick out speech preparation techniques that Dr. Cline also mentioned and use them to review or refine the presentation you are working on

Page Open Course Library: Phil Venditti's "Speech Explanation and Demo: Analysis of Introduction"

Remember when Dr. Cline covered the arrangement pattern he referred to as “The Ancient One”? Do you recall how that pattern began? Or why it began as it did? What about the “narratio” element? Did you recognize it as the storytelling technique other videos have covered? Watch this video and afterward, set this goal: you will finish preparing the introduction of your Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce speech before you watch the video on conclusions that is coming up after the next video, which covers another characteristic of good introductions.

Page Open Course Library: Phil Venditti's "Speech Explanation and Demo: 'Grabber' with Explanation"

Watch this video to learn about additional techniques to develop an introduction that will attract the attention of your audience, convince it that you are a speaker worth listening to, and make them so interested in your presentation that are eager for you to continue. Also, remember your goal is to finish preparing your Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce presentation’s introduction now.

Page Simbell Channel: Akansh Khurana's "Communicating Your Conclusions"

Watch this video, which covers the techniques and content of an effective conclusion. You should recognize an important device in the materials covering the introduction and conclusion of a speech in this subunit, a device emphasized by both Dr. Cline and Mr. Venditti as a way to make sure your audience will remember your purpose, thesis and main points. Can you identify it? If you can’t, review Dr. Cline’s videos on the canon of arrangement and see if you remember it afterward. If you still don’t get it, ask your colleagues in the Saylor forum.

Page Open Course Library: Phil Venditti's "Introduction & Conclusion"

Watch this video in which Venditti goes over the grading rubric he will use to evaluate the introduction and conclusion sections of  student speeches. Note that you can produce your own grading rubric by listing the traits you’ve read and learned about in these videos. You can even assign different points to each trait based on its importance in insuring an effective speech. If you create a rubric and actually develop an entire speech for this course, consider inviting family and friends to watch your speech, give them copies of the rubric, explain each trait and how they should grade it, then ask them to complete the rubric while or after  they watch  your presentation.

7.4: Sample Speech Outlines URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12, Section 4: Sample Speech Outlines"

Please read "Section 4: Sample Speech Outlines.” This section justifies the use of outlining as part of the speech development process and provides examples of two types of outlines: one focusing on verbal and visual delivery and another on cognate strategies. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For exercises that involve working with classmates, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Phil Venditt's "How to Prepare a Speech Outline"

Outlines are usually used to help a presenter organize the materials in his speech, so don’t be confused by where they appear in the order of these videos. Dr. Cline’s approach to presentations did not include outlining; Phil Venditti allows students to develop the beginning and ending of their speeches before organizing the middle, the section which an outline can be most helpful in organizing. Moreover, unlike business proposals, it is a good idea to look at and even copy examples of outlines that follow the arrangement pattern you’ve chosen, especially if you are unfamiliar with outlining. Lastly, you should know that some speakers will use their outlines as cue cards to enable them to give a smoother, extemporaneous speech (a term you should recognize from Dr. Cline’s video on the canon of style). Others will break up the outline into easy-to-handle sections and place the information on actual cue cards—usually post cards or other small pieces of paper that won’t distract an audience as much as large sheets of paper can. Start thinking about how you will produce and use your outline, but don’t make any final decisions about how you will use it until you have practiced a variety of delivery techniques.

File Saylor Academy: "Outlining Assessment"

Please complete the linked assessment. Make sure you read the instructions carefully as this assessment is set up in a rather complex way. The first section presents information you must use to complete the assessment. The next section provides you with the outline template that you must follow. A third section helps you complete the assessment by outlining some of the material for you and giving you pointers on how to proceed further. This is why you should follow the instructions in the step-by-step manner recommended. Once you have filled in all of the blanks in the outline template, compare your results with the complete outline found in the fourth section of this assessment.

7.5: Organizing Principles for Your Speech URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12, Section 5: Organizing Principles for Your Speech"

Please read this section, which provides an exceptional list of 17 purpose-specific organizing patterns for business communication speeches. While the usual rhetorical strategies-based patterns are included (cause/effect, comparison/contrast, etc.)--as well as the logic-based ones (chronological, spatial, etc.)--Business Communication for Success adds very specific step-by-step guidance for ceremonial, wedding, award, introduction, and other types of nonacademic functions).  Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For exercises that involve working with classmates, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Kevin Carroll's "How to Organize Your Presentation or Speech"

The bulk of this unit has relied on academic approaches to preparation effective presentations. Such approaches are useful and valid because they often provide more guidance with more details and examples than professional approaches. However, before you leave the subject of preparing a presentation, watch this video in which presentation coach Kevin Caroll describes what he recommends as a straightforward way to organize a business presentation. If you have not finished organizing your Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce presentation, try Caroll’s arrangement. You may find it easier to develop that some of the others you’ve encountered.

7.6: Transitions URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 12, Section 6: Transitions"

Please read "Section 6: Transitions." Like the preceding section, this one provides a unique approach to transitions that take the topic beyond the standard academic fare into the specific-occasion realm of business and commerce by identifying such types of transitions as clarification or concession. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For exercises that involve working with classmates, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page ecmoorewaketech: "Rhetorical Modes and Transitions Intro"

As you watch this video, please note that although the context of the lecture is writing not speaking, the same rhetorical modes and transitions can be applied to effective speeches, too. This video presents five rhetorical modes (arrangements or patterns) that you can use to organize your speech, especially an informative speech. However, it goes a step further and also points out transitional devices which enable information to flow from one idea to another, often based on words of phrases associated with the rhetorical mode you’ve chosen. Speakers who use their outlines as cue cards will sometimes write the transitions they’ve planned in between lines of content. Make sure you have planned the transitions in your speech, too. Without them, your audience can get the impression that your presentation is choppy or disjointed.

Page Moritz Fromwald's "Workshop - Breaks and Transitions in Public Speaking"

Watch this video, which covers transitions and other techniques to move your audience’s attention from one topic to another or between ideas or minor details. This workshop contains many useful details, but the format can be hard to follow, so you might want to plan to take notes. Once you have finished watching this video, examine the transitions you have added to your presentation or its outline and consider whether you want to incorporate some of the techniques described in this video, too.

Unit 8: Presentations to Inform Page Unit 8 Learning Outcomes
8.1: Functions of the Presentation to Inform URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 1: Functions of the Presentation to Inform"

Please read the webpages for the Chapter 13 introduction and the "Section 1: Functions of the Presentation to Inform.” These readings give you an overview of the goals of informative speaking in a business context and the expectation that such speeches incorporate the speaker's viewpoint but not his or her attitude or interpretation. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.  For any exercise that involves working with a classmate, try to work with a family member or friend instead.

Page Josh Coker's "What is an Informative Speech? The Basics on Providing Information to an Audience"

Watch this video, which focuses on identifying what an informative is and the types of informative speeches. If you haven’t started your informative speech “project” for this course, you might want to use this introductory video to consider which type of informative speech you will want to present. If you have worked on your informative speech, you could be as far along as having an outline done. But have you actually decided whether to be informative or persuasive? You may want to hold off on that decision until you’ve completed a few more units.

8.2: Types of Presentations to Inform URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 2: Types of Presentations to Inform"

Please read this section, which covers how an informative speech may explain, report, describe, or demonstrate how to do something and provides examples of additional types of business-specific informative speaking categories. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For any of the exercises that require work with a classmate, instead try to find a friend or family member to help you.

Page Phil Venditti's "Demonstration/Instruction Speech: How to Use Chopsticks"

Although rarely used, some individuals break down informative speaking into four types: definition, explanatory, descriptive, and demonstrative. Your textbook identifies a slightly different set: explanation, report, description, demonstration. Other variations of this list also exist. 

Watch this video, which describes and diagrams six organizational patters for presenting information. 

8.3: Adapting Your Presentation to Teach URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 3: Adapting Your Presentation to Teach"

Please read this section, which points out how successful speeches encourage active listening and use audience-centered approaches and describes in detail several ways to motivate an audience by making material relevant and useful, finding interesting ways to frame topics and emphasizing new aspects if the topic is a familiar one. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that involve working with a classmate, instead try to work with a family member or friend.

Page Remy Porter's "Technical Presentations"

Watch this video, which describes how to create a “how to” presentation, one which teaches an audience how to perform a task, a very common type of business presentation. Early in this video, the speaker uses this example: “There is a problem. Here is how to solve it.” After you watch this video, see if you can describe two or three other business-related needs for “how to” presentations. Use the simple two-statement description used in the example above. You may also want to use the list of “more specific types of informative presentations” in your textbook to give you some ideas. “Instruction guidelines,” for example, may be summarized as “There is something you need to do. Here is how to do it.” One last thing: Notice how this speaker emphasizes a communication technique that you have encountered many times in the course? It’s storytelling again.

8.4: Diverse Types of Intelligence and Learning Styles URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 4: Diverse Types of Intelligence and Learning Styles"

Please read "Section 4: Diverse Types of Intelligence and Learning Styles.” This section explains how an informative speech can be more effective when the learning styles of the audience members are addressed.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that ask you to share with the class, instead try to share your work with a friend or family member.

Page Diverse Types of Intelligence and Learning Styles

When the intent of your presentation is to inform or teach, you will be more effective as a speaker if you understand how your audience learns best. This video takes a look at the different learning styles your audience members may have and how this ought to affect your delivery method. Not without controversy, many taxonomies of intelligences and learning styles define the following types:

  • Linguistic
  • Logical
  • Spatial
  • Kinesthetic
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal

Page Dr. Howard Gardner's "The Multiple Intelligence Theory"

Please watch this entire video (approximately 8 minutes) to hear a more focused discussion about the importance of acknowledging the existence of multiple intelligences.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "What Are Learning Styles and Why Are They Important"

To be effective with an audience of more than one person, a good teacher presents information in a variety of ways so that if one method doesn’t suit a particular learning style in the audience, another one might. This is why a speaker needs to know what the different learning styles are and the methods of information presentation that work best for each type. Return to the speech you are presenting to the fictitious Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce in town. You’ve been invited to speak about the new service you are offering. If you plan to describe it to your audience, can you identify techniques for each learning style that will present the same information to your audience in different ways? For example, if you want to describe automobile repair services, you can describe them with spoken words, written words, pictures that show types of repairs, videos that demonstrate repairs, diagrams that illustrate them, and so on. Which of those forms suit which type of learning style? What else is available? 

Page Sean Misen's "Multiple Intelligences"

This video describes another way of categorizing the variation you may have in your audience’s learning traits. You may find this video particularly useful in the context of different departments or divisions in a business. Some jobs tend to attract a certain types of intelligence. (Note that the word “intelligence” here is not used to describe how smart someone is, but rather the kind of sensitivity individuals have toward the world around them.) For example, editors tend to have verbal-linguistic intelligence, graphic artists tend to be visual-spatial, engineers tend to be logical-mathematic. After watching this video, can you identify which intelligence public relations practitioners may have? What about biologists? Marketing specialists? Music composers? Managers? How about people who are really good at installing intricate parts into machinery?

8.5: Preparing Your Speech to Inform URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 5: Preparing Your Speech to Inform"

Please read this section, which discusses why, in preparing an informative speech, you must consider the audience's knowledge, avoid unnecessary jargon, give credit to your sources, and present the information ethically. This section is particularly useful because it introduces several rarely detailed concepts, including reciprocity, nonjudgmentalism, and mutuality. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.  For any questions that require working with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Diana Booher's "5 Tips to Increase the Trust Factor"

Another important consideration when you are preparing an informative presentation is ethics. These videos offer clear guidelines on how to avoid unethical practices when you present information. Unfortunately, as communication strategist Dianna Booher discusses in this video, these ethical lapses are all too common. You will revisit some of Booher’s material when you learn about logical fallacies in subunit 9.6, You may fail to recognize this because Booher uses examples from the business world rather than academic terms to refer to these ethical lapses.

8.6: Creating an Informative Presentation URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 13, Section 6: Creating an Informative Presentation"

Please read "Section 6: Creating an Informative Presentation.” This section discusses the content and function of the five parts of a presentation. Attempt to respond to the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that require working with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Nephthys UK: Toastmasters International Speech Contest: "Back Pain: More Science Less Superstition"

In subunits 5.4 and 7.4, the subject of outlining your speech is discussed. Outlining can help you plan, organize, practice and even present your speech (if you use your outline as notes or cue cards during your speech). This is why developing an effective outline—one that will really help you—is important. Watch this video of an informative speech to pull together all that you have learned to this point on how to develop an informative speech. Your readings in the textbook for this unit culminated with an outline that showed parts, functions and content of a sample speech.  Consider following that outline to produce the outline of the speech in this video. Doing so will enable you to not just watch, but also describe (in your outline) how the speaker covers each  introduction and conclusion function, and how he has organized information and used transitional devices to move smoothly from one point to another in the body of the speech. 

Unit 9: Presentations to Persuade Page Unit 9 Learning Outcomes
9.1: What Is Persuasion? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14: Presentations to Persuade"

Please read the Chapter 14 introduction and "Section 1: What Is Persuasion?” These readings discuss the importance of persuasion in business and make a distinction between persuasion and motivation.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the Section 1 reading. For any exercises that require working with a classmate, instead try to work with a family member or friend.

Page "Science of Persuasion"

Watch this video, which presents persuasion from a business perspective by discussing how using reciprocity, scarcity, authority, consistency, liking and consensus can convince people to support an idea. After you have finished watching this video, try this exercise with your speech to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce: For whatever service you will be selling, describe how you would discuss your service using each of the techniques the video covers. 

9.2: Principles of Persuasion URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 2: Principles of Persuasion"

Please read this section, which goes into greater detail on some of the six principles of communication introduced in subunit 8.5. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that prompt you to share or work with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Ethos," "Pathos," and "Logos"

In this video, Dr. Cline introduces the three persuasive appeals: ethos, pathos, and logos. This video introduces ethos or ethics (which is associated with credibility). Dr, Cline covers the topic thoroughly, but you will understand his lecture better if you keep in mind the most important aspect of an appeal: It “appeals” to an audience. One definition of the word “appeal” is that it is “the power of arousing a sympathetic response” (Merriam-Webster). From a psychological perspective, that is a useful way to describe the response you want from your audience. However, you may find a simple technique to be an even easier way to recognize how you can use appeals: Switch roles. Stop thinking like a presenter and start thinking like a member of your audience instead. Consider the service you are going to give a speech about to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce and ask yourself, “What would appeal to me about this service if I were a potential customer?” Frame your response to that question three times by using each of the three appeals Dr. Cline will discusses.

9.3: Functions of the Presentation to Persuade URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 3: Functions of the Presentation to Persuade"

Please read "Section 3: Functions of the Presentation to Persuade.” This section gives you an overview of what persuasive speeches are designed to do: stimulate thought, convince, call to action, increase consideration, or develop tolerance of alternate perspectives. This section also provides a useful breakdown of different types of calls to action. Try to complete the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Paolo Pelloni's "Successful Presentation: Persuasive Presentations"

This series of five videos is brought to you by speaking coach Paolo Pelloni. These videos cover most of the functions of a persuasive presentation the textbook discusses. Recognize, however, that these functions are not ends, but rather the means to an end—that is, they are the means through which you can achieve persuasive goals. This point is somewhat obscure in the textbook and as a result needs further explanation here for you to appreciate these videos. Recall that the goal of persuasion is to change, reinforce or create attitudes or behavior in an audience. Goals are achieved through the functions of persuasive presentations, which are listed in the textbook as follows: stimulate, convince, call to action, increase consideration and develop tolerance of alternate perspectives. Notice that these functions are ways a presenter can influence an audience, which what this series of videos focuses on.

9.4: Meeting the Listener's Basic Needs URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 4: Meeting the Listener's Basic Needs"

Please read "Section 4: Meeting the Listener's Basic Needs.” This section addresses the question of why we engage in communication by using Maslow's hierarchy of needs and social penetration theory to explain an audience's needs. This latter concept is covered more fully in subunit 13.3, which deals with interpersonal communication. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Robin Breault: "Making Persuasion a Reality: Using AIDA & WIIFY to be a Persuasive Ninja Master" and University of Texas SPURS: Ashley Miller's "Persuading an Audience in Writing"

Although this video focuses on writing, its discussion of the AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) and WIIFY (“What’s in it for You”) audience-centered techniques are equally relevant for public speaking. As with most of the information you encounter in this course, you will absorb these ideas better if you apply them to a real-world situation, so please consider performing the same exercise described in subunit 9.1: After you have finished watching this video, apply the AIDA and WIIFY techniques to the speech you are preparing to present to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce. For example, for AIDA, how would you attract the attention of the particular audience you are preparing to address? How would you get them interested in your new service? How would you make them want it (desire it)? How would you convince them to take immediate action to get it? For WIIFY, you need to fully describe how your audience will benefit from the service (“What’s in it for You”). HINT: One way you can do this is through a technique that has been brought up several times in this course’s videos: storytelling. For example, you can tell an interesting story about how a person’s life changed thanks to your service (a “before and after” story). Recognize that storytelling isn’t the only way you can show an audience “what’s in it for them.” The appeals Dr. Cline discussed in subunit 9.2 are also relevant here.

9.5: Making an Argument URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 5: Making an Argument"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of classical rhetorical strategies for persuasion and then provides an alternative approach that suits business contexts much better: Stephen Toulmin's claim-data-warrant rhetorical strategy. This section also provides a useful acronym for remembering seven additional argumentative strategies (GASCAP/T) and concludes with a discussion about evidence and appeals. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Critical Thinker Academy: "What Is a Strong Argument?"

Please watch this video for more information about what makes an argument strong enough to be convincing.  After viewing the video, write a brief paragraph that summarizes what makes a strong argument.

Page David Wright's "The Toulmin Model of Argumentation"

Many people think that argumentation and persuasion refer to the same process; however, technically, they do not. Effective argumentation uses a series of very rational, objective techniques to convince an audience which is assumed to be equally rational and objective. Persuasion makes no assumptions about an audiences ability to think or act rationally and so uses whatever techniques will work given the audience’s other apparent traits. Watch this video to understand the terms and functions associated with effective argumentation. The Toulmin model presented is the most popular perspective when argumentation is treated separately from persuasion. After you have finished watching this video, you should recognize that argumentation has already been covered in this unit, although not with the formality or depth you will find in this video. What term was used earlier to refer to this way of convincing an audience?

Page Laurier Library: "Identifying and Analyzing Arguments"

Watch this interactive video to increase your understanding of what argumentation entails. This video covers the subject from an academic perspective and refers often to performing “library” research. Please note, however, that as in academia, in the business world (A) many presentations are prepared by performing research, (B) ethical and effective argumentation is still required, and (C) the need to use sources appropriately are the same. As you watch this video, pause the playback when instructed and respond to the speaker’s questions before continuing.

9.6: Speaking Ethically and Avoiding Fallacies URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 6: Speaking Ethically and Avoiding Fallacies"

Please read this section, which lists 11 ethical lapses that are abused by speakers and also describes some common logical fallacies. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Grey Matters: TEDxHogeschoolUtrecht: "Moral Persuasion"

Watch this video, which puts persuasion into a sociological context by asking the intriguing question of whether moral persuasion means eliminating all “intention based agenda” and using instead “benign suggestion” to convince audiences to act as desired. This video begins the series of videos in this subunit because it addresses the subject broadly, in contrast to the videos which follow, each of which focus on one unethical trait. This introductory video questions social norms, which can vary across cultures. For example, many of the logical fallacies in the videos which follow are routinely used by politicians and either accepted, unrecognized or ignored by their constituents in spite of the fact that the reason the politicians use fallacies is because they maintain the “intention-based agenda” this video discusses. In other societies, leaders, including political leaders, are expected to be truthful and ethical and can be sanctioned or disqualified if they are discovered to have intentionally mislead their constituents. However, after watching this video, you should ask yourself whether “benign suggestion” is practical in societies where leaders use money and other resources to compete for powerful positions.

Page Packard Pokes At: Logical Fallacies

These videos identify and provide examples of various types of logical fallacies. Remember that these practices, if recognized by members of your audience, will destroy your credibility as a speaker and may cause your audience to respond to your presentation by taking no action or even by taking the opposing action than the one you desire. For example, if your audience notices logical fallacies in your presentation to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce, some  may not only not seek your services, but also intentionally seek and use the services of a competitor. The first video deals with the ad hominem

9.7: Sample Persuasive Speech URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 7: Sample Persuasive Speech"

Please read this section, which presents what is basically a review of the major elements of a speech, but it also adds additional guidelines for each element. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Anna Goldman's "Right to Life Speech" and Jason Costa's "Ban Public Smoking Now"

At the end of Chapter 9 in your textbook, the author presents a table which lists the elements of and explains how to present a persuasive speech that would convince an audience to purchase (or not purchase) a product. These videos have been placed here to enable you to follow the textbook's table in real persuasive speeches. Note that these speeches were chosen as examples because their presenters use markedly contrasting persuasive styles as well as different verbal and nonverbal techniques. After you have watched the sample speeches, use the table, and also the outline presented just before the table, to outline a persuasive speech you might give to the Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce of your town to persuade their members to use a new service your hypothetical business is offering. Once you create the outline, look back over the contents of this unit to make sure you haven’t left out techniques not mentioned in the textbook's table that could strengthen your presentation. Consider also posting your outline in the Saylor forum to get feedback from your colleagues. You may also want to present the speech you have planned to a real audience and get their feedback as well. If no audience is available, consider presenting it to yourself by videotaping it.

9.8: Elevator Speech URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 14, Section 8: Elevator Speech"

Please read this section, which provides a brief discussion about the role and creation of the brief sales pitch known as the elevator speech. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page UCIrvineOCW: Chris Van Dusen's "The Elevator Pitch"

The elevator speech is a distinct type of presentation in which the speaker has very little time to persuade an audience because these speeches are usually a minute long or less. Moreover, elevator speeches usually allow the speaker no opportunity to use visual aids or even nonverbal techniques to reinforce the persuasive message. Developing an elevator speech is a good exercise for any speaker because it require the speaker to choose verbal content that is very clear, very concise and very powerfully delivered. This video contains many examples of the individual elements which are traditionally (and functionally) always included in elevator speeches. Please note that this is an important type of speech which will produce skills that you can use in many contexts, including job interviews. It is highly recommended that you take notes on the presentation in this video.

Page Saylor Academy: "How to Craft an Elevator Pitch"
Elevator speeches can happen anywhere or any time, so you have to be prepared. This video explains the parts of an elevator speech and how you can create an effective elevator speech.
Page Dianna Booher's "What Makes a Great Elevator Speech"

Watch these videos, in which communication strategist Dianna Booher provides brief advice on how to refine your elevator speech techniques. After watching both videos, consider developing a 60-second elevator speech that you would give to the president of your town’s Rotary Club or Chamber of Commerce if you happened to find yourself sharing an elevator with him or her. If you can record your speech, consider posting the recording or a link to it (if you can upload it to YouTube, for example) to get feedback from your colleagues.

Unit 10: Nonverbal Delivery Page Unit 10 Learning Outcomes
10.1: Principles of Nonverbal Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 11, Section 1: Principles of Nonverbal Communication"

Please read this section, which focuses on nonverbal expressions (it excludes visual aids), providing a very useful and somewhat unique breakdown of 12 types of nonverbal expressions and their intended and unintended functions. Attempt the exercises at the end of the Section 1 reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Bethany College: Dr. Carl Isaacson's "Nonverbal Communication"
These videos serve as an introduction to what nonverbal communication is and how it can impact communication in general. You may find this lecture to be particularly engaging because the lecturer, Dr. Carl Isaacson, a professor in the Department of English, Communication, and Theatre at Bethany College, frequently asks his students questions and gives them opportunities to share their impressions of the material he is covering. You may find that his students share your own thoughts and observations, too.
10.2: Types of Nonverbal Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 11, Section 2: Types of Nonverbal Communication"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of eight types of nonverbal communication: space, time, physical characteristics, body movements, touch, paralanguage, artifacts, and environment. Attempt exercises 1, and 3-5 at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Dr. Benjamin Cline's "Delivery"

Dr. Benji Cline organizes his discussion of nonverbal communication around the five senses, which he justifies by noting that nonverbal communication is both delivered and interpreted through all five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and even taste. The key message that you should take from these videos is that everything you do, including the choices you make about what you can control in your environment—the furnishings, the lighting, the time of day, the audience seating, where you position yourself on the podium or in the room, any scents or smells in the room, the air temperature, use of fans, distracting decorations or unplanned noises (from an open door leading to a crowded hallway, for example), and of course, how you look, dress, move, use facial expressions, use sounds that aren’t words (like saying “uhm” or “ah”) use gestures, etc.—communicates something to your audience. An interesting exercise you might want to try to reinforce this point is to watch a speaker, make a list of his or her nonverbal communication and identify how each element may be influencing your opinion of the speaker and/or his or her message. You can also assess your own nonverbal signals, an exercise that could lead you to change how you present yourself to audiences. If you think such a change may be helpful, you’ll appreciate an upcoming video featuring communication strategist Dianna Booher that will give you will pointers on how to create your own “presence” (known by some as your “personal brand”) to strengthen the impression you make.

Page Dianna Booher's "Master the Monotone Monster"

The longer the speech, the more important it is to have lively delivery. Better said, it is important to have varied and lively delivery. (A stimulus oft repeated is soon ignored!) Dianna Booher in these videos makes the point that the speaker must connect delivery with movement, referring both to the movement of your body and that of the pitch of your voice. The more energy you exert when you move, the more energetic and natural your voice will sound.

10.3: Movement in Your Speech URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 11, Section 3: Movement in Your Speech"

Please read this section, which focuses on using movement strategically to improve audience attention and engagement. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page The English Language Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: John Jones' "Body Language"

Watch this video for some straightforward tips about what posture you should try to maintain during a presentation.

Page TEDxMais: Ali Khwaja's "Why We Should Care About Body Language!"

Research has shown clearly that a speakers’ nonverbal communication has a greater impact on audiences than verbal communication. In fact, you may recall from the preceding video that “93 percent of communication takes place non-verbally.” This fact is powerfully emphasized in this video by Dr Ali Khwaja, chairman of the Banjara Academy. Watch this video to discover which aspects of the type of nonverbal communication referred to as “body language” has the greatest impact on others, especially when the context is interpersonal communication.

10.4: Visual Aids URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 11, Section 4: Visual Aids"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the characteristics, design, and display of visual aids and emphasizes that they should be developed strategically to illustrate, complement, and reinforce verbal messages. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Keele University: KeeleStudentLearning's "Presentations Skills, Principles and Practicals"

Watch this brief video, delivered by Matt Coombe-Boxall of Keele University.

Page TechSoup's "Creating Better Presentations with Microsoft PowerPoint"

According to a May 2012 article written by Meinald Thielsch and published in the journal Technical Communication, PowerPoint had at that time a 95 percent share of the presentation software market. The statistics for PowerPoint use around the world are staggering. Many sources attribute them to the fact that PowerPoint is part of the Microsoft Office Suite of software that often is loaded into computers before they are purchased. Microsoft Office Suite is used by more than 1.2 billion people around the world, or one in seven inhabitants of the planet, according to “Microsoft by the Numbers,” a PDF available through the Microsoft News Center. What these numbers mean is that PowerPoint can—and probably should—be your visual aid of choice if you are in business today or plan to be soon. Watch this video to learn about how to develop effective presentations as illustrated by the various features of PowerPoint. Keep in mind as watch this hour-long video that PowerPoint does not choose or design your visuals for you—it just makes that task easier. Note, too, that this video will not show you how to use PowerPoint. It uses PowerPoint’s features to show you the kind of visual aids that are used effective presentations and discusses how and why you should use them.  You can transfer this information to visuals that you create by hand and present manually, on easels or distribute as handouts.

10.5: Nonverbal Strategies for Success with Your Audience URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 11, Section 5: Nonverbal Strategies for Success with Your Audience"

Please read this section, which describes how to use nonverbal communication to enhance your message, to watch reactions, and to consider enrolling an observer to help you become aware of your nonverbal habits and how your audience receives nonverbal messages. Attempt some of the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Dianna Booher's "Creating Personal Presence"

These Dianna Booher videos define personal presence -- a reflection of your nonverbal communication -- and lists the many ways it can impact your career.

Unit 11: Business Presentations in Action Page Unit 11 Learning Outcomes
11.1: Sound Bites and Quotables URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15: Business Presentations in Action"

Please read the Chapter 15 introduction and "Section 1: Sound Bites and Quotables." These readings describe the traits of good sound bites and what makes them memorable. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Examples of Soundbites

Now that you have examined the foundations of business presentations, use this next set of videos to appreciate examples one of the more challenging yet effective business presentations you may need to produce: sound bites. Keep in mind as you watch these videos that the target audience of your message doesn’t actively search for a sound bite, but rather discovers them in media products. As is often the case, business communicators use the media to distribute messages to target audiences, so you need to realize that the sound bites you produce must meet the needs and expectations of the media as well as your audience. These sound bite examples should help you see why a good sound bite gets noticed and passed along by the media.

11.2: Telephone/VoIP Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 2: Telephone/VoIP Communication"

Please read this section, which identifies five stages of a conversation - opening, feedforward, business, feedback, and closing - emphasizing how because telephone conversations lack nonverbal cues, they require additional attention to feedback. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Dianna Booher's "7 Tips for Presenting in Teleconferences"

Watch this video to gain an understanding of teleconferences, an increasingly important business communication method that is not covered in the textbook. Teleconferences enable people who work in distance locations to participate in real-time meetings without the cost of travel. As a result, as the technology has improved, the popularity of teleconferences as a business presentation format has also increased.

Page Congressional Internet Caucus Advisory Committee: "VOIP: Why is it not your parents' Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)?"

As with the teleconferences you learned about in the previous video, the voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP) is another increasingly important development in business communications that receives little attention in the textbook. Watch this video, made available by the U.S. Congressional Internet Caucus Advisory Committee, to learn about the history and regulation of VoIP. As a business communicator, you may not have any immediate need for this technology right now, but since it, like teleconferences, represents an increasingly cost-effective platform for both one-on-one and group messaging, you should be aware of its qualities and potential.

11.3: Meetings URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 3: Meetings"

Please read this section, which is particularly valuable for its comprehensive list of the elements that characterize a formal business agenda and its extensive list of strategies for ensuring that meetings are productive. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Worldcon Events: "Business Meeting Basics"

While few business meetings follow a standard pattern, many meetings do rely on a process called “parliamentary procedures” to insure that the meeting runs smoothly, participants’ opinions are aired, those not in attendance are able to follow what occurred, and decisions are made in a fair and consistent manner. As you watch this video about parliamentary procedures, recognize the significance of what you are learning: Parliamentary procedures have been used for hundreds of years because they reflect and respond to the nature of meetings and the actions needed to insure that they are productive.

Page Gareth Williams' "How to Set Out a Meeting Agenda"

Watch this video to see an example of how to produce a meeting agenda. Recognize, however, that this video describes one of many options for using agendas to help insure that meetings are run efficiently and effectively.

Page Gareth Williams' "Minutes of Meetings"

The preceding video presented how to develop an agenda as part of the planning process for a meeting. Watch this video to learn how to follow up after a meeting to insure that both participants and also those unable to participate are informed about what occurred, what decisions were made, and how the meeting may lead to future developments.

11.4: Celebrations URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 4: Celebrations: Toasts and Roasts"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the role of the toast as part of a common form of business celebration. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. When prompted to share your results with classmates, instead you may want to share your findings with a friend or family member.

Page Saylor Academy: "How to Effectively Deliver a Toast"

Please watch this video. You may be surprised to find out that a toast is not always just standing up and saying a good word about someone. Toasts are also used to call attention to an idea or issue that is important to a gathered group.

11.5: Media Interviews URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 5: Media Interviews"

Please read this section, which addresses the basics for preparing and participating in a press interview. Attempt some of the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page T. J. Walker's "Answering Questions from Media - Public Speaking Media Training Presentation Training"

Please watch this video (approximately 2 minutes) for pointers on how to handle questions from the media. After you have viewed this video, write a brief paragraph that summarizes how to answer questions from the media.

Page David Tebbutt's "Be Clear. Be Credible. Be Heard."

Watch this compilation of eight short videos to prepare for media interviews. David Tebutt is a writer, editor and trainer in media skills and business writing, and Alison O’Leary is a career life coach. In these videos, they show you how to handle the media by understanding what motivates reporters and the techniques they use to get information from interviewees.

Page VeganVibes: "Russell Simmons' Famous Vegan Diet"

To understand business presentations, it is helpful to see examples rather than merely read about them. Videos associated with the next four subunits are provided for that purpose. Start by watching this interview of hip-hop record label mogul Russell Simmons.

11.6: Introducing a Speaker URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 6: Introducing a Speaker"

Please read this section. This section's key point is that performing the role of introducer reinforces rhetorical principles emphasized throughout the textbook: ethos (credibility of speakers and introducers), audience-based discourse, and accuracy. Attempt questions 2 and 3 at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Bob-RJ Burkhart's "2012 Valor Awards Keynote Speaker Introduction"

Watch this video to see another example of a business presentation -- more specifically, the introduction -- that you be called upon to produce or participate in some day.

11.7: Presenting or Accepting an Award URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 7: Presenting or Accepting an Award"

Please read this section, which discusses the purpose and processes involved in presenting or accepting awards and maps out five key actions for a presenter to consider: the preparation, staying focused on the honoree, building suspense by using surprise, avoiding drama with a direct approach, and gracefully exiting to put the honoree in the spotlight. Attempt exercises 1, 3 and 4 at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page MichSoSOffice: "Presentation of the 2012 Shining Star Award"

Watch this video to see another example of a business presentation -- more specifically, presenting an award -- that you be called upon to produce or participate in some day

File Giving an Award Activity

Please complete the linked activity after reading its instructions and reviewing the additional materials it provides, most of which are based on Table 15.5 in Business Communication for Success.  Note that there is no answer sheet for this activity because your content will be entirely original. Instead, proceed to the last section of material in the activity where you will find a table into which you should insert the content you develop. You will be able to assess the adequacy of your work by judging it against the criteria listed in the adjacent columns of the table.

11.8: Serving as Master of Ceremonies URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 8: Serving as Master of Ceremonies"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the responsibilities of a master of ceremonies and how to prepare for some of them. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page CFC-Youth Ancop's "Introduction of Emcees & Roll-Call"

Watch this video to see another example of a business presentation -- more specifically, serving as a master of ceremonies -- that you be called upon to produce or participate in some day.

11.9: Viral Messages URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 15, Section 9: Viral Messages"

Please read this section, which explains how viral messages (i.e., words, sounds, or images that compel the audience to pass them along) can be used to help a business spread the word about a new venture by appealing to an audience's emotion, using a trigger to provoke reaction, and being highly relevant to the audience. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Jesper Åström's "5 C's of Viral Marketing: How to Make Something Go Viral"

Creating messages whose popularity encourages the media and the public to air or share them repeatedly is not an easy task. Watch this video to get some tips for how to increase the likelihood that your message will “go viral.”

Unit 12: Negative News and Crisis Communication Page Unit 12 Learning Outcomes
12.1: Delivering a Negative News Message URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 17: Negative News and Crisis Communication"

Please read the Chapter 17 introduction and "Section 1: Delivering a Negative News Message." These readings provide an in-depth examination of the impact of having to distribute negative news and introduces seven important objectives that negative news messages should accomplish. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page The Irish Hospice Foundation: "Delivering Bad News"

Watch this video, which was produced for individuals whose jobs require them to deliver bad news in often highly emotional conditions. The five steps recommended in the video can be applied to business contexts, too. However, as you learn about those steps, think about business contexts which they may NOT suit depending on the emotional quotient of the situation.

Page Nick Carpenter's "Feel Good Sandwich: Best Way to Deliver Bad News"

Watch this video to learn the techniques used by U.S. Air Force supervisors to deliver criticism to subordinates without creating animosity or resentment. These techniques can be applied in business contexts not only to subordinates, but also to coworkers and even higher authorities.

Page Art Fricke's "Basic Public Relations and How to Write Positively"

Watch this video, which is about public relations writing. This video is included here because it is through public relations that many businesses create and maintain positive relationships with the public. As a result, public relations practitioners are well versed in communicating positively, even when delivering negative news.

12.2: Eliciting Negative News URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 17, Section 2: Eliciting Negative News"

Please read this section, which explains at length the necessity and value of feedback and how to encourage employees and members of the public to participate in providing feedback. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page ClarkMorgan Insights: Patrick McDonald's "Break Down the Communication Barriers with Project Management"

Watch this video to understand one way to obtain negative news. In this video, Patrick McDonald, from the award-winning training firm ClarkMorgan, describes how project management procedures can overcome the communication barriers some cultures, such as the Chinese, can present when they have to deal with negative news. Note that you will also find this video relevant when you are learning about intercultural communication in Unit 14.

Page Stanford University: Entrepreneurship Corner: Mike Rothenberg's "Invite Honest Feedback"

In this video, Mike Rotherberg, founder and CEO of Rothenberg Ventures, discusses why it is important for a business person to seek out honest feedback. As you watch this video, listen carefully for how Rothenberg explains how to deal with the natural reluctance many people—especially those with whom you have close relationships—have about giving negative feedback.

Page Responding to Negative Reviews

Watch this video to learn how to respond to an increasingly common situation involving negative news: customer reviews posted on the internet. 

12.3: Crisis Communication Plan URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 17, Section 3: Crisis Communication Plan"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of how to prepare a crisis plan, including designating a crisis communication team and a spokesperson. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Saylor Academy: "Crisis Communication Plan"

This video will help you be able to prepare a crisis communication plan. Saylor Academy offers an entire course on this topic over at PRSM107: Crisis Communication. That course includes in a major project in which students create their own crisis communication plan. Check it out!

Page Keith Robertory's "Risk & Communication Crisis Basics"

To understand the fundamentals of risk communication, watch this video, which was produced by Keith Robertory, the disaster response emergency communications manager for the American Red Cross. Make sure you are paying attention when Robertory discusses how, no matter what type of media you are using to communicate, the public has the ability to respond through social media. This kind of feedback connects crisis communication to negative news issues you encountered in the preceding subunit. Notice, however, that the context of crisis communication introduces special requirements and limitations for a business communicator, which Robertory also discusses.

12.4: Press Conferences URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 17, Section 4: Press Conferences"

Please read this section. This section's key concept is that a press conference is a controlled opportunity to communicate to the public through the media, and as such, it requires a business to anticipate questions and prepare possible responses in advance. Attempt the exercise at the end of this reading. Remember to choose only one scenario (see the exercise instructions).

Page Saylor Academy: "Press Conferences"

A press conference is a formal presentation of information to the media. A common format for press conferences involves an individual reading a written statement prepared ahead of time and then taking questions from the media. As you watch, consider how whether or not to hold a press conference is itself an important decision with pros and cons.

File University of Kansas: Work Group for Community Health and Development's "Preparing a Press Conference"

Please read through these lecture slides. Much of this will be review from the Saylor Academy video. Pay particular attention to how these slides examine the way the room is set up as an important consideration during a press conference.

Page Press Conference: Lawsuit Against UC-Berkeley Police Brutality at Occupy Cal - Part 1

As was noted in other subunits, to understand business presentations it is helpful to see examples rather than merely read about them. Watch this video to see an example of an actual press conference. Pay attention to how the participants interact with the media and how and why any awkwardness arises. When you notice these rough spots, see if you can identify why the occurred and ask yourself what you might have done to avoid them.

Unit 13: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Business Communication Page Unit 13 Learning Outcomes
13.1: Intrapersonal Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Business Communication"

Please read the Chapter 16 introduction and "Section 1: Intrapersonal Communication." These readings give you brief overview of how we communicate through intrapersonal communication, which includes planning, problem solving, internal conflict resolution, and evaluations and judgments of self and others, acts of imagination and visualization, and even recall and memory. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Pete Gerlach's "Do You Have the Requisites for Effective Communication?"

Watch this video in which psychosocial therapist Pete Gerlach, whose videos you encountered early in this course, discusses the intrapersonal characteristics which contribute to effective communication. Gerlach estimates that less than 10% of people are effective communicators, primarily because “they don’t know what they don’t know.” This video will help you inventory your traits as a communicator and recognize where you may need to improve.

13.2: Self-Concept and Dimensions of Self URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16, Section 2: Self-Concept and Dimensions of Self"

Please read this section, which focuses on two concepts: the monologue we have with ourselves that influences our external reactions and how the way we see ourselves can be described along four dimensions of awareness. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Dr. Rusty Waller's "Social Metacognition: Self-Concept and Personal Growth"

These videos constitute a series of self-concept lectures produced by Dr. Rusty Waller, an assistant professor at Texas A&M University Commerce. These videos provide additional information and perspectives on intrapersonal concepts related to the self. The best way to appreciate these videos is through self-evaluation. As the professor defines and discusses the various concepts, relate them to your own traits so that the videos are more meaningful for you.

13.3: Interpersonal Needs URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16, Section 3: Interpersonal Needs"

Please read this section, which focuses on Maslow's hierarchy of needs and how it is used to frame many business communication messages. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with classmates, consider working with a family member or friend instead.

Page Glass in the Class: "Interpersonal Communication with Guest Larry Fournellier"

This video is part of a series that examines realistic communication situations in business through the experiences and testimony of real businesspeople. Watch this video to appreciate how a successful chef uses effective interpersonal communication to interact with his clients and understand their culinary preferences and needs.

13.4: Social Penetration Theory URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16, Section 4: Social Penetration Theory"

Please read this section, which spends very little time on social penetration theory (i.e., how intimacy develops), focusing instead on principles of self-disclosure and the general nature of interpersonal relationships. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises. For questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead work with a family member or friend.

Page Carl Isaacson's "Stages of Relationship - Relationship Theory"

Watch this video up to at least the five-minute mark, which ends the professor’s discussion of “surface communication,” which represents the level of social penetration typically exhibited in professional relationships. You can also gain valuable insights into social penetration theory by watching the entire video, which proceeds to discuss deeper relationship levels. In considering the contents of this video, keep in mind that although the lecture focuses on personal relationships, the subject remains relevant in business contexts because effective communication often relies on individuals being comfortable communicating with each other, especially when dealing with conflict or crises.

Page Carl Isaacson's "The Limits of Self Disclosure"

This video discusses self-disclosure, an important element in the theory of social penetration. This video uses online communication and social media to illustrate problems that can arise from poor self-disclosure decisions. Even though this professor focuses on students and their online activities, the issues he describes can also be relevant in business relationships.

13.5: Rituals of Conversation and Interviews URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16, Section 5: Rituals of Conversation and Interviews"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the typical steps involved in carrying out a conversation and how they can help you prepare for an employment interview. At the end of the reading, attempt some of the exercises. For questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead work with a family member or friend.

Page DebateMatrex: "Types of Dialogue"

This series of five short videos examines the different types of dialogue you may encounter in business contexts. These videos supplement your textbook readings by providing general advice that applies to conversations that are not of a personal nature. Thus you should recognize that even though it is not stated, these videos are relevant for employment interviews, workplace conflict, evaluations and even just ordinary business conversations. This first video focuses on persuasion that becomes necessary because of a conflict of opinion. As you watch each of the videos in this series, you should commit to memory the type of dialogue and the general resolution recommended. This information may help you recognize and deal with business communication situations that match the type you’ve learned about in the video.

13.6: Conflict in the Work Environment URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 16, Section 6: Conflict in the Work Environment"

Please read this section. This section's key concept is that conflict is unavoidable and can be an opportunity for clarification, growth, and even reinforcement of business relationships. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, consider working with a family member or friend.

Unit 14: Intercultural and International Business Communication Page Unit 14 Learning Outcomes
14.1: Intercultural Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18: Intercultural and International Business Communication"

Please read the Chapter 18 introduction and "Section 1: Intercultural Communication. These readings discuss the idea that the awareness of different perspectives that stem from cultural differences is the key to effective communication in global commerce. Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading. For questions that prompt you to work with or share with classmates, instead find family members or friends to work with.

Page Krishna Kanda Handique State Open University: Dr. K.V. Nagrajan's "Culture and Communication"

Watch this video for a thorough discussion of the relationship between culture and communication. Pay particular attention to the numerous examples the lecturer uses to illustrate how communication and culture are intertwined. In addition, be sure you notice when the lecture uses material you have already encountered in this course to explain the challenges involved in intercultural communication. For example, the lecturer refers to language and its role in communication, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and an understanding of the self-concept. Try to catch his other references to the content you have encountered in this course. Doing so will help you understand and retain the information in this video.

Page Wikimedia Israel: "Intercultural Issues Across Wikimedia Projects"

Watch this video from 24:40 to 52:00 to appreciate how intercultural issues can effect actual operational productivity, in this case in a non-profit organization. As is noted in the description of this video, “This presentation will seek to give examples of failed or successful attempts at bridging the culture gaps in the development of various Wikimedia projects and try and give an insight into possible solutions to tackle the intercultural issues raised by collaborative work among people from different cultures, whether they be national, linguistic, political, or even social or generational cultures.” 

14.2: How to Understand Intercultural Communication URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 2: How to Understand Intercultural Communication"

Please read this section, which discusses how ethnocentric tendencies, stereotyping, and assumptions of similarity can make it difficult to cope with cultural differences. Attempt the exercises at the end of this reading. When prompted to work or share with classmates, instead work with a friend or family member.

Page Project IDEA: "Effective Cross Cultural Communication"

Watch this video which introduces various types of cross-cultural communication diads (formal/informal, direct/indirect, etc.). An important topic in this video that you should focus on is the diversity wheel and the communication strategies it covers for specific contexts (work, education, personal, community, etc.). You should also be prepared for the interactive elements in this video. You will absorb the information it presents better if you make an effort to respond the prompts by stopping the video, responding to the exercise, and then continuing the video to hear the explanation.

Page University of Amsterdam: MOOC ICS: "Cultural Approach"

The following series of four videos explain the cultural approach to communication, in which communication is viewed as the carrier and the building block of culture and society. Each of the videos in this series expand on that approach by providing examples of how communication and culture are intertwined and can produce distinct traits when cultures are compared.

14.3: Common Cultural Characteristics URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 3: Common Cultural Characteristics"

Please read this section. This section's key concept is that all cultures have such characteristics as initiations, traditions, history, values and principles, purposes, symbols, and boundaries. At the end of the reading, attempt the exercises. When prompted to share your response with classmates, instead show the work you have done to friends or family members.

Page Saylor Academy: "Common Cultural Characteristics"

By the end of this video you will be able to name several characteristics that, while commonly found throught the world's cultures, are expressed very differently! You will be able to list several examples of these characteristics in your own life.

Page Kevan Hall's "Tools for Cross-Cultural Success"

Please watch these videos, which present a set of tools for breaking down intercultural communication into various business-oriented elements and a fourth video on leadership barriers in global business environments.

Page University of Amsterdam: MOOC ICS: "Cultural Groups"

This series of three videos provide an introduction to the cultural influences and pressures that result in unified characterstics among the members of a cultural group.

14.4: Divergent Cultural Characteristics URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 4: Divergent Cultural Characteristics"

Please read this section, which illustrates how cultures have distinct orientations when it comes to rules, uncertainty, time and time horizon, masculinity, directness, materialism, and power distance and the influence of those traits on their communication patterns. At the end of this reading, attempt the exercises. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead consider working with a friend or family member.

Page IESE Business School: Yih-Teen Lee's "Challenges of Managing Cultural Differences"

Please watch this video (approximately 10 minutes), which identifies the key cultural competences of managing people in cross-cultural contexts and analyzes how Confucian philosophy has influenced Chinese companies as well as interpersonal relationships, especially in Taiwan.

Page Cultural Differences: The West vs. the Rest

Watch this video, which is part of the Trinity Video Seminary and features Professors Duane and Muriel Elmer. In this video, Duane Elmer introduces cultural differences, the topic of this and the next two videos in this series. Keep in mind as you watch each videos that at the heart of cultural traits, according to the professors, is communication. As a result, many of the divergent traits between cultures are at least in part caused by how they communicate.

14.5: International Communication and the Global Marketplace URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 5: International Communication and the Global Marketplace"

Please read this section, which takes a systems approach to describe the nature of global marketing in order to explain how a common understanding of value lies at the heart of business transactions. For questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, consider working with a family member or friend instead.

14.6: Styles of Management URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 6: Styles of Management"

Please read this section. To explain how people and their relationships to dominant and subordinate roles are a reflection of their culture and cultural viewpoints, this section describes three theories of management - referred to as X, Y, and Z - which are examples of distinct and divergent views on worker motivation, need for supervision, and the possibility of collaboration. At the end of the reading, try answering the exercise questions. For questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, work with a family member or friend instead.

Page AirTight Management: Bob Norton's "What is PAMS & the Five Styles of Management Every Manager Needs"

Watch this video to learn about the five styles of management one company promotes: micromanagement, management by objectives, management by exception, leadership and management by wandering around. Note that the management styles covered in this video are standard ones taught in many schools and widely practiced in businesses. Understanding how they are briefly defined in this video will help you appreciate the series of videos which follow. You should also realize that no business practices these styles exclusively or in isolation. The video series which follows illustrates how additional elements of management need to be considered when choosing the appropriate style.

Page Michael Cardus' "Minimum Authorities Each Manager Must Have"

Watch this series of four videos presented by Michael Cardus, a management expert who specializes in teambuilding and leadership. Each of Cardus’ videos discusses a different “authority” that a manager requires to be effective and trustworthy. As you watch these videos,  keep in mind that some managers are not given sufficient authority over the employees they lead. Understanding how important these practices are, however, may help you, as a manager someday, articulate to your own supervisor the authority you need to be effective.

Page Apereo Foundation: Theresa Rowe's "Creating and Managing Diverse Teams"

This video has been included in this subunit because through a coaching style of management it ties together much of what you have learned in this subunit about culture, diversity and management. You should think back to what you know about common and divergent cultural characteristics and intercultural communication as you watch this video. Also keep in mind, however, that “culture” does not refer only to international traits. Remember how the textbook and these videos have also discussed organizational, regional and group-based cultures, too. This video assumes that you will not consider its suggestions as referring only to nation-based cultures.

14.7: The International Assignment URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 18, Section 7: The International Assignment"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the challenges involved in taking on an international assignment, including the preparatory steps recommended to make acculturation more successful. At the end of the reading, try answering the exercise questions. For questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, try working with a friend or family member instead.

Page Trinity Video Seminary: Duane and Muriel Elmer's "Cross-Cultural Communication" (continued)

This resource is composed of four videos from Duane and Muriel Elmer's course that provide specific guidance for how to prepare for and adjust to working in a different culture, such as when you are given an international assignment. Make sure you watch all four since they were developed to be a set.

Page Hannah Braime's "Living and Working Abroad: An Interview with Will Moyer"

Watch this video for an entertaining example of what it is like to live and work in another culture. You should approach this video like you have other videos provided as examples of what you may encounter or what you need to do. Recognize that, sometimes, merely describing or recommending is insufficient for enabling you to truly understand what you may encounter. Examples help you imagine what it can be like when you are actually called upon to perform or produce under specific circumstances.

Unit 15: Group Communication, Teamwork, and Leadership Page Unit 15 Learning Outcomes
15.1: What Is a Group? URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 19: Group Communication, Teamwork, and Leadership"

Please read the Chapter 19 introduction and "Section 1: What Is a Group?". This section makes a distinction between groups and teams, breaks groups down into various types based on their structure and function, and discusses the impact of group size on member participation. Try to answer the exercise questions at the end of the reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead work with a family member or friend.

Page Ryan Guy's "Small Group Communication Lectures: Lectures 1-3"

Watch the first three lectures in this series of nine videos presented by Ryan Guy, a professor of Communication Studies and the Director of Forensics at Modesto Junior College. You should watch each of these videos in the order they are presented because Professor Guy’s lectures assume you have absorbed information from the preceding videos’ topics and can apply that information to what he is discussing in current lecture.

15.2: Group Life Cycles and Member Roles URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 19, Section 2: Group Life Cycles and Member Roles"

Please read this section, which gives you an overview of the predictable patterns that groups tend to follow from their creation to their dissolution. It also discusses how groups assign roles to members in order to function efficiently and the life cycles those roles also tend to experience. Attempt to answer the questions at the end of the webpage. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Ryan Guy's "Small Group Communication Lectures: Lectures 4-5"

Please continue watching Professor Guy's lecture series about communication within groups. Part 4 and Part 5 are presented here.

15.3: Group Problem Solving URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 19, Section 3: Group Problem Solving"

Please read this section, which details seven steps that can characterize problem solving in groups. Of particular note is the table that introduces an example of a cost-benefit analysis for a set of solutions proposed to solve a hypothetical problem. At the end of the reading, try to answer the exercise questions. For any question that prompts you to work or share with a classmate, instead try to work with a friend or family member.

Page Ryan Guy's "Small Group Communication Lectures: Lectures 6-9"

The final three videos in Professor Guy's lecture series are presented here. By this point, you should have gained a thorough understanding of what it takes to work in, lead and manage a group. One way to insure that you retain this material is to look back to groups you have participated in in the past. Can you recall instances in any of those groups which could be explained by the knowledge you now have about group dynamics? Take a moment before you continue to apply Professor Guy’s lectures to your own experiences.

15.4: Business and Professional Meetings URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 19, Section 4: Business and Professional Meetings"

Please read this section. This section's key concept is that meetings require planning, choice of appropriate technology, and understanding of organizational communication. At the end of the reading, try to answer the exercise questions. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, try to work with a friend or family member instead.

Page Michigan State College Student Association: Steve Sabin's "Running an Effective Meeting"

Watch this video to obtain some guidelines on how to run a meeting effectively. Of particular usefulness in this video are the criteria which indicate that your meeting is indeed running efficiently. Since those criteria are presented in the beginning of the video, you should consider as you watch the rest of the video how each guidelines would help you meet those criteria.

Page Dianna Booher's "Get Your Point Across in Meetings: Success Story and Tips"

In this series of videos, we will hear from communication strategist and author Dianna Booher for the final time in this course. This series of eight very short videos contains one success story and seven tips for getting your point across in a meeting. Keep in mind that Booher’s advice focuses on the meeting participant, not the individual running the meeting, which was the topic of the preceding video. Keep a running list of Booher's tips in your notes.

15.5: Teamwork and Leadership URL Business Communication for Success: "Chapter 19, Section 5: Teamwork and Leadership"

Please read this section, which discusses the nature of teamwork and identifies different types of leaders based on how to obtain the leadership role and how they conduct themselves as leaders. Attempt the questions at the end of the reading. For any questions that prompt you to work or share with a classmate, instead work with a friend or family member.

Page Michael Cardus' Teambuilding and Leadership Videos

The final videos return to the advice of Michael Cardus, the management expert you encountered earlier who specializes in tea building and leadership. These videos are not a series, so the order in which you view them is not important. However, ending the course with these videos is important. What you should take away from Michael Cardus’ advice in general is that teamwork requires effective communication and that, in one way or another, to be successful any business that involves more than one employee requires teamwork. This is why these videos present timely advice for you as you complete this course.

Optional Course Evaluation Survey URL Optional Course Evaluation Survey

Please take a few moments to provide some feedback about this course. Consider completing the survey whether you have completed the course, you are nearly at that point, or you have just come to study one unit or a few units of this course.

Your feedback will focus our efforts to continually improve our course design, content, technology, and general ease-of-use. Additionally, your input will be considered alongside our consulting professors' evaluation of the course during its next round of peer review. As always, please report urgent course experience concerns to contact@saylor.org and/or our discussion forum.